Bridge at Bhagalpur
The cost of labour against materials. At the same time. in a typical construction project in these countries. in view of the large number of major projects to be carried out in the developing countries. Engineers in these countries have had the opportunity to engineer major civil engineering projects for their countries.INTRODUCTION
The Chinese and Indian construction industries are the largest and second largest in the world. the most advanced techniques in the world are used.
The bridge at Bhagalpur across the river Ganga having a length of 4.37 km and is the second longest road bridge in India. In the US or Japan special construction techniques have to be developed to suit the construction environment of these countries. is similar to what existed in Europe a century ago. This project has been engineered to suit the South Asian construction environment
the second longest in India .Bridge at Bhagalpur
1. The bridge has four types of structures corresponding to the 4 regimes of the river. Zone A Zone B Zone C.37 km. 3. 4.has a length of 4. 2.& Zone D PARVATIKATTA BRIDGE
The bridge at Bhagalpur across the river Ganga .
120 m . The superstructure is made up of simply supported box girders having a length of 63. and is covered with water only during floods.
• • • Which is 1139.
• • • across the deepest part of the river.
. The superstructure is supported on hollow RC piers erected on 9 cylindrical RC well foundations which were to be sunk from sand islands . on either side.by excavating soil from within the wells by grabs. at centre of piers. and approach spans of 72 m.3 m. resting on hollow RC piers.
The next Zone 'B' .4 m long. fixed to the pier and a 24-m long RC suspended span across the cantilever tips. to give effectively 8 spans of 120 m.7 m deep .STRUCTURAL DETAILS
The Zone' A'. which at low water level has a maximum depth of 7 m over the riverbed. at centre of piers. This zone has well foundations which are sunk from the highest bed level up to a depth of 70 m. Total length of 1104 m constructed over standing water. Span. is normally dry. The prestressed concrete superstructure consists of cantilevers of 48 m length.
Zone 'D'. Fig 3. It consists of wells sunk upto 60 m below the highest ground level in this area. Fig 2.4 m (with a total length of 162 m) constructed on staging.STRUCTURAL DETAILS
Zone 'C'. which has an aggregate length of 1961.
.80 m is constructed in a zone
beyond the left bank (at the end of zone B) to cross the backwaters which occur during high floods. • are founded on shallow cylindrical RC well foundations sunk 18-m deep below the highest riverbed in this zone. is the approach viaduct zone and
•has five simply supported box girder spans of 32.
During high floods the river is expected to scour below high flood level (HFL) to a depth of 47 m in zone A and B. Fig 4. The longitudinal prestressing cables are placed in the top slab so that the web is free of prestressing cables and can be concreted by form and pin vibration .
The prestressed cantilever portion of the deck is constructed by the free cantilevering method with cast-insitu segments. Therefore the wells go down by an additional depth of 22 m in zones A and B. in order to provide a sufficient grip length to resist the horizontal forces due to high floods as well as earthquake and wind effects.6 m are only 37 cm in thickness. 4
. and 16 m in zone C. and 40 m in zone C.with a succession of windows within the height of the web to facilitate pin vibration and observation of compaction of concrete during placement. which are 1/11 and 1/62 of the spandepth to span ratios which minimize on materials consumed. the depth of the superstructure at the pier is 9.
In Zone A.
The webs for a height of 9.95 m.6 m and at the cantilever tip it is 1.
Fig 5. The piers have hollow conical sections which flare out at the top into a hammerhead in order to support the span on either side. 6 The superstructure of zone 'B'. The piers also flare out at the bottom to rest concentrically on the walls of the well foundation (when there is no tilt and shift of the foundation).STRUCTURAL DETAILS
In zone A. 5
Fig 6 shows the lifting by prestressing cables of temporary steel decks used for casting the 24-m long RC central span.
Fig. the piers have a hollow circular section which flares into a hollow square section at the junction of the superstructure.
. Fig 7.
Fig. is cast in-situ on scaffolding supported on the dry riverbed. The pier and the deepened deck seem to flow into each other .an aesthetic consequence of a search for dematerialization.
In the case of those wells which tilted excessively. Fig 9. During such unexpected floods. There can also be unseasonal floods due to the early melting of Himalayan snows and the wells can tilt and shift during the sinking process. two wells toppled over. Fig.STRUCTURAL DETAILS
The casting of the box girders on scaffolding. A part of the bed which had been scoured did not get re-filled due to the flash floods which occurred.
Fig. The scoured level could also become much deeper after a flood than that recorded by investigations at the beginning of the project. 8
At this site. Fig 8. Fig 10. The construction of the piers and foundations in zone C was similar to that shown in zone B. resting on the dry river bed. was cheaper than precasting and launching of entire spans. In this case during heavy unseasonal floods. The wells in this portion were cast by sinking hollow steel caissons. The depth of standing water became 22 m instead of the normal maximum depth of 7 m at low water level. additional foundations were cast. wells that were not yet sunk adequately toppled over. the maximum shift recorded was 186 cm. 9
All the pier locations were already fixed and therefore the design of this bridge could not be optimized to the maximum.
The only regret was that the TOR of the turnkey bid did not permit either segmental precast cantilever construction or a cable stayed solution. Thereafter the construction was completed by the traditional sinking process utilized for all the other well foundations. State Bridge Corporation.STRUCTURAL DETAILS
The hollow space between the inner and outer walls of the caissons had a thickness equal to the lower part of the RC well steining. except that concrete was poured into the hollow caisson wall to facilitate the lowering of the same till it touched the river bed. Ltd and construction engineering and provided construction assistance
. It was constructed using catamaran barges and the sinking technique utilized for the cofferdams was the same as that for Thane Creek Bridge.STVP Consultants Pvt. However. verticality was maintained by the prestressing cables which were used for lowering the caisson.P. Design . building a great bridge is always satisfying to all concerned… Construction .V.