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Evaporation Process

By: NORAINI BINTI SAIDON 2011293652 NURSYAFINAZ BINTI JAAFAR 2011212654 NUR AFIQAH BINTI AB RAZAK 2011670804

INTRODUCTION
Evaporation (conversion of liquid water into water vapor) is a unique hydrologic process that couples the dynamics of water and energy cycles over the Earths surface. The process of evaporation involves the vaporization of a liquid. However, it should be noted that a key distinction for evaporation is that it only happens at the surface of the liquid. Additionally, evaporation is considered to be part of a phase transition. This phase transition refers to how molecules in a liquid or water state suddenly become gaseous or suddenly turn to water vapor.

BASIC DESIGN OF EVAPORATION PROCESS


Calandria, or heat exchanger, which transfers energy from the source stream to the solidscontaining fluid, raising the fluid's temperature to the boiling point Circulation, or feed, pump, which supplies feed to the evaporator's heat exchanger Distributor, which distributes feed or circulating fluid evenly across the faces of the tube sheets of the tubular evaporator calandrias, ensuring that the surfaces of the gravity-fed tubes are thoroughly wetted Transfer pump, which moves enriched-solidscontaining fluid from the evaporator calandria Vapour separator, which separates the water vapour from the enriched-solids-containing fluid Condenser, which removes energy from the evaporator via heat transfer with another fluid Vacuum source, which removes noncondensable components in the vapour

Design of evaporation plants requires consideration of numerous, and sometimes contradictory, requirements. The most important requirements are as follows: Product characteristics, including heat sensitivity, viscosity, corrosiveness, foaming tendency, fouling and precipitation, boiling behavior Capacity and operation data, including quantities, concentrations, temperatures, annual operating hours, change of product, controls automation. Required operating media, such as steam, cooling water, electric power, cleaning agents, spare parts Capital and other financial costs Personnel costs for operation and maintenance Standards and conditions for manufacture, delivery, acceptance Choice of materials of construction and surface finishes Site conditions, such as space, climate (for outdoor sites), connections for energy and product, service platforms Legal regulations covering safety, accident prevention, sound emissions, environmental requirements

Application evaporation process in industry


Falling film
The solution flows inside the tubes. A special liquid distribution system at the top ensures equal liquid feed to each tube and ensures an even liquid film is obtained (on the circumference). The liquid flow per tube is called the wetting rate. The higher feed concentrations require higher wetting rates to prevent over concentration and fouling. The liquid flow per tube is called the wetting rate. The higher feed concentrations require higher wetting rates to prevent over concentration and fouling. The generated vapour by the evaporation is then separated from the concentrated liquid at the bottom of the vessel and goes through a droplet separator which can be either integrated into the evaporator shell or separated with a vapour connection and a highly efficient cyclone inlet.

Forced circulation

The system is a combination of a heat The heated solution then evaporates exchanger, for product heating, and a by flashing in the vessel. flash vessel. This type of evaporator is well A high flow pump circulates the adapted for viscous products and solution to be evaporated inside the high fouling rate solutions, solutions heater where it is heated a few with suspended solids and solutions degrees over the boiling temperature close to crystallization. by steam or another heating fluid.

Horizontal wetted tube

The evaporated solution flows around the outside of the tubes in a horizontal tube while the heating fluid flows through the inside of the tubes. The advantages of this type of evaporator: Utilises heat from either steam or hot fluid in circulation The space within the tube bundle allows the evaporated vapours to flow around the tubes at low velocity and enables a very low evaporation temperature Low risk of liquid priming Easy mechanical cleaning of the outside tube surface and possibility of tube bundle dismounting (for limited heat exchange surface) Large choice of manufacturing materials

Conclusion
The process of evaporation involves the vaporization of a liquid. However, it should be noted that a key distinction for evaporation is that it only happens at the surface of the liquid. A major requirement of the evaporation process is to maintain the quality of the liquid during evaporation and to avoid heat damage to the concentrate. Understanding the process of evaporation has been helping countless industries and municipalities counter evaporation of limited water supplies, improve manufacturing efficiency and maintain more cost effective means of doing business.