DME-814 Computer Integrated Manufacturing

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Lecture # 13-18
 Group Technology/ Coding systems

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Group Technology
 Batch manufacturing is estimated to be the most common form of production in the United States,

constituting more than 50% of total manufacturing a c t i v i t y .  There is a growing need to make batch manufacturing more efficient and productive.  In addition, there is an increasing trend toward achieving a higher level of integration between the design and manufacturing functions in a firm.  An approach directed at both of these objectives is g r o u p t e c h n o l o g y ( G T ) .
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a plant producing 10. where each part family possesses similar design and/or manufacturing characteristics. 4 .  Similar parts are arranged into part families.Group Technology  Group technology is a manufacturing philosophy in which similar parts are identified and grouped together to take advantage of their similarities in d e s i g n a n d p r o d u c t i o n .000 different part numbers may be able to group the vast majority of these parts into 30-40 distinct families.  For example.

is called cellular manufacturing.Group Technology  The manufacturing efficiencies are generally achieved by arranging the production equipment into machine groups or cells. where each cell specializes in the production of a part family. 5 .  Grouping the production equipment into machine cells. to facilitate work flow.

This is a necessary condition. Each machine cell is designed to produce a given part family or limited collection of part families.Group Technology  GT is most appropriately applied under the following conditions:  The plant currently uses traditional batch production and a process type layout and this results in much material handling effort. 6 . high inprocess inventory.  The parts can be grouped into part families. so it must be possible to group parts made in the plant into families. and long manufacturing lead times.

000 different parts. These two tasks represent significant obstacles to the application of GT.Group Technology  There are two major tasks that a company must undertake when it implements group technology.  Rearranging production machines into machine cells. 7 . If the plant makes 10. It is time consuming and costly to plan and accomplish this rearrangement and the machines are not producing during the changeover.  Identifying the part families. reviewing all of the part drawings and grouping the parts into families is a substantial task that consumes a significant amount of time.

Group Technology . The benefits include: GT promotes standardization of tooling. Material handling is reduced because parts are moved within a machine cell rather than within the entire factory. fixturing and setups.Part Families  Group        technology offers substantial benefits to companies that have the perseverance to implement it. Process planning and production scheduling are simplified. Work-in-process is reduced. resulting in lower manufacturing lead times. 8 . Worker satisfaction usually improves when workers collaborate in a GT cell. Setup times are reduced. Higher quality work is accomplished using group technology.

A group of parts that possess similarities in geometric shape and size.Part Families  Part Families  A part family is a collection of parts that are similar     either because of geometric shape and size or because similar processing steps are required in their manufacturing.Group Technology . or in the processing steps used in their manufacture Part families are a central feature of group technology There are always differences among parts in a family But the similarities are close enough that the parts can be grouped into the same family 9 .

001 inch. 1015 CR steel. 18-8 stainless steel 10 .Part Families  Two parts that are identical in shape and size but quite different in manufacturing:  (a)1.000.010 inch. tolerance = ±0. tolerance = ±0. nickel plate (CR = Cold Rolled )  (b)100/yr.Group Technology .000 units/yr.

Group Technology .Part Families  Ten parts that are different in size and shape. but quite similar in terms of manufacturing  All parts are machined from cylindrical stock by turning. some parts require drilling and/or milling 11 .

12 .Group Technology .  There are three general methods for solving this problem. which involve the analysis of much data by properly trained personnel.Part Families  The biggest single obstacle in changing over to group technology from a conventional production shop is the problem of grouping the parts into families.

Group Technology .using best judgment to group parts into appropriate families.identifying similarities and differences among parts and relating them by means of a coding scheme 13 . based on the parts or photos of the parts  2) Production flow analysis .using information contained on route sheets to classify parts  3) Parts classification and coding .Part Families  1) Visual inspection .

Group Technology  1) The visual inspection method is the least sophisticated and least expensive method.  Although this method is generally considered to be the least accurate of the three. It involves the classification of parts into families by looking at either the physical parts or their photographs and arranging them into groups having similar features. one of the first major success stories of GT in the United States made the changeover using the visual inspection method. 14 .

Group Technology 15 .

 The machines used to perform these common operations may be grouped as a cell. consequently this technique can be used in facility layout (factory layout) 16 .Group Technology 2) Production flow analysis:  Parts that go through common operations are grouped into part families.

17 . If the machine—component chart is small. a machine—component chart must be      formed. This is an M x N matrix. parts with similar operations might be grouped together by manually sorting the rows and columns.Group Technology  Initially. where M = number of machines N = number of parts x = 1 if part j has an operation on machine i. 0 otherwise.

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Group Technology 19 .

similarities among parts are identified. 20 . In parts classification and coding. and these similarities are related in a coding system.Parts Classification and Coding  3) Parts Classification and Coding  This is the most time consuming of the three methods.

Parts Classification and Coding  Most classification and coding systems are one of the following:  Systems based on part design attributes  Systems based on part manufacturing attributes  Systems based on both design and manufacturing attributes  Part Design Attributes  Major dimensions  Basic external shape  Basic internal shape  Length/diameter ratio  Material type  Part function  Tolerances  Surface finish 21 .

Parts Classification and Coding  Part Manufacturing Attributes  Major process  Operation sequence  Batch size  Annual production  Machine tools  Cutting tools  Material type 22 .

Parts Classification and Coding
 Classification and coding systems are devised to include both a part's design attributes and its

manufacturing attributes. Reasons for using a coding scheme include:  Design retrieval A designer faced with the task of developing a new part can use a design retrieval system to determine if a similar part already exists. A simple change in an existing part would take much less time than designing a whole new part from scratch.

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Parts Classification and Coding
 Automated process planning The part code for a new part

can be used to search for process plans for existing parts with identical or similar codes.  Machine cell design The part codes can be used to design machine cells capable of producing all members of a particular part family, using the composite part concept.

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Parts Classification and Coding
 Coding methods:  These are employed in classifying parts into part

families.  Coding refers to the process of assigning symbols to the parts.  The symbols represent design attributes of parts or manufacturing features of part families.

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Parts Classification and Coding  The variations in codes resulting from the way the symbols are assigned can be grouped into three distinct type of codes:  Monocode or hierarchical code  Polycode or attribute  Hybrid or mixed code 26 .

27 .Monocode or hierarchical code  The structure of Monocode is like a tree in which each symbol amplifies the information provided in the previous digit.

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Monocode or hierarchical code Structure of Monocode 30 .

etc.  Useful for storage and retrieval of design related information such as part geometry. 31 . size.  It is difficult to capture information on manufacturing sequences in hierarchical manner.Monocode or hierarchical code  A monocode (hierarchical code) provides a large amount of information in a relatively small number of digits. so applicability of this code in manufacturing is rather limited. material.

Poly Code  Chain-type structure. so symbols are independent of each other. 32 . in which the interpretation of each symbol in the sequence is always the same.  The length of a Polycode may become excessive because of its unlimited combinational features. known as a polycode.  Each digit in specific location of the code describes a unique property of the workpiece.  It is easy to learn and useful in manufacturing situations where the manufacturing process have to be described. it does not depend on the value of preceding symbols.

Poly Code 33 .

36 . Mixed code retains the advantages of both systems.Group Technology  Mixed (Hybrid Code)  It is the mixture of both monocode and polycode systems. Most coding systems use this code structure.

Inc.. Brisch System –(Brisch-Birn Inc.) CUTPLAN (Metcut Associates) DCLASS (Brigham Young University) MultiClass (OIR: Organization for Industrial Research). Lawrence & Co. Inc.Some of the important systems  Opitz classification system –the University of       Aachen in Germany. Chain type. hierarchical or decision-tree coding structure Part Analog System (Lovelace.) 37 .) CODE (Manufacturing Data System. nonproprietary.

non-machined parts (both formed and cast) and purchased parts  It considers both design and manufacturing information 38 . Technical University of Aachen.Group Technology  The OPITZ classification system:  It is a mixed (hybrid) coding system  Developed by Opitz. 1970  It is widely used in industry  It provides a basic framework for understanding the classification and coding process  It can be applied to machined parts.

Group Technology  The Opitz coding system consists of three groups of digits: Form code 12345 Supplementary code 6789 Secondary code ABCD part geometry and features relevant to part design information relevant to manufacturing (polycode) Production processes and production sequences 39 .

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Opitz System 41 .

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Form code in Opitz system for rotational parts in classes 3. and 4 43 .

Supplemental code in Opitz system 44 .

Part is axial 45 .No shape element (external shape elements)  8 .Operating thread  0 .No surface machining  1 .The OPITZ classification system  Example: A part coded 20801  2 .Parts has L/D ratio >= 3  0 .

The OPITZ classification system Example 46 .

4 (code 1) Step 2: External shape .a through hole (code 1) Step 4: By examining the drawing of the part (code 0) Step 5: No auxiliary holes and gear teeth (code 0) Code: 15100 47 . L/D = 1.25.75.a rotational part that is stepped on both with one thread (code 5) Step 3: Internal shape . overall diameter 1.The OPITZ classification system  Example: Given the part design shown define the       "form code" using the Opitz system Step 1: The total length of the part is 1.

it is important to understand the attributes of classification and coding systems.Group Technology  SELECTION OF CLASSIFICATION AND CODING SYSTEMS  For the purpose of selecting or developing your own code. 48 .

49 . in which all or a portion of a firm’s manufacturing system has been converted into cells.CELLULAR MANUFACTURING  Cellular manufacturing is an application of group technology in manufacturing.

50 .  The parts are similar in their processing requirements.CELLULAR MANUFACTURING  A manufacturing cell is a cluster of machines or processes located in close proximity and dedicated to the manufacture of a family of parts. tolerances and machine tool capacities. such as operations.

CELLULAR MANUFACTURING  The primary objectives in implementing a cellular manufacturing system are to reduce:  Setup times (by using part family tooling and sequencing)  Flow times (by reducing setup and move times and wait time for moves and using smaller batch sizes)  Reduce inventories  Market response times 51 .

CELLULAR MANUFACTURING Functional and Cellular layouts of an electronics plant: 52 .

CELLULAR MANUFACTURING 53 .

54 .Cell Design  Design of cellular manufacturing system is a complex exercise with broad implications for an organization.  The cell design process involves issues related to both System structure and System operation.

55 .Evaluation of Cell Design Decisions  The evaluation of design decisions can be categorized as related to either  the system structure or  the system operation.

Typical considerations related to the system structure include:  Equipment and tooling investment (low)  Equipment relocation cost (low)  Material handling costs (low)  Floor space requirements (low)  Extent to which parts are completed in a cell (high)  Flexibility (high) 56 .

 A few typical performance variables related to system operation are:  Equipment utilization (high)  Work-in-process inventory (low)  Queue lengths at each workstation (short)  Job throughput time (short)  Job lateness (low) 57 .The system operation  Evaluations of cell system design are incomplete unless they relate to the operation of the system.

Cell Design  A major problem throughout the cell design process is the necessity of trading off against each other objectives related to structural parameters and performance variables. higher machine utilization can be achieved if several cells route their parts through the same machine.  For example. The drawbacks are increased queuing and control problems. 58 .

59 .Cell Design  System cost and performance are affected by every decision related to system structure and system operation.

Component Group Analysis:  Machine .CELL FORMATION APPROACHES  Machine .Component Group Analysis is based on production flow analysis  Production flow analysis involves four stages: 60 .

A machine type number is assigned to machines capable of performing similar operations.Production flow analysis  Stage 1: Machine classification.  Machines are classified on the basis of operations that can be performed on them. 61 .

Production flow analysis  Stage 2: Checking parts list and production route information.  For each part. information on the operations to be undertaken and the machines required to perform each of these operations is checked thoroughly. 62 .

This. in turn. 63 . allows the problem to be decomposed into a number of machine-component groups.  This involves a micro-level examination of flow of components through machines.Production flow analysis  Stage 3: Factory flow analysis.

the manual approach does not work. 64 . as the problem size becomes large. Therefore.Production flow analysis  Stage 4:Machine-component group analysis. However.  An intuitive manual method is suggested to manipulate the matrix to form cells. there is a need to develop analytical approaches to handle large problems systematically.

Components Machine s M1 M2 M3 M4 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 4 1 1 1 1 5 6 1 1 65 . Try to group them.EXAMPLE: Consider a problem of 4 machines and 6 parts.

Components Machine s M1 M2 2 1 1 4 1 1 6 1 1 1 3 5 M3 M4 1 1 1 1 1 1 66 .

Quantitative Analysis in Cellular Manufacturing  Rank Order Clustering Algorithm:  Rank Order Clustering Algorithm is a simple algorithm used to form machine-part groups. 67 .

m is number of columns.. n is number of rows. “j” is column number. p is the component/part row or column number 68 .Rank Order Clustering Algorithm  Step 1: Assign binary weight and calculate a decimal weight for each row and column using the following formulas:  Where “i” is row no.

 Step 3: Repeat steps 1 and 2 for each column. 69 .  Step 4: Continue preceding steps until there is no change in the position of each element in the row and the column. Step 2: Rank the rows in order of decreasing decimal weight values.

EXAMPLE: Consider a problem of 5 machines and 10 parts. Try to group them by using Rank Order Clustering Algorithm. Components Machines M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 70 5 1 6 7 1 8 1 9 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 .

Binary weight 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 Components Machines M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 6 7 1 8 1 9 1 1 10 1 1 Decimal equivalent 1007 451 568 455 1020 71 .

Binary weight 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 Components Binary weight Machines 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 5 1 1 6 1 7 1 1 8 1 1 1 9 10 24 23 M5 M1 1 1 1 1 1 1 22 21 20 Decimal equivalent M3 M4 M2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 28 27 27 27 28 20 28 26 11 11 72 .

Binary weight 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 Components Binary weight Machines 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 7 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 8 1 1 6 1 9 10 Decimal equivalent 24 23 22 21 20 Decimal equivalent M5 M1 M3 M4 M2 1020 1 1 1019 900 1 1 1 1 123 115 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 28 28 28 27 27 27 26 20 11 11 73 .

Solve using Rank Order Clustering Technique Components Machines 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 M1 M2 M3 M4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M5 M6 1 1 1 1 M7 1 1 1 74 .