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Self-Biased, High-Bandwidth, Low-

Jitter 1-to-4096 Multiplier Clock


Generator PLL
Based on a presentation by:

John G. Maneatis
1
, Jaeha Kim
1
, Iain McClatchie
1
,
Jay Maxey
2
, Manjusha Shankaradas
2
True Circuits, Los Altos, CA
1
Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX
2
PDF file of JSSC paper linked at class web page.
2
Clock Generator PLLs for ASICs








Most ASICs PLLs for clock generation, but
Use different frequencies and multiplication
Graphics
Processor
Network
Processor
I/O
Controller
Your
ASIC
N
F
REF F
OUT
PLL
3
Optimal PLL Design
For each F
OUT
and N, one must adjust loop
parameters for both minimum jitter and stability

For clock generators (track input clocks)
(e
REF
= 2tF
OUT
/N)
Loop bandwidth : e
N
~ e
REF
/20
Damping ratio : , ~ 1
Third-order pole : e
C
~ e
REF
/2

Circuit parameters (e.g. I
CH
, R) must vary with
F
OUT
and N!

4
Addressing Diverse Specifications
Designing a different PLL for each ASIC
Easier to meet the specification, but
Verifying all designs is difficult and costly

Our Goal: One PLL design for all ASICs
Only one design needs verification, but
Loop parameters must adjust automatically
to satisfy wide range of F
OUT
and N

5
Challenges
Self-biased PLLs [Maneatis 96] adjust for F
OUT

Achieve fixed e
N
/e
REF
and , indep. of PVT

But, Self-Biased PLLs do NOT adjust for N
e
N
/e
REF
and , vary with N (want fixed)
e
C
/e
REF
varies with N (want fixed)

This talk extends Self-Biased PLLs for wide
ranges of N with a new loop filter network
6
Outline
Introduction
Review of Self-Biased PLLs
Pattern Jitter Issues
Loop Filter Architecture
Implementation of Key Circuits
Measured Results
Conclusions
7
Second-Order PLLs

PFD
CP
I
CH V
CTL
N
CK
OUT
CK
REF
CK
FB
UP
DN
C
1
R
VCO
K
V
2
N N
N
I
O
) / s ( ) / s ( 2 1
) / s ( 2 1
N
) s ( P
) s ( P
e e ,
e ,
1
C R
2
1
N
= e ,
1
V CH
C
1
K I
N
1
N
e
8
Second-Order PLLs

PFD
CP
I
CH V
CTL
N
CK
OUT
CK
REF
CK
FB
UP
DN
C
1
R
VCO
K
V
)
1
( R
CS
I V
CH CTL
+ =
Oscillation frequency is supposed to be controlled by V
CTL
,
that is by I
CH
/CS + I
CH
*R.
In Ring Oscillators, frequency is more easily controlled by
current, through tail biasing voltage. want tail current to
have two components: ICH/CS + ICH*R.
9
Self-Biased PLLs
PFD
CP
xI
D
CP
xI
D
VCO
K
V
=k/C
B
V
CTL
V
BN
N
CK
OUT
CK
REF
CK
FB
UP
DN
V
FF
Replica-Feedback
Biasing
C
1
1/g
m
I
D
m
g / 1 R =
D CH
I x I =
B m VCO
C g F =
)
1
( R
CS
I
CH
+
V
BN
biases the tail current in Ring Oscillator buffer stages.
So want I
D
to have components:
10
Self-Biased PLLs
PFD
CP
xI
D
CP
xI
D
VCO
K
V
=k/C
B
V
CTL
V
BN
N
CK
OUT
CK
REF
CK
FB
UP
DN
V
FF
Replica-Feedback
Biasing
C
1
1/g
m
I
D
Op Amp adjust V
BN
so that NMOST ID matches currents in
1/gm and that from top charge pump.
Notice: V
CTL
= V
DD
I
CH
/ sC
1
d
I
D
= (V
DD
V
CTL
)gm + I
CH-ff
= I
CH
(1/sC
1
+ 1)
Hence V
BN
will generate I-tail proportional to I
CH
(1/sC
1
+ 1)
11
Maneatis self bias generator
From 1996 Maneatis paper, which is very widely reference.
PDF file linked at web page.
12
Self-Biased PLLs
With Self-Biased PLLs




e
N
/e
REF
and , are constant with F
OUT
,

BUT not with N

N x ~ C C N x
2
1
1 B REF N
t
e e
N x ~ C C N x
4
1
B 1
,
13
Pattern Jitter / Spurious Noise
Phase corrections every rising reference edge
can cause disruptions to nearby output cycles
Periodic noise pattern repeats every ref. cycle
or N output cycles




Typical causes
Charge pump imbalances or leakage
Jitter in reference clock (aperiodic result)
CK
REF
V
CTL
CK
OUT
SHORT
14
Shunt Capacitor
Use third-order pole to extend disturbance with
reduced amplitude over many output cycles




Problem with varying N using fixed capacitor
Extended number of cycles NOT function of N
Too few for large N Pattern jitter
Too many for small N Instability
FILTERED
CK
REF
V
CTL
CK
OUT
15
Proposed Loop Filter
Use switched capacitor filter network to
Output scaled amplitude error signal with N
output cycle duration [Maxim 01]





Want a simple solution using this approach that
is compatible with Self-Biased PLLs
FILTERED
CK
REF
V
CTL
CK
OUT
16
Original Filter Network






Only need to filter feed-forward path
V
CTL
V
BN
V
FF
Replica-Feedback
Biasing
C
1
CP
CP
UP
DN
1/g
m
17
Sampled Feed-Forward Network






Sample phase error and generate proportional
current that is held constant for NT
OUT

Sampled error is reset at end of ref. cycle
Need V
RST
= V
CTL
as zero bias level

g
m
V
CTL
V
BN
V
FF
Replica-Feedback
Biasing
C
1
1/g
m
C
2
CP
CP
UP
DN
V
RST
18
Complete Filter Network






Reset C
2
to V
CTL
directly
Eliminates C
1
charge pump
Equivalent feed-forward control gain
Q
O
~ N Q
I

g
m
V
CTL
V
BN
V
FF
Replica-Feedback
Biasing
C
1
1/g
m
C
2
CP
UP
DN
19
Loop Dynamics
With this new loop filter network we achieve

Need to keep e
N
/e
REF
and , constant with N
Just scale charge pump current with 1/N (=x)
More detailed analysis will show



Both are independent of F
OUT
, N, and PVT!
N x ~
REF N
e e N x ~ N x Q Q ~
I O
,
1 B
C C
2
1
REF N
t
e e
2 1 B
C C C
4
1
= ,
20
Complete Self-Biased CGPLL

PFD
CP
1
CP
2
VCO
Charge PumpBias Gen.
(Prog. 1/NCurrent Mirror)
V
FS1
V
FS2
V
CTL
V
BN
V
BC
V
BC
Clock
Divider
CK
OUT
CK
REF
CK
FB
Divide Ratio
(N=1...4096)
UP
DN
V
BP
g
m
(V
FS1
+V
FS2
)
V
FF
1/g
m
LoopFilter
Replica-Feedback
VCOBias Gen.
C
2
C
1
C
2
21
Self-Biased Filter Network

CP
1
CP
2
V
FS1
V
FS2
V
FF
V
CTL
C
2
C
1
C
2
S
1
S
2
Select
Control
UP
DN
en
en
V
BN
V
BN
22
Filter Network Reset Switches








Can switch to V
CTL
independent of voltage level
V
BN
V
BR
~V
CTL
SEL_B SEL
V
CTL
V
FS
V
CTL
V
DD
+V
CTL
sel_boosted
23
Filter Network Reset Switches
When un-selected, sel = 0, sel_B = 1 (VDD). V_B = VDD,
V_D = VDD + V_CTL, V_A = 0, V_C = V_BR = V_CTL.
V_CA charged to V_CTL
V
BN
V
BR
~V
CTL
SEL_B SEL
V
CTL
V
FS
V
CTL
V
DD
+V
CTL
sel_boosted
A B
C
D
24
Filter Network Reset Switches
When selected, sel_B = 0, sel = 1 (VDD). V_A = VDD, V_C
= VDD + V_CTL, V_B = 0, V_D = V_BR.
V_DB charged to V_BR or V_CTL
V
BN
V
BR
~V
CTL
SEL_B SEL
V
CTL
V
FS
V
CTL
V
DD
+V
CTL
sel_boosted
A B
C
D
25
Inverse-Linear Current Mirror
Need to generate I
CH
= I
D
/ N
Use switches to adjust device size on input side
For N=1~4096, need 12 binary weighted legs
Need size range of 2048:1 Too much area!
I
OUT
I
IN
V
BD
S
0
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
x2 x4 x1 x8 x16 x32
26
Multi-Stage Linear CM
Solution to size problem with LINEAR control
Use multiple device groups operating at
different but ratioed current densities
Can have large ranges using small devices

I
OUT
I
IN
V
BD
S
3
S
4
S
5
8:1
S
0
S
1
S
2
x2 x4 x1 x2 x4 x1
27
Multi-Stage Inverse-Linear CM
Just diode connect multi-stage linear current
source and use as input side of current mirror
Can output gate bias of any device group
Stable as long as gain blocks reduce currents
I
OUT
V
BD
S
3
S
4
S
5
8:1
S
0
S
1
S
2
x2 x4 x1 x2 x4 x1
I
IN
28
Complete Current Mirror

V
BN
I
OUT
V
BC
8:1 8:1 8:1
S
9
S
10
S
11
S
6
S
7
S
8
S
3
S
4
S
5
I
IN
E
3
E
3
E
2
E
2
(N=14096)
I
OUT
I
IN

1
N
S
0
S
1
S
2
x2 x4 x1 x1
V
BD
29
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

V
FF
V
CTL
V
BN
V
BN
V
BP
V
BP
V
I
- V
I
+
V
O
+ V
O
-
V
TAIL
Buffer Stage VCOReplica-Feedback Bias Generator
11-Stage Ring Oscillator
V
BN
V
BP
CK+
CK-
CK+
CK-
V
REP
30
AV
V
DS
Higher V
DD
AV
AI
L
AI
H
I
D
AV
V
V
TAIL
V
REP
time
Buffer Tail Node Matching

31
Modified VCO

V
FF
V
CTL
V
BN
V
BN
V
BP
V
BP
V
I
- V
I
+
V
O
+ V
O
-
V
TAIL
(SHARED)
Buffer Stage VCOReplica-Feedback Bias Generator
11-Stage Ring Oscillator
V
BN
V
BP
V
TAIL
CK+
CK-
CK+
CK-
32
Static Supply Sensitivity

32
33
PLL Implementation


Process Technology 0.13m N-well CMOS
Nominal Supply Voltage 1.5V (designed for 1.2V)
Total Occupied Area 0.38 x 0.48mm
2
VCO Frequency Range 30 ~ 650 MHz
Multiplication Factor Range N = 1 ~ 4096
Power Dissipation 7mW @ 240 MHz, 1.5V
34
Measured Jitter vs N (240MHz)

35
PLL Jitter Measurement Summary
36
Conclusions
Proposed PLL achieves wide N and F
OUT
range

PLL is self-biased with constant loop dynamics
(e
N
/e
REF
, , ), independent of N, F
OUT
, and PVT

Sampled feed-forward network suppresses
pattern jitter with effective e
C
that tracks e
REF

Achieves relatively constant period jitter of less
than 1.7% as N is scaled from 1 to 4096
37
References
J. Maneatis et al., Self-biased high-bandwidth low-jitter 1-to-4096
multiplier clock generator PLL, in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.
Dig. Tech. Papers, Feb. 2003, pp. 424425.

J. Maneatis, Low-jitter process-independent DLL and PLL based on
self-biased techniques, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 31, pp. 1723
1732, Nov. 1996.

A. Maxim et al., A low-jitter 1251250 MHz process-independent 0.18
m CMOS PLL based on a sample-reset loop filter, in IEEE Int. Solid-
State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, Feb. 2001, pp. 394395.

T. C. Lee and B. Razavi, A stabilization technique for phase-locked
frequency synthesizers, in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers,
June 2001, pp. 3942.

J. Maneatis and M. Horowitz, Precise delay generation using coupled
oscillators, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 28, pp. 12731282, Dec.
1993.