PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS

Project, Defined
• A project is an endeavor to accomplish a specific objective through a unique set of interrelated tasks and the effective utilization of resources. • It has a well-defined objective stated in terms of scope, schedule, and costs. • Project s are “born” when a need is identified by the customer – the people or organization willing to provide funds to have the need satisfied. • It is the people (project manager and project team), not the procedures and techniques, that are critical to accomplishing the project objective. • Procedures and techniques are merely tools to help the people do their jobs.

Examples of Projects
• Planning a wedding • Designing and implementing a computer system • Hosting a holiday party

• Designing and producing a brochure
• Executing an environmental clean-up of a contaminated site • Holding a high school reunion • Performing a series of surgeries on an accident victim

.

Phases of the Project Life Cycle 1 • The first phase involves the identification of a need. – The need and requirements are usually written by the customer into a document called a request for proposal (RFP). or opportunity. problem. .

Phases of the Project Life Cycle 2 • The second phase is the development of a proposed solution to the need or problem. . – The customer and the winning contractor negotiate and sign a contract (agreement). – This phase results in the submission of a proposal.

– Different types of resources are utilized – Results in the accomplishment of the project objective .Phases of the Project Life Cycle 3 • The third phase is performing the project.

– Perform close-out activities – Evaluate performance – Invite customer feedback .Phases of the Project Life Cycle 4 • The final phase is terminating the project.

Divide and subdivide the project scope into major “pieces” 3. Make a time estimate for how long it will take to complete each activity – resources needed. 2.The Project Management Process • The project management process means planning the work and then working the plan. 6. – 7 steps of planning 1. and with the available resources. Graphically portray the activities that need to be performed fro each work package in order to accomplish the project objective – in the form of network diagram. 7. with the allotted founds. 5. . Calculate a project schedule and budget to determine whether the project can be completed within the required time. Define the specific activities for each piece (work package) 4. Make a cost estimate for each activity. Clearly define the project objective.

Project Control Process .

• A work item is one small piece of the project. • The WBS is a hierarchical tree of end items to be accomplished. • A list of all the activities must be developed. • A work package is the lowest-level item.Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • The second step is to determine what activities need to be performed. .

.

Microsoft Project WBS .

and then click the Interface tab. • Manually set up a new project .1. select the Display Project Guide check box. click Options. Start new project • Turn on the Project Guide – On the Tools menu. – In the Project Guide settings section.

com/en-us/project/HA102639631033.aspx .Project – Project Information… or View – Turn on project guide… http://office.microsoft.

Options .Tools .

.

contain subtasks and their related properties 2.2.are tasks that are set to zero duration and are like interim goals in the project .are smaller tasks that are a part of a summary task 3. Milestones . Recurring tasks . Summary tasks . Tasks • There are four major types of tasks: 1. Subtasks .are tasks that occur at regular intervals 4.

Add tasks .

Insert new task .

Outlining tasks .

Tools – Options… - check “Show project summary task”

Predecessor

Tasks can be linked in four ways • Finish-Start FS Predecessor finishes and the other starts • Start-Finish S-F Task begins at the same time as its predecessor • Finish-Finish F-F Both tasks finish at the same time • Start-Start S-S Start of the predecessor determines when the other starts .

Constraints • Certain tasks need to be completed within a certain date. • There are about 8 types of constraints and they come under the flexible or inflexible category. • Intermediate deadlines may need to be specified. . • By assigning constraints to a task you can account for scheduling problems.

.

Managing task .3.

D(o). • a pessimistic value. D(r) . • Then: Duration = ( D(o) + D(p) + 4 x D(r) ) / 6 . D(p) and • a realistic value.Defining a Timeline • Find an optimistic value.

you use the Tracking Gantt diagram to show the critical path in red and you can see the PERT diagram by looking at the Network view. any delay on any part of the critical path will cause a delay in the whole project. Once you've identified the critical path.The importance of tracking progress • Techniques to manage projects effectively: – Critical Path Management (CPM) and – Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT). – They are similar and you will now often find the technique referred to as: CPM/PERT. . – In MS Project. It is where managers must concentrate their efforts. – The technique involves using network models to trace the links between tasks and to identify the tasks which are critical to meeting the deadlines.

• Critical path: View – More views… .Detail Gant .Gantt Chart View – critical path • A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule.

Network view .PERT diagram .

Views • Views allow you to examine your project from different angles based on what information you want displayed at any given time. • Project Views are categorized into two types: • Task Views (5 types) • Resource Views (3 types) . • You can use a combination of views in the same window at the same time.

and assignments. enabling you to compare your progress with the original plan and any additional baselines you set at milestones throughout your project.Saving a baseline • Baseline plan: The original project plans used to track progress on a project. • The baseline plan is a snapshot of your schedule at the time that you save the baseline and includes information about tasks. • You can set a baseline for your project. . resources.

aspx?assetid=ES102776241033&width=1024&height=768&startindex=0&CTT=11 &Origin=HA102751251033&app=WINPROJ&ver=12 .com/home/video.Saving a Baseline • Tools – Tracking – Save Baseline… http://office.microsoft.

RESOURCES .

• Work resources complete tasks by expending time on them. no time. no quantities—just dollars. and they're strictly cost. increase the project price tag. They are usually people and equipment that have been assigned to work on the project (you track their participation by the amount of time they spend). Material resources are supplies and stocks that are needed to complete a project. • people • equipment • supplies • • • • • You must start by identifying the resources available along with their costs. but they aren't associated with work or material resources. material resources and cost resources. such as travel or fees. Materials affect dates or duration only when you have to wait for those materials to become available. . Because materials aren't measured by time. Cost resources are the new kid on the Project 2007 block.Manage the project resources: • Resources are of three types: – work resources. Resource costs will be multiplied by duration to calculate project costs. quantities usually affect only the cost of your project. for instance. You assign material resources by the quantity that you need: two tons of gravel or 300 gallons of diesel fuel. You have to open the Resource sheet to specify the project resources and costs. Cost. Expenses.

.

Material resources have a cost per unit—per pound. and costs are calculated initially as dollars per hour. a work resource doesn't have a Material label. Cost resources receive a value only when you assign them to tasks.Fields in the Resource Sheet may be blank or contain different types of information depending on the type of resource. gallon. . For example. or piece—and the Material label field defines the units.

.

.

• In the Views list. slack appears as thin bars to the right of tasks. with slack values adjoining the regular Gantt bars. . and then click Apply. click More Views. • On the View menu. In the chart portion of the view. and then click Schedule.Use the Detail Gantt view to find slack (float) • On the View menu. click Detail Gantt. point to Table.

.

To shorten a project schedule • Reduce duration of activities on critical path – More resources – Change their scope .

Technically Constrained Activity Sequence .

Resource-Constrained Planning .

Painting Project Showing Needed Resources .

Create a budget for your project • Step 1: Create budget resources for your project • Step 2: Assign the budget resources to the project summary task • Step 3: Enter values for the budget resources • Step 4: Categorize resource costs according to their budget type • Step 5: Group resources to view how they compare against the budget .

Step 1: Create budget resources for your project • Create Budget-Travel and Budget-Labor on your resource sheet View – Resource Sheet .

Check the check box for Budget .

Select this task. • Click on Button ―Assign Resources‖ • Select the two budget resources you created earlier and click ―Assign‖ .Step 2: Assign the budget resources to the project summary task • Gent chart view – Tools – Options – View Tab – Show project summary task (check box) • Task is added to the top of the project list.

Step 3: Enter values for the budget resources • View – Resource Usage view • Add Budget Cost and Budget Work fields (columns): – Insert – Column – Budget Cost and Budget Work – Add values for travel and Labor cost .

000 for Budget-Labor (Budget Work column) .000 for Budget-Travel and 30.Add: 15.

Step 4: Categorize resource costs according to their budget type Create custom filed (column) • Open Resource Sheet view • Tools – Customize – Fields • Choose Resource text filed and rename: Budget Type .

Select Option Button: Roll down unless manually entered Add field to the resource sheet view: Insert – column – choose Budget Type column ( you can now identify your resources as labor or travel .

.

Step 5: Group resources to view how they compare against the budget • Resource Usage view • Project – Group by: No Group – Customize Group By… Select the Budget Type field .

.

Viewing Project Cost Information • Right click the Select All button and click Cost • Or • View – Table: Entry – Cost .

Reports • Cost Report: Reports .Reports – Costs – Cash Flow: – Edit – Column list • Project Summary report: Reports – Overview – Project Summary .

Resource Usage Report .

Current Activity Reports .