(E)GPRS Explain

Functionality Base Station Subsystem Network Audit Network Dimensioning and Planning Network Optimization Tools

Company Confidential
1 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

(E)GPRS EXPLAIN - Course objectives
“2G Data EXPLAIN” • Aimed for radio network planners / optimization engineers Main topics • Basic GSM/GPRS/EDGE data network functionality • Provide information for data network dimensioning and dimensioning process Concepts • (E)GPRS = GPRS & EDGE • EGPRS = EDGE

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(E)GPRS Explain - Content
Functionality • NE & interfaces • Protocol stack • TBF, Session Management, Mobility Management Base Station Subsystem (BSS) • Modulation (Air interface),


EDAP and PCU (Resource allocation)
Gb

Network Audit • HW, SW and Feature audit • GSM coverage and interference audit Network Dimensioning and Planning • Coverage and capacity planning Network Optimization Tools Company Confidential
3 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

SW and HW Releases
This material describes the Nokia (E)GPRS System with the following SW and HW releases:
• BSS SW:
• BSS10.5, 11.0 and 11.5

• BSC variants with PCU1:
• BSCi, BSC2, BSC2i, BSC3i

• BTS versions:
• Talk, PrimeSite, MetroSite, UltraSite

• SGSN
• SG5

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4 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

(E)GPRS Explain
Functionality Base Station Subsystem Network Audit Network Dimensioning and Planning Network Optimization Tools

Company Confidential
5 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

Functionality - Content
Introduction • Network Architecture and Interfaces • Mobile Classes

• Network Protocols
• Multiframe and Header Structure • Air Interface Mapping – Physical and Logical Channel

Procedures • State and Mobility Management • GPRS Attach/Detach

• Routing Area
• Session Management (PDP context) • Temporary Block Flow •RLC/MAC Header •TBF Establishment
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GSM & (E)GPRS Network Architecture
Um BTS PC U Gb EDAP SS7 Network BSC PSTN Network

MSC

HLR/AuC EIR

Corporate 1
Billing System Router Server

Border Gateway (BG)

Serving GPRS PAP Support U Node (SGSN) GPRS backbone network (IP based)
Lawful Interception Gateway (LIG)

Charging Gateway (CG) Data network (Internet)

Local Area Network

Corporate 2
Server Router

Inter-PLMN network Company Confidential
7 © 2005 Nokia

GPRS INFRASTRUCTU RE
(E)GPRS EXPLAIN

Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)

Data network (Internet)

(E)GPRS Network Elements and Primary Functions
SGSN • Mobility Management • Session Management • MS Authentication • Ciphering • Interaction with VLR/HLR • Charging and statistics • GTP tunnelling to other GSNs GGSN • GTP tunnelling to other GSNs • Secure interfaces to external networks • Charging & statistics • IP address management Domain Name Server • Translates IP host names to IP addresses • Makes IP network configuration easier • In GPRS backbone SGSN uses DNS to get GGSN and SGSN IP addresses • Two DNS servers in the backbone to provide redundancy

Border Gateway • Interconnects different GPRS operators' backbones • Enables GPRS roaming • Standard Nokia IP router family
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Charging Gateway • CDR consolidation • Forwarding CDR information to billing center

Legal Interception Gateway • Enables authorities to intercept subscriber data and signaling • Chasing criminal activity • Operator personnel has very limited access to LI functionality • LI is required when launching the GPRS service

GSM and (E)GPRS Interfaces
SMS-GMSC SMS-IWMSC E Gd MSC/VLR A TE MT BSS Gs Gb SGSN Gn Gn Gp Gf SGSN GGSN Other PLMN EIR D Gr Gc Gi GGSN PDN TE HLR C SM-SC

R

Um

Signaling Interface Signaling and Data Transfer Interface
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(E)GPRS Interfaces
TE R MT Um BSS A MSC/VLR D HLR E C SMS-GMSC SMS-IWMSC SM-SC

Optional
Gb Gs Gr Gd LAN SW / IP BB Gn DNS Gn CG Gc

SGSN

Gn Gp GGSN

SGSN Gf

Gn

Gn Gn

GGSN

Gi

PDN

TE

EIR

LIG

Other PLMN

Signaling Interface Signaling and Data Transfer Interface
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10 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

(E)GPRS Mobile Terminal Classes

• Class C • Class B
• Class A

Packet only
(or manually switched between GPRS and speech modes)

Packet and Speech (not at same time)
(Automatically switches between GPRS and speech modes)

Packet and Speech at the same time (DTM is subset of class A)

BSC

BTS

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(E)GPRS Multislot Classes
Type 1
Multislot Classes 1-12 - Max 4 DL or 4 UL TSL (not at same time) DL - Up to 5 TSL shared between UL and DL UL - Minimum 1 TSL for F Change - 2-4 TSL F Change used when idle measurements required Multislot Classes 19-29 - Max 8 downlink or 8 uplink (not required at same time) - 0-3 TSL F Change Multislot Classes 30-45 (Rel-5) - Max 5 downlink or 5 uplink (6 shared) - Max 6 downlink or 6 uplink (7 shared) 1 TSL for Measurement

1 TSL for F Change

DL UL

Type 2
Multislot Classes 13-18 - simultaneous receive & transmit - max 8 downlink and 8 uplink (Not available yet, difficult RF design)
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DL UL

GPRS implementation
• GPRS/EGPRS capable terminals are required • GPRS territory is required in BTS • Packet Control Units (PCUs) need to be implemented in BSCs • Gb interface dimensioning • GPRS packet core network dimensioning

• If CS3&CS4 will be implemented following units/items are required
• PCU2 with S11.5 BSC SW • Dynamic Abis Pool (DAP) • EDGE capable TRXs

• UltraSite and MetroSite BTS SW support

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EGPRS Implementation
• Can be introduced incrementally to the network where the demand is
• EGPRS capable MS • Network HW readiness/upgrade (BTS and TRX) • TRS capacity upgrade (Abis and Gb!) • Dynamic Abis
EDGE capable TRX, GSM compatible
BTS

SGSN

EDGE functionality in the network elements GGSN Gn

BSC A-bis
BTS

Gb A MSC

EDGE capable terminal, GSM Company Confidential compatible
14 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

8-PSK coverage GMSK coverage

More capacity in interfaces to support higher data usage

(E)GPRS Protocol Architecture
Relay IP GPRS Bearer IP L2 L1

User information transfer
Um
APP TCP/UDP IP SNDCP LLC RLC MAC GSM RF MS

GGSN

Gb

Gn

Gi
APP

Compression, segmentation Ciphering and reliable link RLC BSSGP MAC NW sr GSM RF L1bis BSS

Relay SNDCP GTP LLC BSSGP NW sr L1bis SGSN UDP IP L2 L1

USER PAYLOAD GTP UDP IP L2 L1 GGSN

TCP/UDP IP L2 L1

FIXED HOST

GPRS IP Backbone
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15 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

Internet

SNDCP (Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol) Layer
• Multiplexer/demultiplexer for different network layer entities onto LLC layer

APP

TCP/UDP IP

• Compression of protocol control information (e.g. TCP/IP header)
• Compression of data content (if used) • Segmentation/de-segmentation of data to/from LLC layer

SNDCP LLC RLC

MAC

GSM RF

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Logical Link Control (LLC) Layer
•Reliable logical connection between SGSN and MS
APP

•Independent of underlying radio interface protocols
LLC Frame

TCP/UDP IP

SNDCP LLC RLC

Addres s

Control

Information 1-1520

FCS

1

1-3

3 Octets

MAC

GSM RF

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17 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

Radio Link Control (RLC)/ Medium Access Control (MAC) Layers
RLC
• Achieves reliable transmission of data across air interface
APP

• Segmentation/de-segmentation of data from/to LLC layer

TCP/UDP

MAC
IP

• Control of MS access to common air-interface medium • Flagging of PDTCH/PACCH occupancy

SNDCP LLC RLC

MAC

GSM RF

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Downlink RLC Data Block with MAC Header

USF - Uplink State Flag

TFI - Temporary Flow Indicator
BSN - Block Sequence Number FBI - Final Block Indicator

Company Confidential
20 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

Uplink RLC Data Block with MAC Header
TFI - Temporary Flow Indicator = TBF ID. BSN - Block Sequence Number = RLC block ID within TLLI - TBF Temporary Logical Link Identifier = type of mobile ID Countdown value used to calculate number of RLC blocks remaining

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GSM RF Layer

APP

• Modulation/demodulation • Bit inter-leaving

TCP/UDP IP

• TDMA frame formatting
• Cell selection/re-selection • Tx power control • Discontinuous reception (DRx)

SNDCP LLC RLC

MAC

GSM RF

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(E)GPRS Protocol Architecture – Mapping to RF layer
• LLC frames are segmented into RLC Data Blocks • In the RLC/MAC layer, a selective ARQ protocol provides retransmission of erroneous RLC Data Blocks • When a complete LLC frame is successfully transferred across the RLC layer, it is forwarded to the LLC layer.

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23 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

Bursts on the Air Interface – Mapping RLC blocks
RLC Blocks
RLC/MAC Blocks
1 TDMA frame = 4.615 ms = BURST PERIOD
0 70 70 70

TDMA Bursts
7

Note: Amount of RLC blocks per radio block depends on used (modulation) coding scheme (M)CS

4 x TDMA Frames = 4 Bursts = 1 Radio block = 18.46 ms = 1-2 RLC block(s)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 P T C C H I D L E P T C C H I D L E

B0(0..3)

B1(4..7)

B2 (8..11)

B3(13..16)

B4(17..20)

B5(21..24)

B6(26..29)

B7(30..33)

B8(34..37)

B9(39..42)

B10(43..46)

B11(47..50)

52 T DMA Frames (240 ms)

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12 x RLC/MAC Blocks = 1 x 52 PDCH MultiFrame = 240 ms 12 RLC/MAC Blocks / 0.240 s = 50 RLC/MAC Blocks / s

GSM and (E)GPRS Multiframe
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 GSM Signalling timeslot TDMA frame TS 0 TS 1 FCCH SCH BCCH BCCH BCCH BCCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH FCCH SCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH FCCH SCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH FCCH SCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH FCCH SCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH PCH+AGCH IDLE GSM Traffic TS TS 2 TS 3 TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH SACCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH IDLE TS 4 TS 5 GPRS traffic TS TS 6 TS 7 Radio Block 0

Radio block 1

Radio Block 2 PTCCH

Radio Block 3

Radio Block 4

Radio Block 5 IDLE

Radio Block 6

Radio Block 7

Radio Block 8 PTCCH

Radio Block 9

Radio Block 10

Radio Block 11 IDLE

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(E)GPRS Logical Channels

GPRS Air Interface Logical Channels

CCCH Common Control Channels

DCH Dedicated Channels

PCH Paging CH

AGCH Access Grant CH

RACH Random Access CH

PACCH Packet Associated Control CH

PDTCH Packet Data TCH

Existing GSM Channels
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26 © 2005 Nokia

NEW GPRS Channels

(Shared with GPRS Signaling in GPRS Release 1)
(E)GPRS EXPLAIN

Functionality - Content
Introduction • Network architecture and Interfaces • Mobile classes

• Network Protocols
• Multiframe and header structure • Air interface mapping – physical and logical channel

Procedures • State and Mobility Management • GPRS Attach/Detach

• Routing Area
• Session Management (PDP context) • Temporary Block Flow •RLC/MAC Header •TBF Establishment
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27 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

(E)GPRS Procedures - Content
• Mobility Management and State Management
• Mobile States • GPRS attach • GPRS detach • Routing Area

• Session Management
• PDP context activation

• Temporary Block Flow
• RLC/MAC Header • TBF establishment

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GPRS Mobility Management - Mobile States
GPRS Attach/Detach
READY Timer expiry

IDLE

READ Y

MOBILE REACHABLE Timer expiry

STANDB Y

Packet TX/RX

MS location not known, subscriber is not reachable by the GPRS nw.

MS location known to Routing Area level. MS is capable to being paged for point-to-point data.

MS location known to cell level. MS is transmitting or has just been transmitting. MS is capable of receiving point-to-point data.

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GPRS Mobility Management - Mobile States
• GPRS MM is based on States • State Transition occurs when a pre-defined transaction takes place • GPRS Attach (/Detach)
• • • • MS makes itself known to the network The authentication is checked and the mobile location is updated Subscriber Information is downloaded from the HLR to the SGSN State transition Idle to Ready

• Normal procedure should occur within 5 seconds each

• Mobility Management before Session Management:
• GPRS attach needs to happen before PDP context activation

• States controlled by timers
• READY Timer • MOBILE REACHABLE Timer • Timer values are configurable with SGSN Parameter Handling
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Attach Procedure
• The GPRS Attach procedure establishes a GMM context. This procedure is used for the following two purposes:
• a normal GPRS Attach, performed by the MS to attach the IMSI for GPRS services only • a combined GPRS Attach, performed by the MS to attach the IMSI for GPRS and non-GPRS services

• Attach procedure description
• MS initiates by sending Attach Request • If network accepts Attach Request it sends Attach Accept
• P-TMSI, RAI

• If network does not accept Attach request it sends Attach Rejected • MS responds for Attach Accept message with Attach Complete (only if P-TMSI changes)
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(E)GPRS Attach Process – Combined GPRS/IMSI Attach new
MS BSS new SGSN old SGSN GGSN EIR MSC/VLR HLR 1. Attach Request 2. Identification Request

old MSC/VLR

2. Identification Response
3. Identity Request

3. Identity Response
4. Authentication 5. (IMEI Check - optional) 6a. Update Location 6b. Cancel Location 6c. Cancel Location Ack 6d. Insert Subscriber Data 6e. Insert Subscriber Data Ack
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(E)GPRS Attach Process – Combined GPRS/IMSI Attach new
MS BSS new SGSN old SGSN GGSN EIR MSC/VLR HLR 6f. Update Location Ack 7a. Location Update Request

old MSC/VLR

7b. Update Location
7c. Cancel Location

7d. Cancel Loc. Ack
7e. Insert Subscriber Data 7f. Insert Subscriber Data Ack 7g. Update Location Ack 7h. Location Update Accept 8. Attach Accept 9. Attach Complete 10. TMSI Reallocation Complete

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Detach Process
• GPRS Detach procedure is used for the following two purposes:
• a normal GPRS Detach • a combined GPRS Detach (GPRS/IMSI detach, MS originated)

• MS is detached either explicitly or implicitly:
• Explicit detach: The network or the MS explicitly requests detach. • Implicit detach: The network detaches the MS, without notifying the MS, a configuration-dependent time after the mobile reachable timer expired, or after an irrecoverable radio error causes disconnection of the logical link

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(E)GPRS Detach Process
MS BSS SGSN GGSN MSC/VLR 1. Detach Request 2. Delete PDP Context Request 2. Delete PDP Context Response 3. IMSI Detach Indication 4. GPRS Detach Indication 5. Detach Accept

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Routing Area
The Routing Area Update procedure is used for the followings: • a normal Routing Area Update • a combined Routing Area Update • a periodic Routing Area Update • an IMSI Attach for non-GPRS services when the MS is IMSI-attached for GPRS services. • Routing Area (RA)
• Subset of one, and only one Location Area (LA) • RA is served by only one SGSN

• For simplicity, the LA and RA can be the same
• Too big LA/RA increases the paging traffic, while too small LA/RA increases the signaling for LA/RA Update
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Routing Area
Location Area (LA) MSC/VLR

GS Interface

Routing Area (RA)

SGSN

• Bad LA/RA border design can significantly increase the TRXSIG on LA/RA border cells causing the cell-reselection outage to be longer • LA/RA border should be moved from those areas where the normal CSW and PSW traffic is very high
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Large RA Support – LRAS (SG4)
From SG1 to SG3, only one Packet Processing Unit (PAPU) could serve one specific RA.
Nokia 2G SGSN PAPU group PAPU 1 PAPU 2

SGSN capacity remains the same with HCPAPU - 320000 subscribers PAPU capacity limited and GPRS subscribers blocked if more than 20 000 subscribers
Frame Relay / IP

The Large RA Support feature now allows more than one PAPU to serve one RA/NSE (Network Service Entity) by making it possible to define PAPU groups with multiple PAPUs.

PAPU 3
PAPU 4 HCPAPU 5

Together with the High PAPU n Capacity PAPU, this feature offers the operators a possibility of enhancing capacity within a certain RA or NSE as the number of RA 1 subscribers increases. With HCPAPU (High Capacity PAPU) max. 60 000 supported Company Confidential subscribers in one RA. 38 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

BSC 1
BSC 2

BSC 3

RA 2

RA 3

LA/RA Update (Intra PAPU)
MS BTS BSC New SGSN

First System information message (BCCH) Channel Request (RACH) P_Channel Required P-Immediate Assignment Cmd

First System information message

Cell reselection data outage

Immediate Assignment (CCCH) Location update request (SDDCH) Location update request

Location area Update

SECURITY FUNCTIONS AS SET BY THE OPERATOR
Location Update Accept Channel Release (SDCCH) Location Update Accept

Routing area Update
Routing Area Update Request Routing Area Update Request Routing Area Update Accept

Routing Area Update Request (PDTCH)

DL TBF ASSIGNMENT
Routing Area Update Accept Routing Area Update Accept (PDCCH) Routing Area Update complete (PDCH) Routing Area Update complete

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LA/RA Update (Inter PAPU or Inter SGSN) 1/2
MS BTS UL TBF ASSIGNMENT, MS ON CCCH 1-ph access
Routing Area Update Request (PDTCH)
Including TLLI for contention resolution

BSC

New SGSN

Routing Area Update Request
Including TLLI for contention resolution

Packet Uplink Ack/Nack (PACCH)
Including TLLI for contention resolution

Packet Uplink Ack/Nack
Including TLLI for contention resolution

Routing Area Update Request
  New SGSN sends context req to old SGSN Old SGSN sends response and starts tunneling data to new SGSN New SGSN sends „Update PDP context request‟ to GGSN New SGSN informs HLR about SGSN change by sending „Update location‟ HLR sends „Cancel location‟ to old SGSN.

Packet control ack (PACCH)

Packet control ack

  

SECURITY FUNCTIONS AS SET BY THE OPERATOR
Routing Area Update Accept

DL TBF ASSIGNMENT
Routing Area Update Accept Packet Downlink Ack/Nack (PACCH) Packet Downlink Ack/Nack Routing Area Update Accept

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LA/RA Update (Inter PAPU or Inter SGSN) 2/2
MS BTS UL TBF ASSIGNMENT
Routing Area Update Complete (PDTCH)
Including TLLI for contention resolution

BSC

New SGSN

Routing Area Update Complete
Including TLLI for contention resolution

Routing Area Update Complete

Packet Uplink Ack/Nack (PACCH)
Including TLLI for contention resolution

Packet Uplink Ack/Nack
Including TLLI for contention resolution

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Session Management - Establishing a PDP Context
• PDP Context (Packet Data Protocol): Network level information which is used to bind a mobile station (MS) to various PDP addresses and to unbind the mobile station from these addresses after use • PDP Context Activation
• • • • Gets an IP address from the network Initiated by the MS Contains QoS and routing information enabling data transfer between MS and GGSN PDP Context Activation and Deactivation should occur within 2 seconds

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PDP Context Activation - 1
Um BTS BSC

1. 2.

MS sends "Activate PDP Context Request" to SGSN SGSN checks against HLR
PSTN Network

MSC

HLR/AuC EIR

1.
APN= "Intranet.Ltd.com" Domain Name Server (DNS) Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) GPRS backbone network (IP based)

SS7 Network

2.

Access Point

Data network (Internet)

GPRS INFRASTRUCTU RE

Access Point Name = Reference to an external packet data network the user wants to connect to Company Confidential
43 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)

Data network (Internet)

PDP Context Activation - 2
Finding the GGSN
Um BTS BSC

3. 4.

SGSN gets the GGSN IP address from DNS SGSN sends "Create PDP Context Request" to GGSN
PSTN Network

MSC

HLR/AuC EIR

SS7 Network

Domain Name Server (DNS)

3.

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) GPRS backbone network (IP based)

Access Point

4.
Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)

Data network (Internet)

GPRS INFRASTRUCTU RE

Data network (Internet)

DNS (Domain Name System) = mechanism to map logical names to IP addresses Company Confidential
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PDP Context Activation - 3
Access Point Selection
Um BTS BSC

Access Point Name refers to the external network the subscriber wants to use

PSTN Network

MSC

HLR/AuC EIR

SS7 Network

Domain Name Server (DNS)

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) GPRS backbone network (IP based)

Access Point

Data network (Internet)

APN= "Intranet.Ltd.com" Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
Data network (Internet)

GPRS INFRASTRUCTU RE

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PDP Context Activation -User 4 (dynamic) IP address allocated
Context Activated
Um BTS BSC

5. 6.

GGSN sends "Create PDP Context Response" back to SGSN SGSN sends “Activate PSTN PDP Context Accept“ to the MS
Network

MSC

HLR/AuC EIR

6.
Domain Name Server (DNS) Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) GPRS backbone network (IP based)

SS7 Network

Access Point

5.
Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)

Data network (Internet)

APN= "Intranet.Ltd.com"
Data network (Internet)

GPRS INFRASTRUCTU RE

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Temporary Block Flow
Temporary Block Flow (TBF): • Physical connection where multiple mobile stations can share one or more traffic channels – each MS has own TFI • The traffic channel is dedicated to one mobile station at a time (one mobile station is transmitting or receiving at a time) • Is a one-way session for packet data transfer between MS and BSC (PCU) • Uses either uplink or downlink but not both (except for associated signaling) • Can use one or more TSLs Comparison with circuit-switched: • normally one connection uses both the uplink and the downlink timeslot(s) for traffic In two-way data transfer: • uplink and downlink data are sent in separate TBFs - as below

Uplink TBF (+ PACCH for downlink TBF)

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BS C PACCH (Packet Associated Control Channel): Similar to GSM CSW SACCH

Downlink TBF (+ PACCH for uplink TBF)

TLLI / TBF Concept
HLR
IMSI

VLR
TMSI

MS
BTS

BSS
PCU

SGSN
P-TMSI

GGSN
GPRS CORE
Internet or Intranet

TBF (TFI + TSL) TBF (RLC / MAC Flow)

TBF (LLC Flow)

TLLI (SNDCP Flow)

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TBF Flow
Start of TBF “Slow” TBF “Full Speed” TBF Ending “Slow down” Gb SGSN (LLC) Buffer PCU (LLC -> RLC/MAC) Gb SGSN (LLC) Buffer PCU (LLC -> RLC/MAC)

Air Interface (RLC/MAC) MS Re-assembly (RLC/MAC -> LLC) Application

Air Interface (RLC/MAC) MS Re-assembly (RLC/MAC -> LLC) Application

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Temporary Block Flow
• DL TBF
• Network starts and releases TBFs • FBI (Final Block Indicator) indicates the last block in a DL TBF

• Uplink TBF
• Close-ended: limited number of octets • Open-ended: an arbitrary number of octets • MS may request either close-ended or open-ended TBF
• NW decides the type in PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT

• MS can ask network to give more resources if needed

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EGPRS RLC/MAC Header for Data Block
• Three header types for EGPRS RLC/MAC data block • Example: Header type 1 (header for MCS-7, MCS-8 and MCS-9)
Bit 8 7 6 5 4 TFI RRBP ES/P BSN1 PR BSN1 BSN2 CPS 3 2 USF TFI 1 Octet 1 2 3 4 5

Downlink:

BSN1 BSN2

Bit 8 TFI 7 5 4 3 Countdown Value BSN1 BSN1 BSN2 RSB CPS Spare 6 2 SI TFI 1 R Octet 1 2 3 4 5 6

Uplink:

BSN2 Spare PI

Ref: TS 04.60 Company Confidential
51 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

Establishing a DL TBF and Sending Data
Paging Packet Channel Request UL TBF for MS location Immediate Assignment for UL TBF Packet Paging Response (LLC Frame) Immediate Assignment for DL TBF

PCH
RACH AGCH PDTCH AGCH PACCH PACCH PACCH PDTCH PACCH PACCH
BTS

Packet Polling
Packet Control Ack (for TA) Packet Downlink Assignment Data / Signalling Ack / Nack
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Multiple Mobiles and Downlink Transmission
The TFI included in the Downlink RLC Block header indicates which Mobile will open the RLC Block associated with its TBF
TFI3 RLC Data Block TFI2 BTS

TFI5

TFI2 MSs
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Establishing an UL TBF and Sending Data
Packet Channel Request RACH Immediate Assignment for UL TBF UL Data Signaling + Ack/Nack PACCH Final UL Data AGCH PDTCH

PDTCH PACCH PACCH

BTS

Final Ack/Nack Packet control Ack
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Multiple Mobiles and Uplink Transmission

• •

Several mobiles can share one timeslot
Maximum of 7 Mobiles are queued in the Uplink Mobile transmissions controlled by USF (Uplink State Flag) sent on DL Uplink State Flag (dynamic allocation)
TS 1 TS 2

New MS

TS 3

• •
55

Mobile with correct USF will transmit in following Uplink block Timeslot selected to give maximum throughput
© 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

Company Confidential

Multiple Mobiles and Uplink Transmission
The USF included in the Downlink RLC Block header identifies which Mobile will transmit in the following Uplink RLC Block

USF = 3

RLC Data Block USF = 3 BTS

USF = 2

USF = 1
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MSs

(E)GPRS Explain
Functionality Base Station Subsystem Network Audit Network Dimensioning and Planning Network Optimization Tools

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BSS - Content
Air interface - Modulation and Link Adaptation • GMSK and 8PSK Modulation and bursts • Power Back-off • GPRS Coding Schemes (CS)

• EGPRS Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS)
• GPRS Link Adaptation • EGPRS Link Adaptation and incremental Redundancy (IR)

• EDAP and PCU (Resource allocation)

• Gb

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GMSK & 8-PSK - Phase State Vectors
Envelope (amplitude)

GMSK

Time

(0,0,0) (0,0,1)

(0,1,0) (0,1,1)

Envelope (amplitude)

8PSK

(1,1,1)

Time

(1,0,1) (1,0,0)
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(1,1,0)

22,5° offset to avoid zero crossing

(E)GPRS EXPLAIN

8-PSK Modulation
Phase states transitions to avoid zero-crossing
3/8

• 8-PSK (Phase Shift Keying) has been • 3 bits per symbol • 22.5° offset to avoid origin crossing
(called 3/8-8-PSK)
those of GMSK selected as the new modulation added in EGPRS

(d(3k),d(3k+1),d(3k+2))=

(0,0,0) (0,0,1) (1,0,1)

(0,1,0) (0,1,1) (1,1,1)

• Symbol rate and burst length identical to • Non-constant envelope  high
requirements for linearity of the power amplifier 4 dB power decrease back-off (BO) is typically needed, Nokia guaranteed a BO of 2 DB for BTS
GSM + EDGE GMSK, 1 bit/sym 270.833 ksps 114 bits 2*57 22.8 kbps

(1,1,0) (1,0,0)

• Because of amplifier non-linearities, a 2-

Modulation Symbol rate Bits/burst Gross rate/time slot
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EDGE 8-PSK, 3bit/sym 270.833 ksps 348 bits 2*3*58 69.6 kbps

GMSK and 8PSK Bursts
dB
+4 +1 -1 -6 (**)

Phase state vector diagram •Amplitude is not fixed •Origin is not crossed •Overshooting

- 30 (***)

(147 bits) (*) 10 µs 8 µs 10 µs 7056/13 (542.8)µs 10 µs 8 µs 10 µs

t

GMSK Burst
dB
+4 +2,4 0 -2 -6 (***)

-20

(147 symbols) -30 (**) (*) 10 8 10 2 2 22 10 8 10 7056/13 (542,8)s

t (s)

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8PSK Burst

8-PSK Modulation – Back-off Value
• Since the amplitude is changing in 8-PSK the transmitter non-linearities can be seen in the transmitted signal • These non-linearities will cause e.g. errors in reception and bandwidth spreading. • In practice it is not possible to transmit 8-PSK signal with the same power as in GMSK due to the signal must remain in the linear part of the power amplifier

• The back-off value is taken into account in link budget separately for UL / DL and bands: 900/850, 1800/1900)
• Too high MCA (8PSK) can lead to unsuccessful TBF establishment, if the MS is on cell border with low signal level (so the back-off is taken into account) and / or low C/I
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Pout
Compression point

Pin

Back Off= 4 dB
Peak to Average of

 3,2 dB

Burst Structure
• Burst structure is similar with current GMSK burst, but term 'bit' is replaced by 'symbol' • Training sequence has lower envelope variations • Seamless switchover between timeslots • In case of max output power only, back-off applied to 8-PSK
TSL0 BCCH GMSK TSL1 TCH GMSK TSL2 TCH GMSK TSL3 TCH GMSK TSL4 TCH GMSK TSL5 PD TCH 8-PSK/ GMSK TSL6 PD TCH 8-PSK/ GMSK TSL7 PD TCH 8-PSK/ GMSK

P(dB)

t(us)
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EDGE Signal

1

2

3

4

1. Spectrum of Unfiltered 3pi/8 8psk modulation.
2. Filtered to fit GSM bandwidth. 3. Constellation after filtering: error vectors introduced.

4. Constellation after receiver Edge (equalised) filtering
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GPRS Coding Schemes
• GPRS provides four coding schemes: CS-1, CS-2 and with PCU2 CS-3, CS-4 • PCU1 and 16 kbit/s Abis links support CS-1 and CS-2, the Dynamic Abis makes it possible to use CS-3 and CS-4 • Each TBF can use either a fixed coding scheme (CS-1 or CS-2), or Link Adaptation (LA) based on BLER • Retransmitted RLC data blocks must be sent with the same coding as was used initially

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GPRS Coding Schemes
Coding Scheme Nokia GPRS PCU1
Nokia GPRS PCU2
CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4

Payload (bits) per RLC block
181 268 312 428

Data Rate (kbit/s)
Error Correction Data

9.05 13.4 15.6 21.4

• •

CS1 & CS2 – Implemented in all Nokia BTS without HW change CS3 & CS4 – S11.5 (with PCU2) and UltraSite BTS SW CX4.1 CD1 (Talk is supporting CS1 and CS2)

More Data = Less Error Correction

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GPRS Coding Schemes
CS-1
MAC RLC/MAC Block Size: Block Check Sequence:
USF

CS-1 181 40 3 1/2 length: 456 0

CS-2 268 16 6 ~2/3 588 132

CS-3 312 16 6 ~3/4 676 220

CS-2
BCS +4

CS-3

Precoded USF:

rate a/b convolutional coding

puncturing
interleaving 57 57 57 Data rate (kbit/s):

456 bits 57 57 57 57 57

9.05

13.4

15.6

MAC

RLC/MAC Block Size: BCS Size: Precoded USF: Data rate (kbit/s):

428 16 12 21.4

CS-4

USF

BCS

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20 ms

EGPRS Modulation and Coding Schemes
• EGPRS has nine basic coding schemes, MCS-1...9. • In general, a higher coding scheme has higher coding rate, and consequently higher peak throughput, but it also tolerates less noise or interference. • The figure shows throughput vs. C/I of EGPRS coding schemes in TU50iFH, without incremental redundancy. • The basic unit of transmission is radio block (= 4 bursts = 20 ms on average), which contains one or two RLC blocks.
60 MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9

50

40

30

20

10

Frequency Hopping Network
0 0
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5

10

15

20

25

30

EGPRS Modulation and Coding Schemes
EGPRS modulation and coding schemes:
Scheme Code rate Header Modulation RLC blocks Raw Data Code rate per Radio within one Block Radio Block (20ms) 0.36 0.36 0.36 1/3 1/3 0.53 0.53 GMSK MCS-2 MCS-1 NOTE: 0.66 0.53 0.53 0.53 1 1 8PSK 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2x592 2x544 2x448 592 544+48 448 352 296 272+24 224 176 Family BCS Tail HCS Data rate payload kb/s

MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3

1.0 0.92 0.76 0.49 0.37 1.0 0.80

A A B A

2x12

2x6

59.2 54.4 44.8 29.6 27.2 22.4 17.6 14.8 13.6 11.2 8.8

8 B C A B C 12 6

the italic captions indicate the padding.

Ref: TS 03.64 Company Confidential
69 © 2005 Nokia (E)GPRS EXPLAIN

EGPRS Data Treatment Principle in RF Layer
Adding redundancy

Puncturing of the coded info

User data "Additional info" that does not require extra protection Header part, robust coding for secure transmission
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EGPRS Channel Coding (MCS-9)
USF header 1/3 tailbiting convolutional coding

• EGPRS channel coding consists of separate data and header coding, as shown in the figure block coding for MCS-9 downlink.

FBI+ data 2 BCS tail E 1/3 convolutional coding mother code

puncturing protecte d header

puncturing

• Coding of data part:

encoded USF

P1

P2

P3

• Data part includes user data, two information from RLC header, BCS (block check sequence) and tail bits.

1st burst2nd burst3rd burst4th burst

• Coded using 1/3 convolutional code.
• Punctured with a selectable puncturing scheme (P1, P2 or P3). • Two separate data parts for MCS-7...9.

4 TDMA bursts = 20 ms

P1

P2
puncturing
mother code

P3

• Header part:
• Includes RLC/MAC header information and information on the coding of the data part (like used puncturing scheme).
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1/3 convolutional coding FBI+E data 1 BCS tail

• Convolutional coding + puncturing.
(E)GPRS EXPLAIN

EGPRS Channel Coding (MCS-9)
3 bits 45 bits 612 bits TB 612 bits FBI E Data = 592 bits BCS TB

Robust coding for header USF

RLC/MAC HCS FBI E Data = 592 bits BCS Hdr.

1 1
36 bits 135 bits puncturing SB = 8 36 bits 124 bits 612 bits P1 1836 bits puncturing

12

6
Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 1836 bits puncturing

Rate 1/3 convolutional coding

Adding redundancy Decreasing redundancy

612 bits P2

612 bits P3

612 bits P1

612 bits P2

612 bits

Normal burst: 2x58x3 bits BP: 15/26 ms

Normal burst: 2x58x3 bits BP: 15/26 ms
1392 bits 20 ms

Normal burst: 2x58x3 bits BP: 15/26 ms

Interleaving over 2 bursts (header: 4 Normal burst:bursts)
2x58x3 bits BP: 15/26 ms

P3

1392  69,6kb / s 20ms
Ref: TS 03.64 Company Confidential
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Data rate:

2  592  59,2kb / s 20ms

EGPRS MCS Families
• The MCSs are divided into different families A, B and C • Each family has a different basic unit of payload: 37 (and 34), 28 and 22 octets respectively. • Different code rates within a family are achieved by transmitting a different number of payload units within one Radio Block. • For families A and B, 1 or 2 or 4 payload units are transmitted, for family C, only 1 or 2 payload units are transmitted • When 4 payload units are transmitted (MCS 7, MSC-8 and MCS-9), these are splitted into two separate RLC blocks (with separate sequence BSN numbers and BCS, Block Check Sequences)
• The blocks are interleaved over two bursts only, for MCS-8 and MCS-9.
• For MCS-7 the blocks are interleaved over four bursts
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MCS-3 Family A
37 octets 37 octets 37 octets 37 octets

MCS-6 MCS-9 MCS-3
34+3 octets 34+3 octets

Family A padding

MCS-6
34 octets 34 octets 34 octets 34 octets

MCS-8 MCS-2

Family B

28 octets

28 octets

28 octets

28 octets

MCS-5 MCS-7 MCS-1 Family C
22 octets 22 octets

MCS-4

GPRS Link Adaptation (with PCU1)
• The Link Adaptation (LA) algorithm selects the optimum channel coding scheme (CS-1/CS-2) for a particular RLC connection to provide the highest throughput and lowest delay available • In PCU1 the algorithm is based on detecting the occurred RLC block errors and calculating the block error rate (BLER) • The coding scheme will change based on set BLER thresholds defined in simulations and changing from hopping to non hopping networks • A new LA algorithm is introduced in BSS11.5 with PCU-2

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EGPRS Link Adaptation & Incremental Redundancy
Link Adaptation (LA)
• The task of the LA algorithm is to select the optimal MCS for each radio condition to maximize RLC/MAC data rate, so the LA algorithm is used to adapt to situations where signal strength and or C/I level is low and changing slowly with time • RLC selects the data block and additionally selects the MCS depending on radio link quality and amount of available dynamic Abis channels • LA is done independently for each UL and DL TBF on RLC/MAC block level, but the LA algorithm is same for uplink and downlink • The MCS selection is not the same in case of initial transmission and retransmission (IR) • LA algorithm works differently for acknowledged mode and unacknowledged mode • RLC control blocks are transmitted with GPRS CS-1 coding
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60

50

40

MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9

Link Adaptation

30

20

10

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

EGPRS Link Adaptation & Incremental Redundancy
Incremental Redundancy (IR)
• IR is a combination of two techniques: • Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) • Forward Error Correction (FEC)
P1 Data block

One MCS P2

Transmitter P3

• In the ARQ method the receiver detects the errors in a received RLC block and requests and receives a re-transmission of the same RLC block from the transmitter. The process continues until an uncorrupted copy reaches the destination • The FEC method adds redundant information to the re-transmitted information at the transmitter and the receiver uses the information to correct errors caused by disturbances in the radio channel

P1 1. transmission

P2 1st re-transmission upon reception failure

P3 2nd re-transmission upon reception failure

P1
No data recovered Receiver

Protection level 1 P1 Stored

P2

Combination: Protection level x 2

No data recovered
P2 Stored P3

• IR needs no information about link quality to in order to protect the transmitted data but can increase the throughput due to automatic adaptation to varying channel conditions and reduced sensitivity to link quality measurements

P1 Stored Combination: Protection level x 3

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EGPRS Link Adaptation & Incremental Redundancy
• Normally, LA adapts to
• path loss • shadowing

• Incremental Redundancy is better suited to compensate fast fading • The retransmission process is based on IR

• LA must take into account
• if IR combining is performed at the receiver • the effect of finite IR memory

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Modulation and Coding Schemes - MCS Selection
• The link adaptation algorithm is based on Bit Error Probability (BEP) measurements performed at the MS (downlink TBF) and the BTS (uplink TBF) • In acknowledged mode, the algorithm is designed to optimize channel throughput in different radio conditions • In unacknowledged mode, the algorithm tries to keep below a specified Block Error Rate (BLER) limit • The MCS selection can be divided in four classes: • Initial MCS to be used when entering packet transfer mode • Modulation selection • MCS selection for initial transmissions of each RLC block in ACK mode • MCS to be used for re-transmissions

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Modulation and Coding Schemes - MCS Selection
• In DL case the MCS selection is based on EGPRS Channel Quality Report received in EGPRS PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK message sent from the MS to network using PACCH to indicate the status of the downlink RLC data blocks received.

• The MCS selection is based on using the BEP (Bit Error Probability) measurement data
• In UL case the MCS selection is based on the respective BEP measurement values which are received within the UL PCU frames

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(E)GPRS Resource Allocation - Content
Territory method • Default and dedicated territory • Free TSLs

Cell selection and re-selection • C1, C2, C31/32, NCCR

BTS selection • MultiBCF and CBCCH

TSL Allocation • Scheduling with priority based QoS

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Territory Method
• Territory method is used to divide the CS and PS resources
• Timeslots within a cell are dynamically divided into the CS and (E)GPRS territories • Number of consecutive traffic timeslots in (E)GPRS territory are reserved (or initially available) for (E)GPRS traffic, the remaining timeslots are available for GSM voice • The dynamic variation of the territory boundary are controlled by territory parameters • The system is able to adapt to different load levels and traffic proportions, offering an optimized performance under a variety of load conditions

• The PS territory can contain dedicated, default and additional capacity
• Dedicated capacity: number of timeslots are allocated to (E)GPRS on a permanent basis i.e. are always configured for (E)GPRS and cannot be used by the circuit switched traffic. This ensures that the (E)GPRS capacity is always available in a cell • Default capacity: the (E)GPRS territory is an area that always is included in the instantaneous (E)GPRS territory, provided that the current CS traffic levels permit this • Additional capacity= Additional (E)GPRS capacity means the extra time slots beyond the default capacity which are assigned due to a load demand.

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Territory Method

TRX 1 BCCH SDCCH TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

Territory border

TRX 2

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

BCCH = Signaling TS TS
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TS

= CSW Territory

= Free TSL for CSW

TS

= (E)GPRS Territory/Additional capacit

TS = (E)GPRS Territory/ Default capacity

= (E)GPRS Territory/Dedicated capacit

Cell Selection / Re-selection
• The network may request measurement reports from the MS and control its cell re-selection • Depending on the NC (Network Control) mode set by the network, the MS shall behave as follows:
• NC0: Normal MS control; the MS shall perform autonomous cell re-selection • NC1: MS control with measurement reports; the MS shall send measurement reports to the network and shall perform autonomous cell re-selection • NC2: Network control; the MS shall send measurement reports to the network

• NC1 and NC2 only apply in MM (Mobility Management) Ready state. In MM Standby state, the MS shall always use NC0 mode independent of the ordered NC mode

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Cell Selection / Re-selection - NC0/NC1
• MS cell selection/re-selection is controlled by the following criteria
• Path loss criterion (C1) • Cell reselection criteria (C2) • These criteria are used for the cell selection for (E)GPRS in the same way as for CSW in idle mode

• C31/C32 are introduced as a complement to the current GSM cell reselection criteria
• The activation requires the implementation of PBCCH • C31: Signal Strength threshold criterion • C32: Cell ranking • MS selects the cell with the highest C32 value from those having the highest priority class and fulfilling the C31 criterion (if none fulfills C31, then only C32) • The priority classes may correspond to different HCS layers
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Cell Selection / Re-selection - NCCR (NC2)
• NCCR (Network Controlled Cell Re-selection) (S11.5)
• Enables the network to order a cell re-selection instead of the autonomous selection done by the mobile station • The network may command the MS to change cell and decides which cell is to be the target cell • Efficient allocation of EGPRS resources:
• The PCU will push EGPRS capable MSs to EGPRS cells and GPRS capable MSs to non-EGPRS capable cells by power budget • Cell attractiveness can be defined neighbour cell specifically also taking into account the capabilities of each neighbour cell (e.g. CS-3/CS-4)

• Can be based on the following criteria:
• Power budget pushes EGPRS capable MSs to EGPRS cells and non-EGPRS capable MSs to non-EGPRS capable cells • Quality control triggers NCCR when the quality of the serving cell transmission drops even if the serving cell signal level is good

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Cell Selection / Re-selection - NACC
• NACC (Network Assisted Cell Change) (S11.5)
• Reduces service outage time when a Rel-4 capable GPRS MS moves between GSM cells in packet transfer mode • Improves both autonomous and network-controlled cell change
• In a cell change the MS has to stop data transmission in the serving cell and has to acquire certain system information from the target cell • After this the MS has to restart the data transmission in the new cell • This causes a delay as the MS has to synchronise with the system information broadcast cycle and collect a consistent set of System Information and Packet System Information messages from the target cell

• Outage time is reduced because the network is allowed to assist MSs before and during the cell change by
• sending neighbour cell system information on the packet associated control channel (PACCH) to the MS in packet transfer mode on the serving cell • introducing the PACKET SI STATUS procedure for the cells that have no packet broadcast control channel (PBCCH)
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Cell Selection / Re-selection - NACC
• NACC (Network Assisted Cell Change)
• Neighbour cell system information messages sent to the MS contain a set of SI or PSI messages (with PBCCH) needed in performing packet access in the new cell

• When all required messages are sent to the MS and PACKET SI STATUS is supported by the PCU (no PBCCH allocated) in the new cell, the MS may perform packet access and use PACKET SI STATUS procedures for the acquisition of SI messages
Without PBCCH network will send MS SI1, SI3 and SI13 of neighbour cells

PACKET NEIGHBOUR CELL DATA (PACCH ).

With PBCCH, network will send MS PSI TYPE 1, a consistent set of PSI TYPE 2

messages and PSI TYPE 14

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NACC for NC0 / NC1 - CCN Mode
• A new mode, Cell Change Notification (CCN), is needed for a MS in NC0 mode in order to make use of NACC feature • MS in NC0 mode can enter CCN mode • MS must be in Transfer Mode • Both NW and the MS must support CCN • The serving and the target neighbor cell must support CCN mode • The CCN Activity support info is in:
• SI13 , PSI1 and PSI14 • SI2quater , PSI3 and PSI3bis for serving cell for the neighbor cell

The support for CCN implies also that it is mandatory for the mobile station to support the Packet PSI/SI Status procedures
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EDAP, PCU and Gb Functionality - Content
EDAP • Abis vs. Dynamic Abis • Channels carried on EDAP • EDAP limits

• Abis PCM structure
PCU • PCU procedures • PCU types and limits Gb

• Gb protocols
• Gb over FR • Gb over IP

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Abis Basic Concepts – PCM frame (E1)
One 64 kbit/s (8 bits) channel in PCM frame is called timeslot (TSL) One 16 kbit/s (2bits) channel timeslot is Sub-TSL PCM frame has 32 (E1) or 26 (E1) TSLs One Radio timeslot corresponds one 16 kbit/s SubTSL (BCCH, TCH/F etc.) and one TRX takes two TSLs from Abis

BTS

BSC

Abis

One TRX has dedicated TRXsig of 16, 32 or 64 kbit/s
One BCF has dedicated BCFsig (16 or 64 kbit/s) for O&M Q1-management needed if TRS management under BSC

MCB/LCB required if loop topology is used
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0 MCB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 TCH 0 TCH 1 TCH 2 19 TCH 4 TCH 5 TCH 6 20 21 22 23 24 25 TRXsig 26 27 BCFsig 28 29 30 Q1-management 31

LCB

TCH 3 TCH 7

TRX1

(E)GPRS Dynamic Abis Pool – EDAP Introduction
• Fixed resources for signaling and voice • Dynamic Abis pool (DAP) for data • Predefined size 1-12 PCM TSL per DAP • DAP can be shared by several TRXs in the same BCF (and same E1/T1) • Max 20 TRXs per DAP • Max 480 DAPs per BSC • DAP + TRXsig + TCHs have to be in same PCM • UL and DL EDAP use is independent • DAP schedule rounds for each active Radio Block • Different users/RTSLs can use same EDAP Sub-TSL
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 MCB LCB

TCH 0 TCH 4 TCH 0 TCH 4 TCH 0 TCH 4

TCH 1 TCH 5 TCH 1 TCH 5 TCH 1 TCH 5

TCH 2 TCH 6 TCH 2 TCH 6 TCH 2 TCH 6

TCH 3 TCH 7 TCH 3 TCH 7 TCH 3 TCH 7

TRX1 TRX2 TRX3

EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP

EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP

EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP

EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP EDAP

EGPRS
pool

TRXsig1 TRXsig3 BCFsig

TRXsig2

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Q1-management

Dynamic Abis - Master and Slave Channels
Master channel • Fixed TCH Sub-TSL is called master channel • Master cannel contains user data and inband signalling for TRX Slave channel • Located in EDAP • Contains user data that does not fit in the master data frame Dynamic Abis Pointer Each DL PCU master channel includes a pointer to
•DL slave frames on the same block period •UL slave frames on the next block period
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downlink PCM frames during one block period

uplink PCM frames during next block period

M

M

EDAP
S S S

S

S

S

S

EDGE and GPRS – Master / Slave Channel Usage
Coding scheme CS-1 GPRS CS-2 and CS-3 EDGE CS-4 MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 EDGE MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9 Retrans.
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Bit rate (bps) 8,0 12,0 14,4 20,0 8,8 11,2 14,8 17,6 22,4 29,6 44,8 54,4 59,2

Abis PCM allocation (fixed + pool/slave)

• Higher data rates don‟t fit in 16 kbit/s channels
• GPRS CS-2 requires 1 slave when EDGE activated (TRX/BTS) • 32, 48, 64 or 80 kbit/s Abis links per RTSL needed

Nokia Dynamic Abis Dimensioning - with EGPRS Data Traffic
0 • Fixed master TSL in Abis for all EGPRS air TSL 1 TCH 0 • Slave TSL‟s (64 k) in EDAP pool for each air 2 TCH 4 3 TCH 0 TSL 4 TCH 4 5 TCH 0 • TRX and for OMU signaling fixed 6 TCH 4 7 TCH 0 • TSL 0 and 31 typically used for signaling 8 TCH 4 9 TCH 0 • EDAP pool dimensioning considerations 10 TCH 4 • Planned throughput in radio interface 11 TCH 0 12 TCH 4  RTSL territory size 13 TRXsig 1 14 TRXsig 3  MS multiclass 15 TRXsig 5 • Number of TRXs/BTSs connected to DAP 16 BCFsig 17 • Total number of PCU Abis Sub-TSLs 18 19 EDAP1 • Gb link size 20 EDAP1 21 EDAP1 • GPRS/EDGE traffic ratio 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 TCH 1 TCH 5 TCH 1 TCH 5 TCH 1 TCH 5 TCH 1 TCH 5 TCH 1 TCH 5 TCH 1 TCH 5 MCB TCH 2 TCH 6 TCH 2 TCH 6 TCH 2 TCH 6 TCH 2 TCH 6 TCH 2 TCH 6 TCH 2 TCH 6 TRXsig 2 TRXsig 4 TRXsig 6 LCB TCH 3 TCH 7 TCH 3 TCH 7 TCH 3 TCH 7 TCH 3 TCH 7 TCH 3 TCH 7 TCH 3 TCH 7

TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 TRX 5

TRX 6

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EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 Q1-management

EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1 EDAP1

EGPRS DAP

Packet Control Unit (PCU) - Introduction
• BSC plug-in unit that controls the (E)GPRS radio resources, receives and transmits TRAU frames to the BTSs and Frame Relay packets to the SGSN • Implements both the Gb interface and RLC/MAC protocols in the BSS • Acts as the key unit in the following procedures:
• (E)GPRS radio resource allocation and management • (E)GPRS radio connection establishment and management • Data transfer • Coding scheme selection • PCU statistics

• The first generation PCUs are optimized to meet GPRS requirements, i.e. non real time solutions (QoS classes "Background" and "Interactive“) • The second generation PCUs (PCU2) supports the real time traffic requirements and enhanced functionality (GERAN) beyond (E)GPRS
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Packet Control Unit (PCU) - Variants and Connectivity Limits
• PCU types and capacity limits • The relations between PCU and BSC types as well as the connectivity limits of BTSs, TRXs, TSLs, Abis and Gb TSLs are shown below
PCU Type BSC Types
PCU BSCE, BSC2, BSCi, BSC2i

Network elements
BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels

BSS10.5 BSS10.5 ED BSS11 BSS11.5
64 128 256 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2 x 64 2 x 128 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 64 128 256 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2 x 64 2 x 128 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 64 128 256 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2 x 64 2 x 128 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 64 128 128 256 31 64 128 128 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 128 256 256 256 31 2 x 64 2 x 128 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 31 2 x 128 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 31

PCU-S

BSCE, BSC2, BSCi, BSC2i

PCU-T

BSCE, BSC2, BSCi, BSC2i

PCU2-U

BSCE, BSC2, BSCi, BSC2i

PCU-B

BSC3i

PCU2-D

BSC3i

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BSC Types
• BSC types and capacity limits
BSC2i BSC3i BSC3i BSC3i BSC3i BSC3i Max BCSUs Working 8 1 16 2 4096 512 512 248 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1

BCSU_Spare
Max PCUs Working (logical) PCUs_Spare (logical) Max_RTLs TRX_MAX BTS_MAX BCF_MAX

8 4

12 4

16 4

20 4

24 4

2048 3072 4096 5120 6144 110 110
504

220 220
504

330 330
504

440 440
504

660
660 504

• The 75 % utilization of the connectivity is recommended by Nokia
• The number of BCSUs are limiting the max number of PCUs
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Gb Interface - Introduction
• The Gb interface is the interface between the BSS and the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) • Allows the exchange of signaling information and user data • The following units can be found in Gb
• Packet Control Unit (PCU) at the BSS side • Packet Processing Unit (PAPU) at the GPRS IP backbone side

• Each PCU has its own separate Gb interface to the SGSN
Gb BSC
PCU

SGS N
PAPU

BSS

GPRS

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Gb Interface
• Allow many users to be multiplexed over the same physical resource • Resources are given to a user upon activity (sending/receiving) • GPRS signaling and user data are sent in the same transmission plane and no dedicated physical resources are required to be allocated for signaling purposes • Access rates per user may vary without restriction from zero data to the maximum possible line rate (e.g., 1 984 kbit/s for the available bit rate of an E1 trunk)
Gb BSC
PCU

SGS N
PAPU

BSS

GPRS

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Gb Interface - Protocols
• The Gb interface can be implemented using the Frame Relay or IP
Relay IP IP L2 L1 GGSN

User information transfer
Um
APP TCP/UDP IP SNDCP LLC RLC MAC GSM RF MS Compression, segmentation Ciphering and reliable link RLC BSSGP

GPRS Bearer

Gb

Gn

Gi
APP TCP/UDP IP L2

Relay SNDCP GTP LLC BSSGP NS L1bis SGSN UDP IP L2 L1

USER PAYLOAD GTP UDP IP L2 L1 GGSN

L1

MAC GSM RF
BSS

NS L1bis

FIXED HOST

GPRS IP Backbone
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Internet

Gb Interface - Protocols
• The protocol stack consists of three layers
• Physical layer (L1) • Network Service (NS) layer • Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP)

• L1 is implemented as one or several PCM-E1 lines • Network Service (NS) layer is divided into frame relay (FR) and network service control
• L1= Physical layer • NS= Provides the capability for the transmission of signals between user-network interfaces • BSSGP= Conveys routing information and QoS related information between BSS and SGSN

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Gb Interface - FR
• The Gb interface can be implemented using the Frame Relay or IP • The Frame Relay can be :
• Point-to-point (PCU–SGSN)
• spare capacity of Ater and A interfaces • any transmission network BS C MU X TC MS C

• Frame relay network between the BSC and SGSN

Gb

• In Frame Relay there are different options available:
• Voice and data multiplexed • Voice and data separated in the transcoder

Gb

Gb SGS N

• Channels going through the transcoders and MSC
• Traffic streams concentrated in the FR switch • Dedicated 2 Mbit/s E1 PCM links

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Gb Interface - IP
• The increased demand for packet switched traffic transmission cost efficiency can be met by deploying IP in the transmission network • IP offers an alternative way to configure the subnetwork of the Gb interface:
• the subnetwork is IP-based and the physical layer is Ethernet

• The introduction of IP makes it possible to build an efficient transport network for the IP based multimedia services of the future • Both the IPv6 and IPv4 protocol versions are supported • IP transport can be used in parallel with FR under the same BSC and BCSU • Within one BCSU, separate PCUs can use different transmission media

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Gb Interface - IP
• Gb over IP is an application software product and requires a valid license in the BSC • The licensing is based on the number of PCUs to which IP Network Service Entities can be configured

• Requires support from both BSC and SGSN
• In the BSC, the capacity of the Gb interface remains the same, regardless of whether IP or FR is used as the transport technology
Gb IP BS C FR BT S SGS N

BT S

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(E)GPRS Explain
Functionality Network Audit Network Dimensioning and Planning Network Optimization Tools

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Network Audit - Content
Hardware Audit

Software, Parameter and Feature Audit

GSM Coverage / Interference Audit

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Network Audit - Introduction
• Before (E)GPRS implementation a full network audit is proposed to clarify the network status • The audit helps to avoid HW, SW and feature interoperability issues • The audit should preferably contain the following areas:

• BSS HW audit
• BSS SW/ features audit • Coverage and interference audit

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Network Audit - Hardware
• HW audit contains:
• BSC types • PCU and PCU2 • BTS types • TRX capability (GPRS/EGPRS) • Abis capability • Gb interface • SGSN, PAPU

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BSS Network Analysis – Hardware Audit
• BTSs with (E)GPRS (CS1-4) capability
• (E)GPRS capability of BTSs (BTS SW support)
Talk InSite PrimeSite GSM Ok Ok Ok GPRS CS1-2 CS1-2 CS1-2 EGPRS No No No (* CS1-4 with PCU2 and BTS SW 4.1 CD1 MetroSite Ok CS1-2 (* MCS1-9 UltraSite Ok CS1-2 (* MCS1-9

• TALK roadmap does not have CS3-4 capability currently

• Baseband unit limits in UltraSite
Base Band Unit and TRX type BB2A + TSxA BB2A + TSxB BB2E + TSxA BB2E + TSxB BB2F + TSxA BB2F + TSxB Functionality Ok Not Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok

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BSS Network Analysis – Hardware Audit
• TRX capability (mixture of GPRS and EGPRS TRXs)
• TALKFAMILY TRXs are GPRS capable only. • UltraSite and MetroSite TRX capability

Frequency band GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900 GSM/EDGE 800 GSM/EDGE 900 GSM/EDGE 1800 GSM/EDGE 1900

TSxA TSxB TSGA N/A TSDA N/A TSPA N/A N/A TSTB

Output power Frequency band Unit type 5W 5W 5W 5W 5W 5W 10 W 10 W 10 W 10 W 5W GSM 900 GSM 900 GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900 GSM/EDGE 800 GSM/EDGE 900 GSM/EDGE 900 GSM/EDGE 900 GSM/EDGE 1800 GSM/EDGE 1900 HVTG HVTJ HVTH HVTD HVTP WTFA CTGA CTGJ CTGH CTDA WTPA VTSA

Notes Standard filter Customer specific filter J Customer specific filter H Standard filter Standard filter Standard filter Standard filter Customer specific filter J Customer specific filter H Standard filter Standard filter Transceiver shield unit

N/A TSGB N/A TSDB N/A TSPB

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Network Audit – Software and Feature
• BSS SW/feature audit contains:
• MultiBCF and Common BCCH

• BSS SW/feature considerations:
• PBCCH (Packet BCCH) • NMO (Network Mode of Operation I or II) • EPCR (EGPRS Packet Channel Request) • NACC (Network Assisted Cell Change) • NCCR (Network Controlled Cell Reselection) • DFCA • QoS

• FR/DR/HR
• AMR • RF and BB Hopping • IUO/IFH

• Extended Cell

• CS3-4

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GSM Network Audit– Coverage & Interference
• The coverage and interference must be analyzed because the TSL data rate is defined by coverage and interference as well • The average signal level of a cell/segment must be estimated for calculating the TSL data rate based on sensitivity • The following methods can be used in the analysis:
• Planning tool plots • Drive test measurements
RLC/MAC Data Rate (FTP Download on 2 TSLs)
120 100 80

• Network measurements

No Interference C/I 25 dB C/I 20 dB C/I 15 dB

kbps

60 40 20 0 -65 -70 -75 -80 -85 -90 -95 -100 -105 Signal level (dBm)

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(E)GPRS Explain
Functionality Network Audit Network Dimensioning and Planning Network Optimization Tools

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Network Dimensioning and Planning - Content
Coverage and Interference Planning

Capacity Planning (Deployment, TSL Data Rate and BSS connectivity)

Dimensioning Example

Mobility Planning

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Coverage and Interference Planning
Coverage Planning with Link Budget Frequency Planning

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(E)GPRS Coverage Planning and Link Budget
• The (E)GPRS coverage area depends on the GSM service area • The coverage planning aspects concern the provision of sufficient C/N ratios across the coverage area to allow for successful data transmission (UL/DL) • Each coding scheme is suited to a particular range of C/N (or Eb/No) for a given block error rate (BLER) • The higher the level of error protection, the lower required C/N • Due to the different C/N requirements the relative coverage area of the coding schemes is different:
• The MCS-5 coverage is approx 50% of MCS-1, while MCS-8 coverage is approx 40% of MCS-5

• In urban areas coverage is not usually the limiting factor but the interference caused by reused frequencies -> C/I requirements

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(E)GPRS Coverage Planning and Link Budget
(E)GPRS Coverage Relative to MCS-5 (Noise limited) 2.5

2
Relative Range

1.5

1

0.5

0

MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4

MCS-5 MCS-6

MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9

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Link Budget Calculation – Voice/ (E)GPRS
Receiving End
• Sensitivity • Additional fast fading margin

Cell Range
• BS and MS antenna height • Standard deviation • Building penetration loss (BPL) • BPL deviation • Area Type correction factor • Location probability

• Connector, cable and body loss
• Antenna gain • MHA and diversity (space, IUD, IDD) gain

Transmitting End
• Output power • Back-off • Isolator, combiner and filter loss

BTS Area
• k*R²

• Connector, cable and body loss
• Tx Antenna gain

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(E)GPRS Link Budget – Receiving and Transmitting End
RADIO LINK POWER BUDGET Macro CityTalk Urban MS CLASS 900 SYSTEM MHz 2 * Z = 77.2 + 20*log(freq[MHz]) RECEIVING END: RX RF-input sensitivity (as GSM05.05) for speech Throghput kbit/s Es/No,Eb/No [dB] | BLER [%] w/o IR Required signal power (sensitivity) Addit fast fading marg (voice+CSdata) Cable loss + connector Body loss Rx antenna gain MHA Gain Diversity gain Isotropic power Field strength TRANSMITTING END: TX RF output peak power (GMSK) (mean power over RF cycle) Backoff for 8-PSK Isolator + combiner + filter RF-peak power, combiner output Cable loss + connector Body Loss IDD TX-antenna gain Peak EIRP (EIRP = ERP + 2dB) Isotropic Path Loss Uplink / Downlink Isotropic path loss EPR Eb/No 6,00 -109 2,00 2,00 0,00 18,00 0,00 4,00 -127,0 9,28 MS 1,00 30,00 0,00 0,00 30,0 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 30,00 157,00 156,7 Eb/No 6,00 -102 2,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 -100,0 36,28 BS 28,18 44,50 0,00 3,80 40,7 2,00 0,00 18,00 467,74 56,70 156,70 295,12092 dBm Macro UltraSite Urban EDGE

GSM
BS -109,0

4 900 136,28485 MS -102,00

GSM

S = BTS noise Power + Es/No

dBm dB dB dB dBi dB dB dBm dBµV/m

BS -108.5 TP 20,16 Es/No BLER w/oIR 15,76 10,00 -100,31 -93,91

900 136,285 MS -102,00 TPIR 20,30

2,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 15,00 2,00 0,00 4,00 URBAN 1,00 -117,3 -97,9 18,97 38,37 MS 2,00 33,00 6,00 0,00 2:1 WBC 27,0 0,00 0,00 2,00 0,79 29,00 146,31 152,7 BS 28,18 44,50 2,00 2,00 38,8 2,00 0,00 ON 1,00 15,00 302,00 54,80 152,71 190,54607

W dBm dB dBm dB

dBi W dBm dB

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(E)GPRS Link Budget - Cell Range For Indoor and Outdoor
CELL SIZES COMMON INFO MS antenna height (m): BS antenna height (m): Standard Deviation (dB): BPL Average (dB): BPL Deviation (dB): OKUMURA-HATA (OH) Area Type Correction (dB) INDOOR COVERAGE Propagation Model Slow Fading Margin + BPL (dB): Coverage Threshold (dBµV/m): Coverage Threshold (dBm): Location Probability over Cell Area(L%): Cell Range (km): OUTDOOR COVERAGE Propagation Model Slow Fading Margin (dB): Coverage Threshold (dBµV/m): Coverage Threshold (dBm): Location Probability over Cell Area(L%): Cell Range (km): Macro 1.5 25.0 7.0 15.0 10.0 4.0 Macro OH 26.7 63.0 -73.3 95% 0.91 Macro OH 7.4 43.6 -92.6 95% 3.16

Cell Area (km2) 3-sector (K=1.95) 2-sector (K=1.3) Omni (K=2.6)

19.44 12.96 25.92

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EGPRS and GPRS Coverage – Comparison
Es/No=42.3 dB
120.8 60
DL Throughput per TSL [Kbps]

132.1

138.8 143.5

Path loss [dB] 147.1 150.1 152.6 154.8

156.7 158.4 EGPRS

160.0

50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

GPRS CS1-2

Averag e gain: 2.3

GPRS CS1-4

Averag e gain: 3.6

Es/No=8.3 dB

9

10

11

Pathloss distance [km]

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Frequency Planning
• The TSL data rate is C/I dependent
With Impairments

• Lower C/I can reduce the TSL data rate significantly
• The figure shows that the TSL data rate is around 25 kbps if the C/I is 15 dB. • The proper frequency plan of GSM network is very important to maximize TSL data rate
C/I
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Throughput

Frequency Planning
Combined interference and noise estimations needed for (E)GPRS link budget Frequency allocation and C/I level
• The existing frequency allocation has high impact on EGPRS performance • Loose re-use patterns will provide better performance for all MCSs

Data rate and network capacity
• EGPRS highest data rates require high C/I, typ > 20dB for MCS-7, 8 & 9 • Possibly no extra spectrum for EDGE so efficient use of the existing spectrum is very important • EGPRS traffic suited to BCCH use - typically the layer with highest C/I. But limited no. of TSLs available on BCCH; may need to use TCH layer too

Sensitivity in tighter reuse and higher load
• EDGE can utilize tighter reuse schemes and this is beneficial when planning for high load with limited frequency resources • For systems with stringent spectrum constraints, EGPRS can offer good performance even with tight re-use patterns (1/3 or 3/9). Load dependent

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Data rate vs. CIR in Time (Field Measurement)
Good quality environment
140 120 20 25

Throughput (kbps)

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40
Data Throughput Application Throughput TEMS-C/I-GMSK Poly. (TEMS-C/I-GMSK)

10

5

0

Time (s)
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CIR(dB)

15

Data rate vs. CIR in Time (Field Measurement)
Average quality environment
120 100 25

20

Throughput (kbps)

80 60 10 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Data Throughput Application Throughput TEMS-C/I-GMSK Poly. (TEMS-C/I-GMSK)

5

0

Time (s)
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CIR(dB)

15

Data rate vs. CIR in Time (Field Measurement)
Worse quality environment
80 70
Data Throughput Application Throughput TEMS-C/I-GMSK Poly. (TEMS-C/I-GMSK)

20 18 16 14

Throughput (kbps)

60 50 40 30 20

10 8 6 4

10 0 0
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2 0 50 100 150

Time (s)

CIR(dB)

12

Capacity Planning
Deployment Scenarios Air Interface Capacity

Connectivity Planning

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Deployment Planning
• The aim behind the preparation of deployment plan
• Adapt the existing network configuration for (E)GPRS
• Maximize the TSL data rate (RLC/MAC) and multislot usage • Minimize the impact of PSW services on CSW services (and vice versa) • Take all the hardware and software considerations into account • Controlled investment

• Most of the networks can be described by few cell/segment options • The analysis of the different options can give exact picture about the network based on:
• Hardware types, software releases • Features, parameters • Current network structure and functionality • Coverage, quality and capacity characteristics of BSS
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Deployment Plan - Cell / Segment Option Creation
• The options can cover most of the cell/segment configurations of the network • These options can be analyzed in details, so the time consuming cell/segment based analysis is not needed • All the options are examples and can have different channel configuration
Cell / Segment option examples Layer strategy Cell / Segment option 1 Layer1 CSW, GPRS, EGPRS BTSs BTS1 TRXs TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 TSL0 BCCH TCH/F TCH/F TSL1 TCH/D TCH/F TCH/F TSL2 TCH/D TCH/F TCH/F TSL3 TCH/D TCH/F TCH/F TSL4 TCH/D TCH/F TCH/F TSL5 TCH/D TCH/F TCH/F TSL6 TCH/D TCH/F Default TSL7 TCH/D TCH/F Default PSW terr.

(E)GPRS

Layer strategy Layer1 Cell / Segment option 2 Layer2 CSW, (E)GPRS CSW only

BTSs BTS1 BTS2

TRXs TSL0 TRX1 CBCCH TRX2 TCH/F TRX3 TCH/F

TSL1 SDCCH TCH/F TCH/F

TSL2 TCH/D TCH/F TCH/F

TSL3 TCH/D TCH/F TCH/F

TSL4 TCH/D Default TCH/F

TSL5 TCH/D Default TCH/F

TSL6 TCH/D Default TCH/F

TSL7 TCH/D Dedicated (E)GPRS TCH/F

Layer strategy Layer1 Cell / Segment option 3 Layer2 CSW, GPRS CSW, EGPRS

BTSs BTS1 BTS2

TRXs TSL0 TRX1 CBCCH TRX2 TCH/F TRX3 TCH/F

TSL1 SDCCH TCH/F TCH/F

TSL2 TCH/D TCH/F TCH/F

TSL3 TCH/D TCH/F TCH/F

TSL4 TCH/D TCH/F Default

TSL5 TCH/D Default Default

TSL6 TCH/D Default Default

TSL7 TCH/D Dedicated GPRS Dedicated EGPRS

Layer strategy Layer1 Cell / Segment option 4 Layer2 CSW, GPRS CSW, EGPRS

BTSs BTS1 BTS2

TRXs TSL1 TRX1 CBCCH TRX2 TCH/D TRX3 TCH/F TRX4 TCH/F

TSL2 SDCCH TCH/D TCH/F TCH/F

TSL3 TCH/F TCH/D TCH/F TCH/F

TSL4 TCH/F TCH/D TCH/F TCH/F

TSL5 Default TCH/D TCH/F Default

TSL6 Default TCH/D TCH/F Default

TSL7 Default TCH/D TCH/F Default

TSL8 PSW terr. Dedicated EGPRS TCH/D TCH/F Dedicated GPRS

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Deployment Plan - Cell / Segment Option 1 Analysis
• Layer strategy • No multiBCF/CBCCH • GPRS and EGPRS have the same territory – data rate degradation due to multiplexing • There is not any dedicated territory (CDED) – The implementation of NMO1 is not recommended, because the MS cannot paged if there is not any GPRS territory • GPRS Enabled is a must for all the cells with NMO1

• Signaling strategy
• Combined signaling structure – load check is needed • TCH usage (CSW) • TRX1 has TCH/D TSLs - which can lead to heavy signaling. • The CSW calls will be allocated to FR firstly.

• AMR packing – more capacity for PSW traffic
• TCH usage (PSW) • CDEF is 2 TSLs only - the 4 TSL DL capable terminals require territory upgrade, which takes time

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Deployment Plan - Cell / Segment Option 2 Analysis
• Layer strategy • The Cell / Segment Option 2 has segment configuration. • GPRS and EGPRS have the same territory  possibility for GPRS-EGPRS multiplexing • The PSW territory has 4 TSLs for 4 TSL DL capable terminals. • Dedicated territory for providing PSW services even when CSW traffic high • NMO1 well supported • Layer 2 is used for CSW traffic only with as high utilization as possible (GENA = N). • Signaling • SDCCH has enough capacity for RA/LA cell-reselection (used only if NMO1 is not implemented) • The SDCCH TSL is reducing the available capacity for user traffic. • TCH (CSW) • TRX1 has TCH/D TSLs, which can lead to heavy signaling – TRXsig size • AMR packing • More time slots available for (E)GPRS traffic without more hardware • Bad C/I - AMR HR quality might suffer • TCH (PSW) • GPRS and EGPRS multiplexing likely – impact depends on the penetration of GPRS and EGPRS users and CSW traffic • There is dedicated territory provides minimum PSW capacity for cell
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Deployment Plan - Cell / Segment Option 3 Analysis
• Layer strategy • The Cell / Segment Option 3 has segment configuration. • GPRS and EGPRS have separated territory  GPRS-EGPRS multiplexing less likely • EGPRS has 4 TSLs territory for 4 TSL DL capable terminals. • There is dedicated territory for providing PSW services even in high CSW traffic, too. • NMO1 well supported • Signaling • SDCCH/8  SDCCH has probably enough capacity for RA/LA cell-reselection (if NMO1 is not implemented) • The SDCCH TSL is reducing the available capacity for user traffic. • TCH (CSW) • TRX1 has TCH/D TSLs, which can lead to heavy signaling – TRXsig size • AMR packing • More time slots available for (E)GPRS traffic without more hardware • Bad C/I - AMR HR quality might suffer • TCH (PSW) • Layer1 has GPRS territory only (EGENA = N) with three TSLs. • Layer2 has the EGPRS territory with 4 TSLs, support for 4 RTSL MSs • Less GPRS - EGPRS multiplexing • Both layers have dedicated territory for minimum PSW capacity Company Confidential
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Deployment Plan - Cell / Segment Option 4 Analysis
• Layer strategy • The Cell / Segment Option 3 has segment configuration. • GPRS and EGPRS have separated territory  GPRS-EGPRS multiplexing less likely • Both layers have 4 TSLs territory for 4 TSL DL capable terminals. • There is dedicated territory for providing PSW services even in high CSW traffic, too. • NMO1 well supported • EGPRS territory is allocated to TRX1. It is useful if BCCH frequency has good C/I • Signaling • The SDCCH has enough capacity for RA/LA cell-reselection if NMO1 is not implemented. • The CSW traffic should be moved from TRX1, because the limited resources for CSW. • AMR packing • More time slots available for (E)GPRS traffic without more hardware • Bad C/I - AMR HR quality might suffer • TCH (CSW) • TRX1 has only two TCH/F TSLs. • TCH (PSW) • Layer1 has EGPRS territory (EGENA = Y) with 4 TSLs. • Layer2 has GPRS territory with 4 TSLs  support for 4 RTSL MS • Multiplexing is still possible in case of high PSW and CSW traffic, but the possibility is reduced. Company Confidential • Both layers have dedicated territory for minimum PSW capacity
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Capacity Calculations
After the network audit the following need to be completed: • Air Interface Capacity Calculations
• TSL data rate • Multislot usage • Available / required capacity calculation

• BSS Connectivity Calculations
• PCU calculation • Gb link calculation • PAPU and SGSN calculation

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Capacity Planning – Introduction
• The accuracy of BTS dimensioning depends on the accuracy of the input values • The capacity of the radio interface has a significant role in defining the capacity of the rest of the network elements (BSC, SGSN and transmission interfaces between the different network elements) • Changes in the BTS configurations have direct impact on the BSC and SGSN configuration • The BSC can handle a limited number of BTSs, TRXs and timeslots and the PCUs have maximum data traffic limitations and restrictions for the number of PAPU units in the SGSN

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Capacity Planning – Inputs
The following information should be available to define the available/required capacity:
BSC BTS • TRXs • Time slots (Territory) • Voice traffic load • TRX configuration • Signaling channels • Free timeslots (Guard TSL) • GPRS Territory
(DED/DEF/ADD.)

Abis • Available time slots • EDAP • EDAP sharing probability

• BSC variant
• PCU variant • Restrictions (EDAPs, pools,
DSPs)

• TRX/PCM
• PCM usage • TRX signaling • Link management

• BTS
• Segment • TRX • SW version • Half rate • DFCA • DTM/ HMC/ EDA • PBCCH/ PCCCH
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• Deployment • Coverage • Interference • Throughput/TSL

• E1/T1 links

• GPRS/EDGE
• Data volume • Traffic mix – Voice/Data

Air Interface Capacity Calculations
The capacity planning is based on calculations for: • Available capacity:
• Calculation determines how much traffic is available through the current system • The calculation input is a pre-defined system configuration • The calculation output is the available traffic capacity with a defined performance level • Alternatively, the available capacities for different alternative configurations can be calculated

• Required capacity:
• It is calculated to design a network that supports the defined amount of traffic and targeted performance level

• The inputs are additional traffic volume, type, and performance requirements
• The output is the needed amount of traffic dependent hardware and associated software configurations
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Air interface Capacity Calculations – Available Capacity
• The air interface capacity planning is based on deployment scenarios (PCU-1) • All the HW, SW and feature interworking are audited by the different cell/segment options • The next step is to calculate the capacity of the air interface related to the different cell / segment options analyzed above • The air interface capacity calculation contains the following items:
• TSL data rate estimation • PSW Multislot usage (with CSW traffic volume and free TSLs)

• The TSL data rate calculations and the territory figures together for all the cells/segments can give the calculation results of available air interface capacity

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Air Interface Capacity Planning – Required Capacity
• The needed capacity is usually estimated based on assumptions on the number of data users and on the average user traffic during busy hour considering also different types of user profiles

• Voice traffic capacity:
• Half/dual rate usage • maximum allowed blocking

• Data volume per cell can be calculated/estimated as the total data volume per cell (MB/BH/Cell, avg throughput/TSL) • Using subscriber information is more complicated, data user penetration must be known and user data amount per busy hour must be estimated • The required capacity can be defined with dedicated time slots (Guaranteed Bit Rate) when the data volume has been calculated

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Air Interface Capacity Planning – Required Capacity
The required capacity calculation is the calculation of number of TSLs needed for both circuit switched traffic and packet switched traffic in each cell in order to achieve a given blocking probability for circuit switched traffic and required throughput for packet switched traffic. • User profile for BH (example)
• PSW BH traffic in kbps and in MB • CSW BH traffic in Erlang • Service Mix: e.g. 45 % Voice, 10 % Video Streaming, 20 % PoC, etc
Application Voice Video (Streaming) GBR PoCTHP=ARP=1 NBR Brow sing (Interactive) NBR Email (Background) NBR MMS (Background) NBR BH Traffic 12 mErl 1(UL)/32 (DL) kbps 8 (UL)/8 (DL) kbps 0.5 (UL)/3(DL) kbps 0.25(UL)/1(DL) kbps 0.1(UL)/0.1(DL) kbps BH Traffic in MB Voice 0.45 /2.8 1.8 /1.8 0.225/1.35 0.1125/0.45 0.045/0.045 Bearer Voice channel 32kbps 8kbps NRT NRT NRT

• Traffic distribution
• # of users phase by phase • Traffic density • GPRS/EGPRS multiplexing
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Connectivity Capacity Planning (MS-Gb)
• The aim of connectivity capacity planning is to calculate the amount of required PCUs and allocate the sites (BCFs) among these PCUs (BSCs) for avoiding connectivity limits and maximizing QoS • The view here is on the chain between MS and Gb, so all the network elements and interfaces are planned for enough connectivity capacity

• The number of required PCUs are CDEF and DAP size dependent from physical layer point of view, while the amount of Gb links used by PCUs is PAPU limiting factor (or the limited number of PAPUs can limit the number of PCUs, because of Gb link limits in PAPU).

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Connectivity in PCU
PCU Type BSC Types
PCU BSCE, BSC2, BSCi, BSC2i

Network elements
BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels BTS TRX Radio TSLs Abis 16 kbps channels Gb 64 kbps channels

BSS10.5
64 128 256 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2 x 64 2 x 128 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

BSS10.5 ED
64 128 256 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2 x 64 2 x 128 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

BSS11
64 128 256 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2 x 64 2 x 128 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

BSS11.5
64 128 128 256 31 64 128 128 256 31 64 128 256 256 31 128 256 256 256 31 2 x 64 2 x 128 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 31 2 x 128 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 256 2 x 31

PCU-S

BSCE, BSC2, BSCi, BSC2i

PCU-T

BSCE, BSC2, BSCi, BSC2i

PCU2-U

BSCE, BSC2, BSCi, BSC2i

PCU-B

BSC3i

PCU2-D

BSC3i

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Connectivity Planning
• The connectivity planning for maximum capacity is based on the proper set of CDEF and DAP size
• To provide enough capacity for territory upgrade the 75 % utilization in the connectivity limits is recommended by Nokia

Outputs Abis Channels (Radio and EDAP slave TSLs)* EDAPs* BTS (cell, segment) TRXs

Max Limit* 256 16 64 128

Utilization 75% 100% 100% 100%

Limit 192 16 64 128

Unit TSLs Pcs Pcs Pcs

(*PCU & PCU-S only handle 128 radio TSLs with S11.5, PBCCH not implemented) • The CDEF is allocated to the cells (BTSs in segment), so the too big CDEF territory will need more PCUs. • The Dynamic Abis Pool (DAP) is allocated to the sites (BCFs). Higher DAP size provides more MCS9 capable TSLs on air interfaces, but on the other side, higher DAP size needs more capacity on E1s and more PCUs as well.

• So the proper value of CDEF on cell (BTS) level and DAP on BCF level can help to be below the 192 (96*) radio TSL limit with 75 % utilization to avoid connectivity bottlenecks even in case of territory upgrades

*It is important to know that the PCU and PCU-S have 128 radio TSL limit with S11.5, which can cause limitations in GPRS only networks. **Recommended number of EDAPs per PCU1 is 1,2,4 or 8

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Connectivity Limits in SGSN (SG5)
The following limits must be taken into account:
• 1024 PCUs can be connected to SGSN (with 16 PAPU) • 64 PCUs can be connected to PAPU • 3072 Gb links can be connected to SGSN (with 16 PAPU) • 192 Gb links can be connected to PAPU • 120 E1s can be connected to SGSN (with 16 PAPU)

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BSS Dimensioning Example
Dimensioning Inputs Air Interface Capacity

Connectivity Capacity

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Dimensioning Inputs
Network/BSC with 40 BCFs EDGE/GPRS implementation on top of existing CS voice • 3 BTSs per BCF • Site configurations & amounts
• 4+4+4 – 15 BCFs – “central area” • 2+2+2 – 25 BCFs – “surrounding area”

• BCF voice traffic
• 2+2+2 site on average has traffic of 8 Erl per BTS • 4+4+4 site on average has traffic of 18 Erl per BTS • Blocking criteria 2%

• Data traffic
Streaming user support requirement per BTS ~ 50 kbit/s Average data throughput per BTS (by operator) • “Central area” - 200 kbit/s • “Surrounding area” – 100 kbit/s

• Other considerations
• All BTSs and TRXs EDGE capable • Gb implementation planned as Frame Relay
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Dimensioning Inputs
TRX and Abis Configurations before EDGE Implementation
• TRX configurations
• No DR/HR implementation

2+2+2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TRXSIG1 TRXSIG3 TRXSIG5 BCFSIG TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TRXSIG2 TRXSIG4 TRXSIG6 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4 TCH0 TCH4

4+4+4
TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH1 TCH5 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH2 TCH6 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7 TCH3 TCH7

• Abis configurations
• Each BCF has own E1

• 2+2+2 configuration
BCCH TCH TSL0 MBCCH TCH/F TSL1 SDCCH TCH/F TSL2 TCH/F TCH/F TSL3 TCH/F TCH/F TSL4 TCH/F TCH/F TSL5 TCH/F TCH/F TSL6 TCH/F TCH/F TSL7 TCH/F TCH/F

• 4+4+4 configuration
BCCH TCH TCH TCH TSL0 MBCCH TCH/F SDCCH TCH/F TSL1 SDCCH TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TSL2 TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TSL3 TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TSL4 TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TSL5 TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TSL6 TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TSL7 TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F

Q1-management

TRXSIG1 TRXSIG2 TRXSIG3 TRXSIG4 TRXSIG5 TRXSIG6 TRXSIG7 TRXSIG8 TRXSIG9 TRXSIG10 TRXSIG11 TRXSIG12 BCFSIG Q1-management

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Dimensioning Inputs – Deployment Scenarios
• TRX configurations
• No DR/HR implementation • GTRX = Y

• Typically best C/I TRX preferred for maximum throughput • Depending on frequency plan this can be either BCCH or TCH TRX • Features impacting location selection:
• DR RTSL location needs to be considered with 2+2+2 configuration • DR RTSLs should not be allocated close to GPRS territory boundary.

• BTS configuration
• GENA = Y, EGENA = Y, CMAX = 100 %

• Abis configurations
• Each BCF has own E1

• Rf-environment
• Average C/I = 16 dB (BCCH-layer) • Average RxLevel = -85 dBm Average RLC/MAC throughput for EDGE 35 kbit/s (BCCH layer)

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Dimensioning Inputs – Free timeslots on Air IF
TRX 1
TSL number after CS downgrade TRX number 1 2 0 1 1 3 0 1 2 4 1 2 2 5 1 2 3

BCCH SDCCH T S

T S

T S

T S

T S

T S

GT RX GE NA

free TSL for CS downgrade (%) (CSD)
TSL number after CS upgrade TRX number

70 95 99

0 1 1

Territory border

E GE NA CMAX T S T S T S GT RX

TRX 2

T S

T S

T S

T S

T S

free TSL for CS upgrade (sec) (CSU)

1 4 7 10

1 0 1 1 2

2 1 2 2 3

3 1 2 3 4

4 1 3 4 5

5 2 4 5 6

BCCH = Signaling T S T S = Free T SL for CSW = CDE F

T S T S T S

= CSW T erritory = (E )GPRS T erritory/Additional capacity = CDE D

• Free RTSLs between CS and PS territory required in order to serve incoming CS calls without blocking • Table above gives free RTSLs with default parameters
• CS downgrade – if less RTSLs free in CS territory, PS territory downgrade triggered • CS upgrade – PS territory upgrade can be triggered if at least that amount of RTSLs free • Free TSLs for up and downgrade can be controlled by BSC parameters
• free TSL for CS downgrade • free TSL for CS upgrade

• Mean free RTSLs for 2 TRXs: 1.5; Mean free RTSLs for 4 TRXs: 2.5
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Air Interface – Available Capacity
2+2+2 configuration
• 2 TRXs, 16 RTSLs
• 2 RTSLs for signaling • 14 RTSLs for CS traffic

4+4+4 configuration
• 4 TRXs, RTSLs
• 3 RTSLs for signaling • 29 RTSLs for CS traffic

• CS BH traffic 8 Erl per BTS – all BTSs have same BH traffic • Erlang B table – 1.7% CS blocking @ BH • Mean free RTSLs = 1.5 • Average available for PS traffic @ CS BH Amount_of_TRXs*8 - signaling_RTSLs – CS_BH_traffic-free_RTSLs = 2*8-2-8-1.5 =4.5 RTSLs • Average PS traffic @ CS BH 4.5*35 kbit/s = 157.5 kbit/s (> 100 kbit/s)
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• CS BH traffic 18 Erl per BTS – all BTSs have same BH traffic • Erlang B table – 0.4% CS blocking @ BH • Mean free RTSLs = 2.5 • Average available for PS traffic @ CS BH Amount_of_TRXs*8 - signaling_RTSLs – CS_BH_traffic-free_RTSLs = 4*8-3-18-2.5 = 8.5 RTSLs • Average PS traffic @ CS BH 8.5*35 kbit/s = 297.5 kbit/s (> 200 kbit/s)

Air Interface – Available Capacity (Default Territory Size)
2+2+2 – territory considerations • MS multislot capability (4 RTSLs) • Data throughput 100 kbit/s • Air interface – 35 kbit/RTSL => RTSLs to support 100 kbit/s 100/35 = 2.9 TSLs ~ 3 RTSLs Default territory size Max(MS_multislot, traffic) = 4 RTSLs 4+4+4 – territory considerations • MS multislot capability (4 RTSLs) • Data throughput 200 kbit/s • Air interface – 35 kbit/RTSL => RTSLs to support 200 kbit/s 200/35 = 5.7 TSLs ~ 6 RTSLs Default territory size Max(MS_multislot, traffic) = 6 RTSLs

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Air Interface – Required Capacity (Dedicated Territory Size)
•Streaming user support required per BTS (one streaming user) •Streaming requires 50 kbit/s => (50kbit/s)/(35 kbit/s/RTSL) = 2 RTSLs needs to be dedicated (CDED) per BTS in order to support streaming
2+2+2 configuration • Available RTSLs for CS traffic per BTS 14 – 2 (CDED) = 12 RTSLs • Traffic per BTS = 8 Erl Erlang B (8Erl, 12 TSLs) = 5.1% CS blocking 4+4+4 configuration Available RTSLs for CS traffic per BTS 29-2 (CDED) = 27 RTSLs

Traffic per BTS = 18 Erl
Erlang B (18Erl, 27 TSLs) = 1.1% CS blocking

5.1% > 2% - NOK Needed channels for 2% CS blocking Erlang B (8Erl,2%) = 14 channels Either 2 more RTSLs (DR/HR) are needed or one new TRX Capacity increase done with DR RTSLs
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1.1% < 2% - OK

Air Interface Calculations – Summary
• 2+2+2 configurations
• Territory located in BCCH TRX

• 4+4+4 configurations
• Territory located in BCCH TRX

• 2 RTSL dedicated territory to support streaming
• 4 RTSL default territory for 2+2+2 configuration • 2 additional DR RTSLs needed to get blocking less than 2%

• 2 RTSL dedicated territory per BTS for streaming support
• 6 RTSL default territory for 4+4+4 configuration • No additional DR RTSLs or TRXs needed

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Connectivity Capacity - CDEF
The results of default territory size calculations (refer to slide 8) determines the CDEF parameter value.

2+2+2 configuration • CDEF is given by Max(MS_multislot, traffic)
• Max(4, 2.9) => 4

4+4+4 configuration
• CDEF is given by Max(MS_multislot, traffic)
• Max(4, 5.7) => 6

• The CDEF parameter set is 4 RTSLs

• The CDEF parameter set is 6 RTSLs

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Connectivity Capacity - EDAP Size
General EDAP size considerations: • If support for MCS-9 at least with one MS in one BTS of BCF is required. (Needed if MS multislot capability not taken into account with default territory calculations) Min_EDAP_1 = MS_Multislot capability (= 4 TSLs) • If EDAP has more than one BTS attached, BTS multiplexing factor can be taken into account if
• EDAP peak load is estimated to exceed one BTSs territory size • BTS multiplexing factor can be estimated e.g. by k = 2/(1+1/x), where x= amount of BTSs in one EDAP

• EDAP size can be estimated by EDAP_size = k * Min_EDAP_size

• If support for MCS-9 in all GPRS territory timeslots of BTSs is required
Min_EDAP_2 = Max_Default_Territory_size_of one_BTS

• Minimum EDAP size can be calculated from above input
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# of BTSs 1 2 3

k 1.0 1.3 1.5

Connectivity Capacity - EDAP Size Considerations
2+2+2 configuration • MS Multislot capability = 4 RTSLs • Default territory size per BTS = 4 RTSLs => Min_EDAP_size = Max(4,4) = 4
# of BTSs 1 2 3 k 1.0 1.3 1.5

4+4+4 configuration • MS Multislot capability = 4 RTSLs • Default territory size per BTS = 6 RTSLs => Min_EDAP_size = Max(4,6) = 6
2+2+2 4.0 5.3 6.0 4+4+4 6.0 8.0 9.0

EDAP sizes with different configurations • Capacity for EDAPs in E1 for 2+2+2 is 16 and for 4+4+4 configuration 2 TSLs 2+2+2 configuration fits easily into existing E1 4+4+4 configuration does not fit into existing E1 • Abis TSL allocation of 4+4+4 configuration needs redesign
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Connectivity Capacity - EDAP Size Considerations
• Two options for Abis TSL allocation
• TRXs are grouped by function so that all EDGE TRXs and EDAP are allocated to one E1 while the non-EDGE resources are mapped to other E1 frame. One EDAP is enough to serve all cells (BTS objects) • TRXs are grouped by cell so that two cells are allocated to one E1 and the third one to the second E1. In this case EDAP is created for both groups.

• Pros and cons.
• TRXs grouped by function (the 1st E1: 2+2+2 & EDAP, the 2nd E1 2+2+2 non-EDGE)
• + maximum trunking gain of the EDAP can be achieved  less total Abis capacity is required (#TSLs for EDAP = 9) • + smaller number of EDAPs saves PCU resources • - Special care needed to maintain and upgrade the configuration to keep the original slit.

• TRXs grouped by cell (the 1st E1: 4+4 & EDAP1, the 2nd E1 4 & EDAP2)
• + Straightforward to maintain and upgrade • - trunking gain of the EDAPs is smaller or non  more total Abis capacity is required (#TSLs for EDAP = 8+6 = 14) • - bigger number of EDAPs eats more PCU resources

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Connectivity Capacity - EDAP Size Considerations Cell A
0 1 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 2 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 3 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 4 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 5 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 6 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 7 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 8 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 9 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 10 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 11 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 12 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 TRXSIG1 TRXSIG2 TRXSIG3 TRXSIG4 29 TRXSIG5 TRXSIG6 30 BCFSIG 31 Q1-management 0 1 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 2 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 3 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 4 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 5 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 6 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 7 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 8 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 9 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 10 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 11 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 12 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 TRXSIG7 TRXSIG8 30 TRXSIG9 TRXSIG10 TRXSIG11 TRXSIG12 31 Q1-management

0 1 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 2 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 3 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 4 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 5 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 6 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 7 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 8 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 9 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 10 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 11 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 12 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 13 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 14 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 15 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 16 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 TRXSIG1 TRXSIG2 TRXSIG3 TRXSIG4 29 TRXSIG5 TRXSIG6 TRXSIG7 TRXSIG8 30 BCFSIG 31 Q1-management

0 1 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 2 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 3 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 4 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 5 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 6 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 7 TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 8 TCH4 TCH5 TCH6 TCH7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 TRXSIG9 TRXSIG10 TRXSIG11 TRXSIG12 31 Q1-management

EGDE resources

Non-EGDE resources

Cell A & B resources

Cell C resources

TRXs grouped by function One EDAP 9TSL
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TRXs grouped by cells Two EDAPs 8 TSL and 6 TSL

Connectivity Capacity - EDAP Summary
• 2+2+2 configuration
• EDAP size 6 TSLs

• 4+4+4 configuration
• EDAP size 9 TSLs

• EDAP fits in existing E1

• EDGE TRXs grouped for same E1
• A new E1 needed for each 4+4+4 BCF -> need for 15 new E1s

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Connectivity Capacity - PCU Planning Considerations
Target is to calculate the optimal number of PCUs to serve the given network. • PCU utilization 75% (25% connectivity for territory upgrdaes) • Recommended number of EDAPs per PCU is 1,2,4 or 8 • The optimal number of EDAPs and associated default RTSL is calculated for each PCU configuration.
• E.g. up to 5 EDAPs of size 6 TSL serving three cells each having default territory size 4 RTSL can be allocated to PCU without exceeding the 75%. • To full fill the 1,2,4 and 8 recommendation the number of EDAPs would be 4
#EDAPs EDAP size #RTSL in territory #cells (territories) per EDAP #EDAP TSLs #RTSLs PCU Utilization 5 6 4 3 30 60 70% 6 6 6 1 36 36 70% 4 8 6 2 32 48 69% 3 9 6 3 27 54 63%

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Connectivity Capacity - PCU Configurations and Requirements
• Table below lists possible PCU combinations
BTS configuration 2+2+2 (12) 4+4+4 (18) total PCU Abis load PCU load% EDAP size 6 0 9 4 4 216 84%

0 3 3 162 63%

1 3 4 198 77%

3 2 4 3 5 2 2 1 1 0 5 4 5 4 5 216 180 198 162 180 84% 70% 77% 63% 70%

4 0 4 144 56%

• 4+4+4 configurations -> 3 sites per PCU has too low load, 4 too low • 2+2+2 configuration -> 5 sites per PCU provides reasonable load

• When considering total network, 15 (4+4+4) and 25 (2+2+2) configurations one possibility is to have
• 5 PCUs with 1 (2+2+2) and 3 (4+4+4) configurations • 4 PCUs with 5 (2+2+2) configurations
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Connectivity Capacity - Gb Link Size Requirements
Gb over FR • Gb link size can be calculated from maximum EDAP size of PCU Gb_link_size=5/4*Max_EDAP_size as minimum • Inputs from PCU planning
• 5 PCUs with 1 EDAP of 6 TSLs and 3 EDAPs of 9 TSLs

• 4 PCUs with EDAP of 6 TSLs

• Gb link sizes / PCU
• Gb_link1 = 5/4*9 = 11.25 TSLs ~ 11 TSLs • Gb_link2 = 5/4*6 = 7.5 TSLs ~ 8 TSLs

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Connectivity Capacity - Gb Links
• When Gb links are combined into E1s maximum 31 TSLs can be used
Gb #PCU links 5 11 4 8

3 0 33

2 0 22

2 1 30

1 2 27

2 2 38

• Table above shows that 1 E1 can fit well either
• 2 Gb links of 11 TSLs and one link of 8 TSL • 1 Gb link of 11 TSL and two links of 8 TSLs

• 9 PCUs can therefore be fitted into 3 E1 links

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Connectivity Capacity - Summary
DR RTSLs PCUs E1s for Abis E1s for Gb 150 9 15 3

Configuration CDED CDEF EDAP 2+2+2 2 4 6 4+4+4 2 6 9

# of PCUs BTS Configurations 5 3*(4+4+4) 1*(2+2+2) 4 5*(2+2+2)

Abis util. Gb Link 77% 11 70% 8

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Mobility Planning
Cell outage PCU allocation Planning

LA/RA Design

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Mobility Planning
• The aim of mobility planning is to reduce the cell outage time during cell reselection. • Cell outage can be reduced by
• Providing enough signaling capacity for cell re-selection (the RACH, PCH, AGCH and SDCCH channel are not limiting the signaling flow) • Allocating BCFs to PCUs properly (the important neighbors are allocated to the same PCU)

• Allocating LA/RA borders properly
• Using Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC) feature

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Cell Outage Time with intra/inter PCU
Outage measurements • Cell Outage (MS - PCU) is measured between the first BCCH observation and Packet Uplink Assignment • Data Outage (MS - SGSN) is measured between the first BCCH observation and Packet Downlink Assignment
Event name RLC/MAC Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Cell Reselection Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink RLC/MAC Uplink RLC/MAC Downlink RLC/MAC Downlink RLC/MAC Downlink … 167 © 2005 Nokia … … … Time Channel Message 20:42.0 PACCH "EGPRS_PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK" 20:42.0 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_1" 20:42.0 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_2" 20:42.0 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_3" 20:42.0 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_4" 20:42.6 20:42.8 20:42.8 20:43.1 20:43.1 20:43.2 20:43.2 20:43.2 20:43.3 20:43.3 20:43.8 20:43.8 20:44.0 20:44.0 20:44.0 … … … … BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_4" from CI 5032 to CI 5033 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_2" BCCH RACH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH BCCH BCCH PACCH PACCH PACCH PACCH … (E)GPRS EXPLAIN … … "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_13" "CHANNEL_REQUEST" "IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT" "PAGING_REQUEST_TYPE_1" "PAGING_REQUEST_TYPE_1" "PAGING_REQUEST_TYPE_1" "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_2" "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_13" "PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST" "PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT" "PACKET_DOWNLINK_DUMMY_CONTROL_BLOCK" "PACKET_DOWNLINK_DUMMY_CONTROL_BLOCK" … … … … …

Test cases • Intra PCU cell-reselection outage • Inter PCU cell-reselection outage

From EGPRS PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK Diff. Between BSS and till Packet Uplink Assign. (ms) till Packet Downlink Assign. (ms) full cell-outage (ms) 2.07 2.341 0.27 3.07 3.349 0.28 2.09 2.354 0.26 2.10 2.358 0.26 2.09 2.375 0.28 2.11 2.393 0.28 2.10 2.658 0.56 2.09 2.355 0.26 2.11 2.395 0.28 2.10 2.38 0.28 6.00 6.254 0.26 2.12 2.379 0.26 2.094 2.629 0.54 2.09 2.631 0.54 2.14 2.7 0.56 2.07 4.011 1.94 2.10 2.379 0.28 2.10 2.385 0.28 2.37 2.80 0.43

RLC/MAC Downlink 20:44.2 PACCH "PACKET_DOWNLINK_DUMMY_CONTROL_BLOCK" RLC/MAC Downlink 20:44.2 PACCH "PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT" RLC/MAC Uplink 20:44.3 PACCH "EGPRS_PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK" Company Confidential

Cell Outage Time with LAU/RAU
… …

Event name Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Downlink Cell Reselection Layer 3 Downlink … Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Uplink Layer 3 Downlink … … …

Time … …

Channel Message … … … "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_1" … "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_13" from 5691 to 5753 "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_2" … "CHANNEL_REQUEST" "IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT" "LOCATION_UPDATING_REQUEST" "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_6" "MEASUREMENT_REPORT" "CLASSMARK_CHANGE" "CIPHERING_MODE_COMMAND" "GPRS_SUSPENSION_REQUEST" "CIPHERING_MODE_COMPLETE" "IDENTITY_REQUEST" "MEASUREMENT_REPORT" "IDENTITY_RESPONSE" "LOCATION_UPDATING_ACCEPT" "MEASUREMENT_REPORT" "MM_INFORMATION" "MEASUREMENT_REPORT" "CHANNEL_RELEASE" … "ROUTING_AREA_UPDATE_REQUEST" … "CHANNEL_REQUEST" "IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT" …

8:44:05.801 BCCH 8:44:10.797 BCCH 8:44:10.906 8:44:11.018 BCCH … … 8:44:11.997 8:44:12.101 8:44:12.313 8:44:12.353 8:44:12.388 8:44:12.548 8:44:12.764 8:44:12.784 8:44:13.020 8:44:13.224 8:44:13.350 8:44:13.490 8:44:13.697 8:44:13.799 8:44:14.168 8:44:14.284 8:44:14.399 … RACH CCCH SDCCH SACCH SACCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SACCH SDCCH SDCCH SACCH SDCCH SACCH SDCCH …

Outage measurements • Cell Outage (MS - PCU) is measured between the first BCCH observation and Packet Uplink Assignment with LA and RA Update procedure • Data Outage (MS - SGSN) is measured between the first BCCH observation and Packet Downlink Assignment after Routing Area Update Complete

8:44:16.258 PDTCH 8:44:16.752 RACH 8:44:16.829 CCCH … … … …

Layer 3 Uplink 8:44:16.258 PDTCH RLC/MAC Uplink 8:44:17.401 PACCH RLC/MAC Downlink 8:44:17.607 PACCH
RLC/MAC Downlink 8:44:17.886 PACCH Layer 3 Downlink Layer 3 Uplink RLC/MAC Uplink … … 8:44:18.950 PDTCH 8:44:18.964 PDTCH 8:44:19.119 PACCH … … … … … … …

"ROUTING_AREA_UPDATE_REQUEST" "PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST" "PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT"
"PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT" "ROUTING_AREA_UPDATE_ACCEPT" "ROUTING_AREA_UPDATE_COMPLETE" "EGPRS_PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK" … … …

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PCU Allocation Plan
• The proper allocation of the cells among PCUs can help to maximize the number of intra PCU cell re-selections, which is the most stable cell re-selection event.
• RLC/MAC layer: The intra PCU cell re-selection takes less time compared with inter PCU cell reselection • LLC layer: In case of intra PCU cell re-selection the untransferred data is moved to new cell (BVCI) and the transfer can be continued on new cell without packet loss on higher layer, while in case of inter PCU cell re-selection the untransferred data is not moved to new cell (BVCI).

• The following rules can be followed:
• The cells of a BCF should be connected to the same PCU • The neighbor relations with high re-selection traffic should be connected to the same PCU • The neighbor relations in very bad signal and quality environment should be connected to the same PCU

• NACC and NCCR can be used if there is not any possibility to connect the neighbor cells to the same PCU (NACC is working inside BSCs only)

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LA/RA Design – Radio Aspects
• Important to avoid LA/RA border allocation between cell with high neighboring traffic • Usage of NMO I, where the combined RA reduces the cell re-selection time Radio Aspect of LA/RA Design
• The too big LA/RA will increase the paging, while the too small LA/RA will increase the LA/RA Update. So the balance should be found between too big and too small LA/RAs. • The not so appropriate LA/RA border design can significantly increase the signaling on air interface signaling channels and TRXSIG on LA/RA border cells, so the cell-reselection outage can be longer in this case because of congestion on signaling. • The LA/RA border should be moved from those areas where the normal CSW and PSW traffic is very high. • The combined RAU (NMO I with Gs) is shorter compared to NMO II • In S11 backwards the GPRS resume always can cause a lot of RAs if GPRS MS has high CS call activity, but this behavior cannot be avoided by proper LA/RA design
• In S11.5 the Resume is working without LA/RA update
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(E)GPRS Explain
Functionality Network Audit Network Dimensioning and Planning Network Optimization Tools

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(E)GPRS BSS Network Optimization - Structure
• GSM Network Optimization
• Coverage maximization • Interference reduction • Capacity optimization (air interface and connectivity)

• (E)GPRS Network Optimization
• Signaling capacity & resource allocation improvement • Data Rate
• Connectivity Capacity (MS-SGSN) • TSL data rate improvement and multislot usage maximization (BSS) • E2E data rate (applications)

• Mobility improvement

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GSM Network Optimization
The optimal GSM network from PSW services point of view has: • As high signal level as possible
• It means that even the indoor signal level should be high enough to have MCS9 for getting the highest data rate on RLC/MAC layer.

• As low interference as possible
• The aim of having high C/I is to avoid throughput reduction based on interference.

• Enough capacity
• Enough BSS hardware capacity (interface and connectivity) is needed to provide the required capacity for PSW services in time. Both CSW and PSW traffic management should be harmonized with the layer structure and long term plans.

• As few cell-reselection as possible
• The dominant cell coverage is important to avoid unnecessary cell-reselections in mobility. The prudent PCU allocation can help to reduce the inter PCU cell reselections. • Dominant cell structure can help to maximize the signal level and reduce the interference, too.

• Features
• All the features should be used which can improve the PSW service coverage, capacity and quality in general.

Before any (E)GPRS optimization related activities the GSM network should be optimized!!!

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(E)GPRS Network Optimization - Structure
Signaling Capacity & Resource Allocation improvement
• Signaling
• RF, TRXSIG, BCSU, PCU, MM and SM signaling

• Resource Allocation
• Cell (re)-selection, BTS selection, scheduling

Data Rate
• Connectivity Capacity (MS-SGSN)
• CDEF size, DAP size, # of PCUs and BCF allocation among PCUs, Gb size and PAPU (SGSN)

• TSL data rate improvement and multi-slot usage maximization (BSS)
• TSL utilization, TBF release delay and BS_CV_MAX, LA, UL PC, multiplexing, multislot usage

• E2E data rate (applications)
• Flow control, SGSN, TCP/IP, applications

Mobility improvement (outage reduction)
• PCU rebalancing • LA/RA design • NACC
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E2E Data Rate Optimization - Structure
• Connectivity Capacity Optimization (MS-SGSN)
• CDEF, DAP and PCU (BSC) • PCU (BSC) and Gb, PAPU (SGSN) • PCU Rebalancing and Allocation

• TSL data rate improvement and multislot usage maximization (BSS)
• • • • • • TSL utilization Delayed TBF release and BS_CV_MAX Link Adaptation Multiplexing UL Power control Multislot usage

• E2E Data Rate Optimization (applications)
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TSL Data Rate and Multislot Usage Improvement – Structure
• TSL Utilization
• Acknowledgement Request, Pre-emptive transmission, One Phase Access with EPCR

• Delayed TBF Release (TBF Release Delay, TBF Release Delay Extended)
• BS_CV_MAX • Link Adaptation (GPRS, GPRS (CS1-4), EGPRS) • Multiplexing • UL Power Control • Multislot Usage

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(E)GPRS Explain
Functionality Network Audit Network Dimensioning and Planning Network Optimization Tools

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Tools for (E)GPRS Planning
NetAct Planner

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Tools for (E)GPRS Planning
• NetAct MultiRadio Planner
• Data service area and throughput analysis
• Coverage analysis for both GMSK and 8-PSK modulations • The service area analyses are based on the interference levels in the network and on the selected coding scheme • C/I is calculated as an average interference in the network • Data rate/TSL depends on the interference ratio and it is shown in each pixel • Link Adaptation and Incremental Redundancy included • Frequency Hopping utilization • User-editable C/I vs. throughput dependency table

• User editable Coding Schemes
• GPRS (4), EDGE (9)

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Tools for (E)GPRS Planning
• Traffic carried by different coding schemes
• NetAct radio planning capacity definition process:
Input

Analysis of the existing configuration (and data rate/TSL) CS/PS traffic load estimation (GoS,QoS)

Iteration based on the input
Output

Configuration

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Tools for (E)GPRS Planning
• NetAct Transmission Planner:
• Access Transmission & Core Network Planning

TRS Planning Process:
Input

Capacity & equipment plan

• Capacity planning
• Configuration planning • ATM/IP • PDH/SDH Traffic planning, TSL allocation plan, TRS management plan, connectivity plan ATM Plan (delay calc., AAL2, VPC/VCC) IP Plan (addressing, routing)
Output

• Multi-layer network modeling and routing
• Link planning

Configuration

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Tools for (E)GPRS Planning
• NetAct Quality Planner (Drive test analysis tool)
• Measurement replay • Call success rate analysis • Signal level and quality analysis • Statistical analysis (KPI) • Handover analysis • Neighbor analysis • Probe • Site database
GSM data formats supported
• NEMO - v1.70 -1.73 • TEMS 3.x – 5.x
(fmt files generated via Quality Planner specific export plan)

To be supported (parser/loader)
• R&S equipment • SwissQual • DTI and Clarify equipment • Anritsu equipment

• AGILENT - SD5 (nitro 7) • NEPTUNE - all versions
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Tools for (E)GPRS Planning
• NetAct Quality Planner

• GPRS data analysis
• Average DL/UL throughput • Average RXLev

• Average UL/DL TS in use
• % data using CS1 and CS2 • Total UL/DL volume for RLC and LLC in bytes • Total number of RLC and LLC retransmissions in bytes • Total throughput of RLC and LLC in bytes • Efficiency of RLC and LLC in % • Number of cell reselections
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• Routing area ID‟s

• GPRS cell statistics

Tools for (E)GPRS Planning
• Drive Test/Analysis Tools with (E)GPRS support

<Nemo picture here>

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Tools for (E)GPRS Planning
• NetAct Reporter
• Reporter supports viewing and analysing the network performance, fault and configuration data coming from different sources

• Based on numerous counters which enables full support to (E)PRS performance analysis

• Report Builder
• central application
• administer the reporting environment
• create and manage KPIs • create and manage reports • manage the permissions to access data • run reports

• easy-to-use graphical user interface • regional/global level
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Tools for (E)GPRS Planning
• Report Browser & KPI Browser
• Access to reports • Web interface • Drill down
• KPI details

• regional/global level

• Optional, e.g.
• Global Reporter
• PM Database

• Reporting Suite
• Ready-made on-demand reports

• ~200 reports/1000 KPIs

• Network Doctor
• Ready-made textual reports (CM/FM/PM) • On-the-field developed reports focusing on network planning and O&M
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(E)GPRS Explain - Appendix
Implementing and enabling (E)GPRS

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Implementing (E)GPRS
Overview of implementing EGPRS
• The required steps depend on whether the GPRS is already integrated or not
• You can activate EDGE in the network using NetAct

Prerequisites
• Node Managers (Remote BTS manager, UltraSite BTS Hub Manager) must be integrated to NetAct • OSS3.1ED2 software (for RNW Planning e.g. Plan Manager)

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Implementing (E)GPRS
The process of integrating a new EDGE BSS to the radio network (no GPRS BSS)

Create Gb interface *)
Create Routing area and OMU/TRX links Create Dynamic Abis pool and radio network objects *)

Activate BCF software
Commission Base Station Unlock radio network objects

Company Confidential *) EDAP and Gb interfaces are described later
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Implementing (E)GPRS
The process of implementing EDGE in an integrated GPRS BSS

Activate BCF software

Activate EDGE in BTS already integrated in the network

Enable EGPRS in BSC

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Enabling (E)GPRS
The steps to create radio network objects
Create a BCF Create a BTS

Create handover and power control parameters Attach BTS to RAC
Enable EGPRS (EGENA/Y) Define GPRS and EGPRS parameters Enable GPRS (GENA/Y) Create a TRX with DAP connection

RAC= Routing Area code Company Confidential
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Enabling (E)GPRS
The steps to enable the (E)GPRS in BSC
Create the dynamic Abis pool Disable the GPRS in the cell Lock the BTS Lock the TRX Delete the TRX to be connected to Dynamic Abis pool Create a TRX which uses the dynamic Abis pool
All the TRXs that will be using EGPRS in the BTS must be attached to a dynamic Abis pool

Unlock the TRX Enable EGPRS in the BTS (EGENA/Y) Enable GPRS in the cell (GENA/Y) Unlock the BTS
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Enabling (E)GPRS
To be considered:
• When the TRX has been created with EDAP defined at BSC and EGPRS feature is enabled, the TRX must be attached to EDAP on the BTS side also not to fail the configuration of BCF
• EDAP in BSC must be inside the TSL boundaries defined in the BTS side
• When modifying EDAP the size of EDAP in the BTS has to be the same as the size of EDAP in the BSC

• Creating, modifying or deleting of EDAP in the BSC will cause a territory downgrade/upgrade procedure to all territories served by the PCU in question
• The ongoing EGPRS/GPRS connections will pause and resume immediately

• The maximum EDAP size is 12 timeslots
• EDAP must be located on the same ET-PCM line as TRX signaling and traffic channels • There are no specific commissioning tests concerning EDAP • EDAP must be located on the same BCSU as Gb interface Company Confidential
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