# RESEARCH METHODS

LECTURE 2 2013 MGJL

VALIDITY
A key concept relevant to a discussion of research methodology is that of validity.

When an individual asks, "Is this study valid?", they are questioning the validity of at least one aspect of the study.

There are four types of validity that can be discussed in relation to research and statistics. Thus, when discussing the validity of a study, one must be specific as to which type of validity is under discussion.
A study may be valid in relation to one type of validity but invalid in relation to another type of validity.

. without a background in basic statistics. the question that is being asked is .1. this type of validity is difficult to understand. According to Cook and Campbell (1979)."Are the variables under study related?" or "Is variable A correlated (does it covary) with Variable B?". "statistical conclusion validity refers to inferences about whether it is reasonable to presume co variation given a specified alpha level and the obtained variances (p. Statistical Conclusion Validity: Unfortunately. 41)." Essentially.

1.this increases statistical error) and small sample size (more difficult to find meaningful relationships with a small number of subjects). . Statistical Conclusion Validity: If a study has good statistical conclusion validity. we should be relatively certain that the answer to these questions is "yes". Examples of issues or problems that would threaten statistical conclusion validity would be random heterogeneity of the research subjects (the subjects represent a diverse group .

if a study has a pretest. For example. the next issue to be determined is one of causality.) . Does A cause B? If a study is lacking internal validity. Internal Validity: Once it has been determined that the two variables (A & B) are related. etc. a historical event. an experimental treatment. and a follow-up posttest. a change in weather.2. history is a threat to internal validity. If a difference is found between the pretest and posttest. the study would be descriptive but not causal. one can not make cause and effect statements based on the research. it might be due to the experimental treatment but it might also be due to any other event that subjects experienced between the two times of testing (for example. There are many potential threats to internal validity.

If that measure does not truly reflect depression levels but rather anxiety levels (Confounding Variable X). Construct Validity: One is examining the issue of construct validity when one is asking the questions "Am I really measuring the construct that I want to study?" or "Is my study confounded (Am I confusing constructs)?". and bias introduced in a study by expectancies on the part of the experimenter . I will need at least one measure of depression. For example. hypothesis guessing on the part of subjects. if I want to know a particular drug (Variable A) will be effective for treating depression (Variable B) . than my study will be lacking construct validity. good construct validity means the we will be relatively sure that Construct A is related to Construct B and that this is possibly a causal relationship.3. Thus. Examples of other threats to construct validity include subjects apprehension about being evaluated.

then the external validity of my study is threatened. one needs to ask the following questions to determine if a threat to the external validity exists: "Would I find these same results with a difference sample?". if you conduct a study looking at heart disease in men. and "Would I get these same results if I had conducted this study in the past or if I redo this study in the future?" If I can not answer "yes" to each of these questions. External Validity: External validity addresses the issue of being able to generalize the results of your study to other times.4. places. For example. . and persons. "Would I get these same results if I conducted my study in a different setting?". can these results be generalized to women? Therefore.

members of a class. Any member of the defined population can be included in a sample.Types of Sampling Procedures As stated above. This is by far the most often used sample procedure. . Thus. a sample consists of a subset of the population. Volunteers. 1. It is also by far the most biased sampling procedure as it is not random (not everyone in the population has an equal chance of being selected to participate in the study). There are five major sampling procedures. The first sampling procedure is convenience. individuals who volunteer to participate in an exercise study may be different that individuals who do not volunteer. individuals in the hospital with the specific diagnosis being studied are examples of often used convenience samples. A theoretical list (an actual list may not exist) of individuals or elements who make up a population is called a sampling frame.

In this method. .Types of Sampling Procedures 2. Another form of sampling is the simple random sample. if your list was the phone book. and then select every 50th person from that point on. it would be easiest to start at perhaps the 17th person. This is particularly useful if your list of the population is long. There are two major ways of conducting a random sample. 3. The first is to consult a random number table. and the second is to have the computer select a random sample. A systematic sample is conducted by randomly selecting a first case on a list of the population and then proceeding every Nth case until your sample is selected. For example. all subject or elements have an equal probability of being selected.

If our strata were religious affiliation. In cluster sampling we take a random sample of strata and then survey every member of the group. For example if our strata were states we would make sure and sample from each of the fifty states. For example. Louis Public School System. we sample either proportionately or equally to represent various strata or subpopulations. . If our strata were gender. stratified sampling would ensure sampling from every religious block or grouping. we would sample both men and women. we would randomly select perhaps 20 schools and then test all of the students within those schools. Cluster sampling makes up the final sampling procedure. if our strata were individuals schools in the St. In a stratified sample. 5. Stratified sampling makes up the fourth sampling strategy.Types of Sampling Procedures 4.

including building technology. • Research can be conducted in a variety of sub disciplines. • In each area of architectural research. . as well as the significance and merit of each research project. environment-behavior studies. certain presuppositions and fundamental beliefs guide and determine the appropriate focus and method of inquiry.Definition of Architectural Research* • Architectural research is the search for new knowledge and new ideas about the built environment. history of architecture and computing technology.

ACSA and ARCC • 1. Architectural research efforts are those that have clearly identifiable goals at the outset of the research. systematic method or mode of inquiry. documented manner which reflects a solution or enhances understanding/knowledge within the research domain) • It should be noted that design can be a form of research inquiry if it incorporated the three characteristics listed above. where the project is directed to respond to a question • 2. . In pursuing that question. there are some common characteristics among them: * Source: the Initiative for Architectural Research –AIA. one follows a credible.• While the parameters of these research approaches vary. relevant and acceptable to the research paradigm under which one is operating • 3. This process results in significant results (and in a thorough.

Acknowledgements 5. Abstract/summary 3. Appendices .The following components need to appear in your thesis: 1. Table of contents 4. Bibliography or references 7. Main text 6. Title page 2.

DELA CRUZ 2010654321 This thesis is presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Architecture of The Mapua Institute of Technology Muralla. THE STUDY OF A DISASTER RESILIENT HOME JUAN T. you should state: "This thesis is presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the [insert name of degree]". Intramuros. Manila 2014 .Title page You should include: title of your thesis in full your names and degrees statement of presentation in the form: "This thesis is presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy/Master of [insert name of degree] of The University of Western Australia" school discipline (where applicable) year of submission. If you are enrolled in a degree which has examinable components other than a thesis.

DELA CRUZ 2010654321 This thesis is presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Architecture of The Mapua Institute of Technology Muralla. Intramuros.Confirm actual format with your thesis adviser THE STUDY OF A DISASTER RESILIENT HOME JUAN T. Manila 2014 .

. Absrtracts generally do not have citations. What did you learn? State major results. Answers to these questions should be found in the abstract: What did you do? Why did you do it? What question were you trying to answer? How did you do it? State methods. preferably couched in numbers with error limits. Information in title should not be repeated. Length should be ~ 1-2 paragraphs. 400 words.Abstract A good abstract explains in one line why the paper is important. Be explicit. Use numbers where appropriate. readable. Why does it matter? Point out at least one significant implication. approx. It then goes on to give a summary of your major results. and quantitative. A good abstract is concise. The final sentences explain the major implications of your work.

..... Figure 1: Vicinity Map ..................... The list should include a short title for each figure but not the whole caption. The list should include a short title for each table but not the whole caption........... List of Figures Page No.......... 4 Table 2: List of Areas of Study ............ List of Table Table 1: Result of Survey ....List of Figures List page numbers of all figures...... 8 List of Tables List page numbers of all tables.. 3 Figure 2: Location Plan .... 10 ................

It should cite those who had the idea or ideas first. Be sure to include a hook at the beginning of the introduction. This is a statement of something sufficiently interesting to motivate your reader to read the rest of the paper.INTRODUCTION You can't write a good introduction until you know what the body of the paper says.) . You should then go on to explain why more work was necessary (your work. of course. The next paragraphs in the introduction should cite previous research in this area. You should draw the reader in and make them want to read the rest of the paper. and should also cite those who have done the most recent and relevant work. Consider writing the introductory section(s) after you have completed the rest of the paper. it is an important/interesting scientific problem that your paper either solves or addresses. rather than before.

theory. procedure. assumptions. including reference to any specialized statistical software. 4.Calculations.Information needed by another researcher to replicate your experiment. . 3. technique. and range of validity. 5.Limitations. equipment. procedure.METHODOLOGY Methods 1.Description of your materials. 6.Desciption of your analystical methods.What belongs in the "methods" section of a scientific paper?Information to allow the reader to assess the believability of your results. and calibration plots. 2.

Could one accurately replicate the study (for example. could another researcher lay his or her hands on the identical data set? 5.METHODOLOGY The methods section should answering the following questions and caveats: 1. Is there enough information provided about any instruments used so that a functionally equivalent instrument could be used to repeat the experiment? 4. Could another researcher accurately find and reoccupy the sampling stations or track lines? 3. all of the optional and adjustable parameters on any sensors or instruments that were used to acquire the data)? 2. Citations in this section should be limited to data sources and references of where to find more complete descriptions of procedures. If the data are in the public domain. Could another researcher approximately replicate the key algorithms of any computer software? 8. Do not include descriptions of results. . Could one replicate any statistical analyses? 7. Could one replicate any laboratory analyses that were used? 6.

etc. Present sufficient details so that others can draw their own inferences and construct their own explanations.I. Mention negative results as well as positive. including statistics.79)" then to start with a less informative like "There is a significant relationship between X and Y". Indicate information on range of variation.01. s. Describe the nature of the findings.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Results The results are actual statements of observations. tables and graphs. . Use S.) throughout the thesis. kg.save that for the discussion. Break up your results into logical segments by using subheadings Key results should be stated in clear sentences at the beginning of paragraphs. r^2=0. units (m. Do not interpret results . Lay out the case as for a jury. do not just tell the reader whether or not they are significant. W. It is far better to say "X had significant positive relationship with Y (linear regression p<0.

In most circumstances. Alternatively." vast bodies of geological literature became obsolete with the advent of plate tectonics. this goal can be accomplished by careful use of phrases such as "I infer .. Discussion Sections Quarantine your observations from your interpretations.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Note: Results vs. unmuddied by whatever ideas the author might have had about the processes that caused the observed phenomena. this is best accomplished by physically separating statements about new observations from statements about the meaning or significance of those observations. . the papers that survived are those in which observations were presented in stand-alone fashion. The writer must make it crystal clear to the reader which statements are observation and which are interpretation..

Discussion Start with a few sentences that summarize the most important results.? Multiple hypotheses: There are usually several possible explanations for results. The discussion section should be a brief essay in itself. In that case you should give even treatment to the remaining possibilities. answering the following questions and caveats: What are the major patterns in the observations? (Refer to spatial and temporal variations.what is the relationship of the present results to the original question? What is the implication of the present results for other unanswered questions in earth sciences. trends and generalizations among the results? What are the exceptions to these patterns or generalizations? What are the likely causes (mechanisms) underlying these patterns resulting predictions? Is there agreement or disagreement with previous work? Interpret results in terms of background laid out in the introduction .. ecology. but often that is not possible with the data in hand. and try to indicate ways in which future work may lead to their discrimination... that is great.) What are the relationships. If you can eliminate all but one. environmental policy. Be careful to consider all of these rather than simply pushing your favorite one. . etc.

Avoid bandwagons: A special case of the above. this may be material that you will want to consider deleting or moving. interpretation/discussion section(s) are often too long and verbose. What are the things we now know or understand that we didn't know or understand before the present work? Include the evidence or line of reasoning supporting each interpretation. . However. What is the significance of the present results: why should we care? This section should be rich in references to similar work and background needed to interpret results. Break up the section into logical segments by using subheads. Is there material that does not contribute to one of the elements listed above? If so. Avoid jumping a currently fashionable point of view unless your results really do strongly support them.

Recommendations •Include when appropriate (most of the time) •Remedial action to solve the problem. introduction or discussion. summarize new observations. •Further research to fill in gaps in our understanding.CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Conclusions •What is the strongest and most important statement that you can make from your observations? •If you met the reader at a meeting six months from now. •Include the broader implications of your results. •Directions for future investigations on this or related topics. new interpretations. and new insights that have resulted from the present work. •Do not repeat word for word the abstract. . what do you want them to remember about your paper? •Refer back to problem posed. and describe the conclusions that you reached from carrying out this investigation.

Hypotheses B. Conclusion & Recommendation Appendices References . Objective D. Scope and Limitations C. Background of Study B. Statement of the Problem C. Introduction A. Methodology A. Results & Discussion III. Conceptual Framework D. Review of Related Literature II.Title Page Acknowledgement Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables Abstract I.