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Kedudukan & Gelagat Anda
GOVERNAN = TADBIR-URUS
KONSEP 1. The „act or manner of governing‟, which would embrace markets, networks and hierarchies and any mixes of them found in particular context.
2000: 24) . (Hirst. „… the means by which an activity or ensemble of activities is controlled or directed.2. such that it delivers an acceptable range of outcomes according to some established social standard.
… (Martin. „… a system of rules which constitutes the form and process of the public sphere which emphasises the formal rather than the behavioral aspects of governance.al. 2000: 121) ..3. et.
1985: 7) . et. al.4. (Campbell. … how decisions … actually are made and implemented rather than how they are formalized..
.Governan GOVERNAN PANDUAN UNTUK SESEORANG PENGURUS BERTINDAK / MEMBUAT KEPUTUSAN.
Ordinan2. Etika/Moral. Nilai2. Keputusan mahkamah. Peraturan2 pentadbiran Extralegal Dasar. dan lain2 tekanan yang mempengaruhi pembuatan keputusan .Governan = kawalan/pengaruh Kawalan Legal Perundangan: Akta.
nilai-nilai etika dan moral sehinggalah governan oleh matlamat2 dan objektif2 .Skop Governan (kawalan / pengaruh) amatlah luas: Dari governan oleh peraturan2 dan arahan.
.beberapa aspek governan „extralegal‟ pengurusan (dan kepemimpinan) anda dalam sesebuah organisasi mengikut kedudukan anda dalam struktur sistem pendidikan.Perbincangan hari ini akan memfokus kepada: . selaras dengan rol anda sebagai pengurus dan pemimpin organisasi anda.
(ii) mengenali pengurusan yang terbaik dan boleh mengamalkannya nanti. penyalahgunaan kuasa dan sikap negatif. (iii) memahami bagi mengelakkan dari berlakunya kelalaian. ketidakcekapan.Tujuan perbincangan hari ini Supaya anda: (i) memahami kepemimpinan yang memberi keyakinan kepada stakeholders. .
.(iv) peka terhadap teguran/aduan dan responsif terhadapnya serta bersedia memperbaiki keupayaan dan prestasi.
Aktiviti 1 ANALISIS S-W-O-T POSITIONING YOURSELF .
PERBINCANGAN: POSITIONING YOUSELF Apakah tindakan anda selepas ini? .
Aktiviti 2: ANALISIS S-W-O-T POSITIOING YOUR ORGANIZATION .
PERBINCANGAN RINGKAS APAKAH TINDAKAN ANDA? .
dll. (Pendidikan: 8 Akta + ^20 Peraturan) 2. Prosedur2 pentadbiran (pengurusan. Undang2 dan Peraturan2 Pendidikan.Legal Governance 1. perkhidmatan. kewangan) . Keputusan2 Mahkamah 3.
Teras Pembangunan Dasar Wawasan Negara 2. Dasar2 dan Matlamat2 Pembangunan Pendidikan . Dasar2 Umum Kerajaan 3.Dasar Kerajaan 1. Dasar2 Perkhidmatan Awam Malaysia 4.
Dasar2 & Matlamat2 Pendidikan Matlamat2: (i) Mencapai Dasar Wawasan Negara (ii) Mencapai matlamat pembangunan pendidikan beteraskan kepada peningkatan: (a) akses kepada pendidikan (b) ekuiti dalam pendidikan (c) kualiti pendidikan (d) tahap kecekapan dan keberkesanan pengurusan pendidikan .
1.Governan:Kecekapan dan Keberkesanan Pengurusan Pend. Surat Pekeliling Kewangan (bersiri dan tidak bersiri). Etika dalam Pengurusan dan Kepemimpinan . Surat-Surat Pekeliling Ikhtisas (bersiri) 2. Surat-Surat Pekeliling Perkhidmatan 5. Surat-surat siaran biasa 3. Pekeliling Perbendaharaan 4. Lain-lain 6.
Refleksi Apakah tujuan kesemua legal dan administrative governance tersebut? .
.Nilai2 Etika: Pengurusan dan Kepemimpinan Pengurusan perlu berlaku dalam paradigma sistem nilai masyarakat di mana seseorang itu bekerja.
Etika Etika / moral: (i) rules of conduct (ii) distinction of right and wrong Social ethic = morally legitimate the pressures of society against the individual. .
Peringkat Etika Individu .Peringkat Etika dalam Pengurusan 1. Peringkat Etika Organisasi 2.
Teori Organisasi (Kawalan Birokrasi) (i) Structural & non-structural (birokratik) (ii) Teori Agensi dan mekanismanya .Extralegal Governan: Peringkat Organisasi 1.
Governan Birokratik Governan struktur: (i) Hieraki (pembezaan menegak) (ii) Pengkhususan / kepakaran (pembezaan mendatar) (iii) Integrasi: (a) Struktur: formalization. span of control . pemusatan. penyerataan.
sistem maklumat. jawatankuasa2 . teams.(b) integrasi bukan struktur: budaya.
Principal-Agency Theory dan Transaction Cost Economics Teori Agensi: – Hubungan antara majikan dengan pekerja / agen – Ada contractual agreement antara kedua pihak – Majikan (principal) membeli kemahiran pekerja untuk mencapai matlamatnya. – mahu usaha2 maksima dari pekerja (efisyensi) .
– Teori agensi mengawal pekerja melalui kawalan peraturan – Kawalan birokratik . dll.– Perjanjian kontrak ini menetapkan duties and obligations pihak pekerja terhadap majikan – Pekerja pula dibayar.
– Tempat operasi – Kos2 lain – Kawalan birokratik .Transaction Cost Economics: – Fokus kepada persoalan bagaimana memaksimakan keefisyenan transaksi.
Isu: Moral hazard Agen mengelak dari kerja dan tanggungjawabnya .
Responsiveness 2.Administrative Ethics Relevant values in deciding the right thing to do: 1. AMANAH. TELUS . Honesty 4. CEKAP. Competence BERSIH. Flexibility 3. Accountability 5.
Teori2 Nilai Etika TEORI ETIKA LEGALISTIC: Moral laws. Equilibrium model SITUATIONAL: Ethical judgement [good or bad] . Universal law ANTINOMIAN: Incremental model.
acceptance of universal law: .ignores personality .utilitarian philosophy: good = happiness “ A good act is one that results in the greatest happiness for the largest number of people.1.” . Legalsitic: moral laws.
2. . Antinomian (denial of moral law): (i) Incremental model: Manager makes decisions that improve the situation better than it was before.
.(ii) Equilibrium model: Manager is an important umpire: to maintain the equilibrium relationships between the welfare of various groups affected by managerial decision.
.Justice: fair and just love .Rightness: The right thing to do = decision is based on the argument against the action.Situational Ethic (iii) Situational ethic: Ethical judgement: .Goodness: decision helps other people is a good decision .
who follow the rules and who agree with the establishment.Masalah Bureaucratic organizations do not happily accept maverick (nonconformist) behavior. . they prefer managers who conform.
Situational ethic If the human being is the center of all existence.important. … social institutions … must hold the well-being of people to be all. William A. Evans (1981: 172) .
Continue What is good for man is good for the organization. .
and tasks are consonant with the worker’s growth and development as a person.Continue Work organizations will have to adapt to this new understanding or morality inasmuch as their structure. Fitrah . leadership.
Public interest [Managers]… make decisions that are the product of a desire to optimize the congruent benefits to all elements in the system: consumer. employees. shareholders. if not one or more of these elements will suffer] . stakeholders. … [consider all these elements.
164] .Grover Starling (2002). “… the administrator should make decisions based on the best interest of some collective.” [p. Managing the Public Sector. overarching community or national good rather than on the narrower interest of a small self-serving group.
Managers: Responsible for people in general and cannot escape from social and public responsibility. .
Ultimately managers has to be held accountable for the actions of those who answer to him.
(i) Ethics: refers to rules that are otheroriented - pay attention to another human being (ii) Morality: refers to socially accepted rules; the focus is on self interest
(iii) Value: refers to core beliefs
Domains of Ethical Theories
1. MORAL CONDUCT: 1.1 Teleological theories - Stress the Consequences of / outcomes of LEADERS’ ACTIONS
.Based firmly on duty: one ought to do .3 approaches to making decisions regarding moral conduct (i) Ethical Egoism (ii) Utilitarianism [the greatest good for the greatest number] (iii) Altruism .
Create happiness in others (pleasure) ..Focuses on reasons for doing an action: pain or pleasure and outcomes .an act is right. if it brings about more pleasure than pain or prevent pain (outcomes) .
Self-interest vs for Others High Ethical Egoism Concern for self-interest Utilitarianism Altruism Low Concern others High Low .
• The responsibility of a leader is to decide wisely on the consequences of his / her actions. .
… (ii) love (iii) transcendent [melebihi segala2nya] (iv) a moral leader is the one who leads by action and not words . paying attention to other.• Characteristics of an ethical / moral leader: (i) concern for others: empathy.
1.Focus on the Actions of the leader: (i) GOOD / BAD (ii) Moral obligations and responsibilities: DO THE RIGHT THING .Emphasize the Deontological Theories duty or rules governing leaders‟ actions .2 DUTY .
respecting others e.Telling the truth.Examples . . .decieve . .keeping promises. .g.being fair. keeping information to himself is considered as unethical and immoral.the right of others .
1. modesty. humility. … . public-spiritedness. truthfulness. generosity. honesty. integrity. perseverance.virtues are rooted in the heart / disposition . fairness.A moral person: self-control. justice. PERSON / DISPOSITION Virtue-based theories . benevolent.3.
• Not only a process of decision-making. but interrelated with the individual‟s world view and value growth. • People regress because their needs (lower-order needs) are not met • Values and ethical growth are dependent on skills development. … .• One‟s ethical posture depends on one‟s values commitments.
Summary • An ethical educational leader is more than a person capable of moral decisionmaking. • … oriented towards the good. • Major concern: to develop ethical sensitivity in himself and within the organization. . • People and institutions should develop as harmoniously and integrated as possible.
4.Ethical Values 1. 2. RIGHT OR WRONG? GOOD OR BAD? HAPPINESS OR PAIN? JUSTICE OR INJUSTICE? etc… . 3. 5.
A Framework of Analyzing Governance External Formal Internal Judiciary Legislature Agency head Whistle-blower .
Citizen participation External Interest groups Media Professional codes Informal Internal Public interest Ethical analysis People its serves .
Process of Ethical Analysis Proses Analisis Etika Dalam Membuat Keputusan (Model Grover Starling. 2002) Nilai Teras Anda Definisi Isu Kutipan Maklumat/Data Isu Moral Dikenalpasti Penjanaan Alternatif Falsafah Moral Analisis Alternatif Analisis setiap alternatif dari segi pendekatan etika Keputusan + Pengalaman lalu Penjelasan (Keputusan) Adakah saya akan dikritik Gut check Intuition Pelaksanaan .
(ii) Relationships (leader-follower relationship is central to ethical leadership) (iii) Influence (iv) work voluntarily (v) impact on the lives of those being led .Ethical Leadership Leadership concept (i) Process and not position.
Concept of ethical leadership (i) Heifetz‟s Perspective (1994): Leaders help followers to confront conflict (conflicting values that emerge in rapidly changing work environment and social structures) and to effect changes from conflict. .
(ii) Burn‟s Perspective (1978) . and morals. in order to move to a higher… .The responsibility of the leader = to help followers assess their own values and needs. values.Leaders emphasize on followers‟ needs. .Leaders move followers to higher standard of moral responsibility [transformational leadership] .
empathy and unconditional acceptance of others .leaders should be attentive to the concerns of their followers and empathize them .emphasize listening.(iii) Greenleaf‟s Perspective (1970): .they should take care of them and nurture them .
Principles of ethical leadership [Northouse. (2004) Respect others Serve others Build community Show justice Manifest honesty . P.G.
(benefits) for others (+) Genuine / moral altruism Harming concern. (benefits) for self (+) Apathetic Egotism Utilitarian / mutual Hedonistic Egotism altruism Helping concern.Leadership Ethic Behaviors (Kanungo & Mendonca) Helping concern. (cost) for self (-) . (cost) for others (-) Vindictive/selfdestructive egotism Harming concern.
Altruistic/ism = motivated by a concern for the benefits of others and a disregard for his own personal cost (benefiting others) Egotism = motivated by a concern for benefits and costs to themselves and disregard for the benefits and costs to others (benefiting self) .
.Effective Leader Effective organizational leader role as one that fundamentally involves moving the organization from the status quo to a future desired goal.
(ii) Formulation and articulation of an idealized vision.It involves the following processes: (i) Environmental scanning [SWOT analysis]. (iii) Implementation (motivate followers) What types of motivation required? .
(iv) is willing to take the risks (v) is motivated by a passionate and sincere care and concern with a deep and abiding respect for others. .This requires a leader who (i) has a moral altruism will (ii) considers the followers‟ needs and aspirations (charismatic) (iii) shares vision with his / her followers.
(vi) understands & motivates followers. (vii) engages in modeling / exemplary acts. innovative that often involves great personal risks and sacrifices. .
Ethical Leadership Refer handout .
concern for others . .sensitive to the followers‟ feelings and to conform their wishes.Affliation Leaders with motivation of the socialoriented = altruistic motive: .warm & friendly .
and a fear of rejection and being left alone (selfish love) .desire: is to be liked .Avoidance affiliation = concern with the maintenance of relationships.motive: to demonstrate their importance to them. to develop their own self-worth .
Approach affiliation = concern with the establishment of „love‟ relationships .motivated primarily by a genuine interest in others .
affiliative assurance relationship produce low employee morale and a defensive feeling. .Affiliative assurance relationships: .emphasize relationships to protect themselves .
demands loyalty and compliance. insensitive to the needs of the follower… .Power Power as the source of influence: (i) Personal power need = a leader is motivated by power for personal aggrandizement. use position power [selfinterest].
expertise. [subordinate their personal interest to that of the organization .(ii) Institutional power need = a leader is motivated by power to serve the purpose of the organization.
not position.places the interest of the others before and might even be at the cost to self.Expert power • The source of institutional power is the expertise of the leader. .to serve and help followers . [This type of leader is likely to be more effective than those high on personal/position power] .
. .motivated by personal achievement. power base .transactional leaders (coercive.Motives (i) The need for achievement motive: . .views organizational resources and support primarily in terms of their own objectives.self-oriented / benefit to self. reward. legal.
Servant leaders .(ii) The need for social achievement motive (altruistic motive): .concerns for others .Moral leaders . .initiate efforts that primarily benefited others and interest of others.Charismatic / transformational leaders .
Ethical Behaviors • • • • • • • Honesty Integrity Fairness Loyalty Kindness Courage Generosity Altruism Unselfishness Love Truth Tolerance Responsibility Prudence .
• Compassion: Take care of others • General beneficence (don‟t bring misery to others) • Frugality (not wasting resources…) .
Nilai2 Islam • • • • • • • • Khalifah Ibadah Amanah Fitrah Musyawarah Be kind Justice Tell the truth .
Codes of Ethics 1. Professional 2. Tatacara Profesion Perguruan Malaysia .
.Ethical Leadership A leader is best when people barely know he exists. Worse when they despise him. Not so good when people obey and acclaim him. they fail to honour you. If you fail to honour people.
his aim fulfilled.But of a good leader. when his work is done. who talks little. they will say “We did this ourselves!” Lao-Tzu .
g doctor: his duty is to help others attend to others making decision: beneficial to others . team building e. SERVE OTHERS: Altruistic behaviors: mentoring. empowerment.Ethical Leaders 1.
2.treat subordinates equal – fair & just 3.honest .tell the truth . ARE JUST [control to decision making] . HONEST .
never treated as the means to another‟s personal goal .transformational leadership .leaders cannot impose their will . BUILD COMMUNITY .4. RESPECT OTHERS . .treat other people‟s decision & values with respect.cares everyone 5.
.Best practices List some of the best practices in the management of your organization / institution.
Sediakan satu pelan tindakan dan nyatakan governannya sekali.
Getting Support from Your Boss
“Middle and lower managers may be totally committed to the philosophy of situational ethics; they may judge situations on their merits and come to conclusion that offer the optimal benefit to corporate interests, to their colleagues, …to customers, and to society at large; they may minimize conflict, and they
may satisfy their own criteria; but in the final judgment, unless they convince their boss and their boss‟s boss, and so right up through the management hierarchy, until the executive is convinced of the rightness of the action, their situational decision counts for nothing except their own ethical satisfaction.” Evan, W.A. (1981: 174)
4. 5.Some Principles 1. KNOW YOUR BOSS COMPLETE DOCUMENT KNOW YOUR TURF WELL RIGHTNESS OF ACTION YOUR BOSS IS ALWAYS RIGHT . 2. 3.
TERIMA KASIH .
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