Dimension of cube (cm)




Total surface area of cube (cm2)
Volume of cube (cm3)

TSA/V ratio Calculate the TSA/V ratio.



insects: haemolymph) – Vesels  arteries. veins and capillaries – Pump  muscular heart .Circulatory system in humans and animals • Circulatory system (CS) includes: – Medium  fluid that flows in CS (eg: animal : blood.



Erythrocytes .

Erythrocytes • • • Small. biconcave disc Have no nucleus Great quantities of haemoglobin (which contains iron) (Cells become bright red) • • • • Site of production: bone marrow Life span: 120 days Site of destruction: liver and spleen (by phagocytes) Ratio of erythrocytes to leucocytes  1000 : 1 (in normal person) .

Leucocytes (White blood cells) Erythrocytes Leucocytes .

• Site of production : bone marrow • Site of growth and development: thymus gland or lymph nodes . Have nuclei Do not have haemoglobin Larger than erythrocytes and do not have fixed shapes.Leucocytes (White blood cells) • • • • Less numerous than eryhtrocytes.

Basic types of leucocytes: Granulocytes (have granular cytoplasm and lobed nuclei) • Neutrophils • Eusinophils • Basophils Agranulocytes (clear cytoplasm and no lobed) • Monocytes (largest) • Lymphocytes (smallest) .Cont.


Platelets • Small. irregularly shaped • F(x) : blood clotting • Life span: 5 -9 days .

. hormones.Plasma • Pale. minerals. plasma proteins and excretory wastes) • BOOD SERUM : plasma without fibrinogen (clotting factors). yellow liquid • Made up of 90% water & 10% dissolved solutes (gases.

Plasma .

Function of blood in transport • Transport oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body (form 4) • Transport absorbed food materials from the digestive tract to body tissues (form 4) • Transport waste products (form 4) – Eg: carbon dioxide from body tissues to the lungs – Urea to the kidneys • Transport heat. hormones and water .

• Water is important to provide medium for biochemical reaction. . hormones & water • Body T can be regulated by blood by distributing heat from heat-producing sites (eg:muscles) to the skin. • Hormones (eg:insulin & glucagon) produced by endocrine glands (pancreas) transported by blood to target organs (liver).Transport of heat.

Function of haemolymph • Circulating blood-like fluid found in invertebrates with open-circulatory systems • Tubular heart pumps the haemolymph into haemocoel. . • Haemolymph – bathes the tissues and internal organ directly. • Nutrients and hormones diffuse from haemolypmh into the cells • Waste products diffuse out from the cells into haemolymph.


one cell thickness Transport blood to the heart Transport deoxygenated blood (except pulmonary vein) Thinner wall Valves present to prevent back flow of blood No valves except semilunar No valves valves at the base of the aorta and pulmonary artery Blood flows in pulses under No pulses. . Arteries Capillaries Veins Transport blood away from the heart Transport oxygenated blood (except pulmonary artery) Thick muscular wall Connect arterioles to venules Act as the sites for exchange of substances with the cells Thinnest wall.Structure of human blood vessels Blood vessels : tubes that transport blood from one part to another. Pressure lower high pressure than arteries but higher than veins No pulses. Blood flows under lower pressure than arteries.



vein and capillary .Artery.

How blood is propelled through the human circulatory system • Organ responsible to pump the blood : heart .

Structure of the human heart .

Lungs Vena cava Pulmonary veins Right ventricle Tricuspid valve Left atrium deO2 blood O2 blood Bicuspid valve Right atrium Left ventricle Pulmonary artery Whole body Aorta .

The pumping of the heart Sinoatrial node Atrio-ventricular node Bundle of His containing Purkinje tissue Interventricular septum .

Contraction of skeletal muscles around veins .

Circulatory system in insects .

Haemolymph in haemocoel carry nutrients and waste products . haemolymph re-enters ostia Material exchange occurs here.2. Valves ensure the haemolymph flow in one direction 1. When the heart relax.

Circulatory system in fish • Single circulatory system. • Oxygenated blood flows through the organs and blood pressure drops. Sinuses . • Deoxygenated blood leaves the heart at high pressure and passes through the gills where the gaseous exchange occurs.

Circulatory system in amphibians (eg:frogs) • Double circulatory system: – Pulmonary circulation – Systemic circulation • Have three-chambered heart (2 atria & 1 ventricle) • Mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in ventricle. . The mixed blood enters the systemic circulation.


Circulatory system in humans .

Circulatory system in humans • Double circulatory system (blood passes through the heart twice for each circuit) – Pulmonary circulation – Systemic circulation • Two divisions of heart: – Right side  pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs – Left side  pump oxygenated blood to the body (except lungs) • Advantage: blood returns to the heart to be pumped again will increase the blood pressure and flow rate. thereby speeding up delivery O2 to the tissues and organs. .


The necessities of blood clotting • To prevent: – serious blood loss – the entry of microorganisms and foreign particles into the blood • To maintain: – normal blood pressure – circulation of blood in a a closed circulatory system .

The mechanism of blood clotting .



Impaired blood clotting mechanisms in human The consequences .