30 April 2013, 4:30 – 8:00 pm Madhup Khatiwada madhup@myqueens.ac.nz

Before we begin
“Out of suffering have emerged the strongest souls; the most massive characters are seared with scars.” ― Kahlil Gibran

Important Dates
• 4 Assessments (Each 3 hours exam)
• 1st Assessment – Based on MS Word (25 %)

Tentative date – 9th April, 2013 • 2nd Assessment – Based on MS Excel (25 %) Tentative date – 6th May, 2013 • 3rd Assessment – Based on MS Access (25 %) Tentative date – 21st May, 2013 • 4th Assessment – Based on other topics (25 %) Tentative date – 11th June, 2013
Note: Refer to your Course Handbook for regulations relating to Recount/ Reconsideration of Marks. This must be applied for WITHIN 3 DAYS from the date Assessment Feedback is provided by the lecturer or nominated representative. All applications are to be submitted to your lecturer or nominated representative. No reassessments are permitted for Final Exams.

Topics for Today • • • Computer related health hazards Sitting postures Heath and safety in employment act 1992 .


• This is enforceable in law – Health and Safety at Work Act (1974). • All employers must do as much as they can to ensure that their workers are safe. .Health and Safety – Why? • People have a right to be safe at work.

Employer Obligations • By law employers must protect employees using computers regularly and adhere to all Health and Safety Regulations. Note: These regulations apply only to offices not to students or pupils in schools or colleges. . • Free eye tests must be provided by employers for all employees who regularly use computers.

Research Topics • Repetitive Strain Injuries • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome • Eye Strains and Computer Vision Syndrome • Internet Addiction • Stress and Depression • Radiation • Backache .

the "science of work. and the environments in which they operate. the work processes that they must follow." is a field of technology that considers human capabilities and limitations in the design of machines and objects that people use." .Ergonomics • Ergonomics.

• • • • • Monitors Keyboard Chairs Lighting Desks .Ergonomics • The science of designing safe and comfortable machines and furniture for humans. • Enables us to adjust equipment properly to meet our needs.

the angle of your forearm and upper arm should be 90 degrees Sit 24 to 28 inches away from your monitor Place the monitor 15-30 degrees below your straight-ahead line of sight Keep your body away from the sides and backs of monitors to reduce the exposure of radiation Avoid glare on your monitor (do not have strong sources of light in your back) and use screens that minimize glare Use the proper light in your work environment that is compatible with the monitor frequency .A few ergonomic advice • Use a chair that has full support of your back. and has a • • • • • • • • • footrest and armrest Place your feet firmly on the floor Use an ergonomic keyboard that is angled or can split to enjoy a more natural typing position Use a wrist rest that is comfortable Place your hands straight when typing. is adjustable.

. or carpals.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is a Repetitive Stress Injury (RSI) caused when the median nerve is pushed by the flexor tendons inside the tunnel made up of the wrist bones.

sometimes causing them to swell and push the median nerve. or carpals. . the flexor tendons rub against the sides of the tunnel.How is CTS caused • The forearm flexor tendons and a few nerves pass through a small tunnel formed by the wrist bones. we feel pain. When the median nerve is pushed by the tendons. into the hand. As you move you hands and fingers.

wrists and arms • Swelling and coldness in the hand .Symptoms of CTS injury • Pain that may run up the hand into the wrist and arm • Numbness and coldness in the hands • Loss of strength and/or joint movement • Discomfort and stiffness in the hands • The need to massage your hands.

especially those that type • • • • • more than four hours Lack of circulation in the muscles that prevents nutrients and oxygen to reach the tissues Inadequate rest and breaks Genetic predisposition due to the amount of lubrication of the flexor tendons that one receives and the tunnel's geometry Poor posture including the sitting.Reasons for CTS injury • Stress will increase muscle tension causing pain • Long hours in the keyboard. placement of hands on the keyboard and proper height of the keyboard Poor diet (lack of vitamins) .

rest and more rest • Use of a wrist brace or splint • Take medication like ibuprofen • Cut back on sugar.CTS Treatment • Rest. alcohol and take vitamins • Keep hands warm. caffeine. take breaks. exercise your hands and arms • Correct your typing and use your knowledge of ergonomics • Surgery should be your last retreat if everything else fails .

CTS Treatment .

redness. . dryness and tenderness of the eyes.Eye Strains • Eye strain is the single largest complaint of VDT users causing soreness. blurred vision. irritation.

double vision and blurred vision • Difficulty looking at one point for a period of time • Itchy dry eyes and discomfort while looking at the VDT • Headaches • Eye fatigue that can have serious impact later in life .Symptoms of Eye Strains • Impaired vision.

or glare at the monitor • Poor lighting conditions in the computer room • Electromagnetic radiation emitted by the VDT (UVA) • Staring at anything for a long period of time will cause blurred vision • Loss of negative ions in the atmosphere due to electrostatic charges on the face of the CRT .Reasons for this injury • Bad monitor resolution. flickering.

Eye Strain Treatment • Use your knowledge of ergonomics • Take breaks when you feel strained • Use your laptop when possible because the monitor emits less radiation • Adjust the brightness of your screen • Wear protective eye glasses .

Internet Addiction • Use Internet every day without days off • Loosing track of time while surfing the Net • Staying home more loosing social contacts • Denial of high usage • 51% of Internet addicts suffer severe job impairment • 58% get addicted within the first 12 months of Internet usage .

•Keyboard must be adjustable so that they can lie at an angle of 10 degrees •Keyboard should have concave keys to prevent fingers slipping and reduce impact shock on fingertips. and arms. fingers.Repetitive strain injury Cause – Improper use of Keyboard • How can RSI be avoided? Cause – Improper use of Keyboard •Keyboard should be separate from the VDU. . wrists.

ringing ears • Prevention • Ear Plugs. Hardware maintenance • Cure • No cure available .Tinnitus • Cause • Ringing in the ears and loss of hearing • Symptoms • Headaches. sound proofing.

.Radiation • What can be done to reduce radiation hazards? • Special radiation reduction shields on VDUs.

.Stress and Depression • Computer operators experience more stress than any other occupational group the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health has studied.

Other Computer Related Health Hazards • Back problems (pain) caused from the efforts of the muscle to hold your posture for long periods of time • Skin rashes that are caused from the static fields in front of the screen causing ions and pollutants in the air to become positively charged and attach themselves to your negatively charged skin (especially in low humidity) • Abnormal reproductive outcomes due to electromagnetic radiation's affects on biological functions and biochemical processes inside our cells .

8. Placement of VDU. No glare. Proper ventilation & temperature . Clear work surface 10. Minimal noise. Appropriate software. Adjusted keyboard 9. 2. 3. 4. Blinds 6. Adequate lighting. 7. 5. Good leg room. Adjustable chair 11.Things that must be considered when designing an office 1.

• Use florescent tubes with diffusers or that produce artificial daylight. • Avoid the use of carpets made from artificial fibres as these cause static electricity. .Things that must be considered when designing an office • Avoid the use of single pendant lamps as they produce glare on computer VDUs.

• Cables should be ducted and not allowed to trail across the floor. • Sufficient power sockets with surge resisters should be installed so that only one piece of equipment is plugged in to each socket.Things that must be considered when designing an office • Windows should have adjustable blinds so that sunlight will not produce glare on computer VDUs. .