Grid Interconnection of Renewable energy sources

with power quality improvement for electric drive
application

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
Dr.M Gopichand Naik,Ph.D
Associate Professor
By,
S. Ratnakar
Andhra university,
Power system
automation


ABSTRACT
With increase in load demand Renewable energy sources are increasingly connected in
distribution systems which utilizes power electronic converters/ inverters.

The grid-interfacing inverter can effectively be utilized to perform following important
functions:
• Transfer of active power harvested from the renewable resources (wind, solar, etc.);
• Load reactive power demand support;

• Current harmonics compensation at PCC

• Current unbalance and neutral current compensation in case of 3-phase 4-
wire system

• The Four Leg Inverter that acts as Active Power Filter (APF) is given a dc
supply from the RES.
Cont..

Power quality is defined as:
„Any power problem that results in failure or mis-operation of
customer equipment, manifests itself as an economic burden to the
user, or produces negative impacts on the environment.‟
Main Power quality Problems:
• Power Factor
• Harmonic Distortion
• Voltage Sags or Dips
• Voltage Swells
Introduction
Contd…
When a non linear load draws the current that passes through all of the
impedance that is between load and system which results in production of
harmonics.

Distorted sine waves associated with currents and voltages of different
amplitude and frequency.
Nonlinear loads
Nonlinear Loads are the main cause of Power Quality Problem
In a non-linear load the current wave shape is not the same as the voltage.

SOURCES OF HARMONICS
• Solid state devices
• Rectifier circuits
• Thyristor switches
• High switching loads
• Short circuits of motors and generators




EFFECTS OF HARMONICS
• Equipment malfunctioning
• Equipment failure
• Communication interference
• Transformer over heating
• Effect on synchronous motor
• Effect on transmission lines
The solution for Power Quality Problems are FACTS Devices
SVC(Static Var Compensator)

STATCOM(Static Synchronous Compensator)

DVR(Dynamic Voltage Restorer)

DSTATCOM(Distribution Static Compensator)

APF(Active Power Filter)

UPQC(Unified Power Quality Conditioner)
Objective of the thesis
The objective of this dissertation work is to develop the technologies for increasing
the Renewable Energy Sources into the utility grid while maintaining or improving
the power quality of the utility grid.

1. To provide a method which compensate the problems like current imbalance,
power quality, harmonics and total harmonic distortion.

2. To provide analysis for different types of loads like linearly balanced,
linearly un-balanced, non-linear balanced and non-linear unbalanced loads

3. The proposed concept is applied to an Electric drive .
Proposed topology
• Res is given as an input to grid interfacing inverter.
• Wind energy is chosen as a source of RES
• Instead of Three leg inverter a four leg inverter is used to compensate the neutral
current
In the proposed circuit
Simulink model of wind generator
DC Link Voltage
CONTROLLER FOR INVERTER
There are two ways of designing a controller for inverter
1)Source Side sensing


2)Load Side Sensing
Control Scheme
( )
a
U sin θ =
b

U sin θ
3
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
c

U sin θ
3
| |
= +
|
\ .



Equations for Control Circuit
Unit vector templates
( )
dcerr (n)
V
( ) ( ) ( )
*
dcerr n dc n dc n
V V   V   = ÷
The dc-link voltage error
at n
th
sampling instant is given as:
( )( )
a m a
I I U =
( )( )
( )( )
b m b
c m c
I I U
I I U
=
=



Hysteresis Current Controller
The hysteresis controller then generates the switching pulses to
( )
1 8
P toP
( )
( )
*
Inva Inva 1 4
*
Inva Inva 1 4
If, , will turn off and will turn on
, will turn on and will turn off
b
b
I I h P P
I I h P P
< ÷
> ÷
Simulink model of control circuit
GRID
CONTROL CIRCUIT
RES
BASIC SIMULATION CIRCUIT
Proposed scheme with Non-Linear Un-Balanced Load

Output waveforms
Before Inverter Operates
After Inverter Operates
OUTPUT WAVEFORMS FOR POWER FACTOR
Before Inverter Operates
After Inverter Operates
POWER FACTOR MEASUREMENT BLOCK FOR NON LINEAR UNBALANCED LOAD
THD’S OF SOURCE CURRENTS BEFORE AND AFTER COMPENSATION
COMPARISON OF THD AND POWER FACTOR FOR DIFFERENT LOADS

Type of loads THD without
Compensator
THD with
Compensator
Power factor
Linear balanced - - 0.99
Non linear balanced 30.15% 1.90% 0.994
Linear un-balanced - - 0.999
Non linear
un-balanced load

16.50%

1.67%

0.994
PROPOSED CONCEPT FOR A ELECTRICAL DRIVE APPLICATION (SRM)
OUPUT WAVEFORMS
Before Inverter Operates
After Inverter Operates
Before Inverter Operates
After Inverter Operates
POWER FACTOR AND ITS MEASUREMENT BLOCK
THD OF SOURCE CURRENT WITH ELECTRICAL DRIVE APPLICATION
IMPROVEMENT CHARACTERISTCS OF SRM
SYSTEM PARAMETERS
Three phase supply : 415V

Frequency : 50Hz
Hysteresis band : -0.01 to 0.01
3-ph Nonlinear Load : R=20ohm, L=8mH

Filter Inductance : 2mH

Cdc : 3000 micro Farad

Type of loads THD without
Compensator
THD with
Compensator
Power factor
Non linear
un-balanced load with
SRM

14.50%

2.56%

0.969
PQ FEATURES OF SRM
This work proposes a new control strategy for four leg inverter
based system.

The inverter is supplied with the Renewable sources like solar and
wind energy systems. The grid tied inverter has also the capability
of improving the power quality.

The power quality of the system is improved by using the proposed
logic and the total harmonic distortion of the source current is
limited to below standard tolerance .

CONCLUSION
Contd...


The power factor of the system is maintained very close to unity. With an
additional drive (SRM) connected to the system, the performance characteristics
of SRM with non-linear un balanced load are improved.

With the combination of grid interfacing inverter and the 3 phase-4 wire linear/
non linear un balanced load at the point of common coupling appears as a
balanced resistive load to the grid.



FUTURE WORK
Multilevel Inverter Based Active Power Filter can be studied and compared
with conventional APF
Hardware implementation using DSP can be adopted for the present study
Paper Publication
S Ratnakar, Dr.M. Gopichand Naik “POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF
SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR AND GRID INTERCONNECTION OF
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE AT DISTRIBUTION LEVEL”, Science
direct, International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Telecommunications
Engineering ISSN:2051-3240, Vol.44, Special Issue.3
[1] Overview of Control and Grid Synchronization for Distributed Power Generation
Systems Frede Blaabjerg, Fellow, IEEE, Remus Teodorescu, Senior Member, IEEE,
Marco Liserre, Member, IEEE,and Adrian V. Timbus, Student Member, IEEE

[2] Mukhtiar Singh, Student Member, IEEE, VinodKhadkikar, Member, IEEE, Ambrish
Chandra, Senior Member, IEEE and Rajiv K. Varma, Senior Member, IEEE “Grid
Interconnection of Renewable Energy Sources at the Distribution Level With Power-
Quality Improvement Features.”IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery, Vol. 26, No.
1, January 2011

[3] J. H. R. Enslin and P. J. M. Heskes, “Harmonic interaction between a large number of
distributed power inverters and the distribution network,” IEEE Trans. Power
Electron, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1586–1593, Nov. 2004

[4]J. P. Pinto, R. Pregitzer, L. F. C. Monteiro, and J. L. Afonso, “3-phase 4-wire shunt
active power filter with renewable energy interface,” presented at the Conf. IEEE
Renewable Energy & Power Quality, Seville, Spain, 2007.

REFERENCES
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