Module 10 - 1

Module 10

Visual Inspection and Other NDE Methods and Symbols
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Module 10 - 2

Visual Inspection
Very cost effective  Limited to surface only  Requires

– Training – Experience – Welding knowledge – Proper tools

Must be continuous, ongoing

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Module 10 - 3

Application of VT
Before welding  During welding  After welding

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4 VT Before Welding Review documents  Check welding procedures  Qualify/Certify welders.Module 10 . or check certifications  Establish hold points  Develop inspection plan  Develop system for reject identification  Develop defect repair system  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

5 VT Immediately Before Welding Check base and filler metals  Check welding equipment  Check weld preparations  Check joint fitup  Check weld joint cleanliness  Check preheat.Module 10 . if required  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

6 VT During Welding Note welder skills  Check welding variables/procedure compliance  Examine tacks and roots  Check backgouged surfaces  Check preheat temperatures  Check interpass temperatures  Check interpass cleaning  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

Module 10 .7 VT After Welding Examine weld appearance  Check weld size and length  Check part dimensions  Monitor other NDE methods  Monitor postweld heat treating  Prepare inspection reports  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

8 Visual Inspection Tools Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

9 Prebending and Presetting Pieces to Allow for Distortion Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

Module 10 .10 Temperature Measurements  Required for: – Preheat – Interpass temperature limits – Post weld heat treatments  Typically achieved by: – Temperature sensitive crayons – Digital pyrometers Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

11 Temperature-sensitive Crayons Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

12 Digital Contact Pyrometer Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

Module 10 .13 Fillet Weld Size Convex or concave ??  Use correct template gage  Estimate between gage sizes  Measure to nearest 1/32” or 1/16”  Measure smallest region  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Module 10 .14 Measuring Fillet Size Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Module 10 .15 Nondestructive Testing “Method of testing to evaluate quality and not effect end-use serviceability” Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

16 Elements of all NDE Methods Source of probing energy  Discontinuities alter probing energy  Detection of energy alteration  Indication of energy alteration  Recording and evaluating indications  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

17 Common NDE Methods Penetrant  Magnetic Particle  Radiographic  Ultrasonic  Eddy Current  PT MT RT UT ET Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

Module 10 .18 Penetrant Testing Surface discontinuities only  Relies on penetrant „bleedout‟  Magnifies discontinuity size  Several methods  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Module 10 .19 PT Types Visible dye  Fluorescent dye  Three removal systems:  Solvent  Water  Emulsifiable Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

20 Clean the Surface Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

Module 10 .21 Apply Penetrant Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

or longer in special cases Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .22 Dwell Time Varies with the nature of the job. typically in the range of 2 to 20 minutes.Module 10 .

Module 10 .23 Remove Excess Penetrant Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

24 Remove Excess Penetrant Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

25 Remove Excess Penetrant Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

Module 10 .26 Remove Excess Penetrant Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

which can lead to excessive developer on surface.27 Apply Developer In this example. spray can is too close to the weld surface.Module 10 . Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y . A distance of 10-12 inches is better.

this can mask discontinuities Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .28 Excessive Developer Note „runs‟ caused by excess developer.

Module 10 .29 Evaluate PT Note porosity and crack indications Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

particularly if work piece is to be weld repaired or painted. Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .30 Clean Part Post inspection removal of developer residues may be required.Module 10 .

31 PT Advantages Relatively simple  All types of metals  Quite sensitive  Quite portable  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

Module 10 .32 PT Limitations Somewhat slow  Limited to surface  Smooth surfaces required  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Module 10 .33 PT Results Sketches  Photographs  Lift off tapes  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

34 Magnetic Particle Testing Parts are magnetized  Iron particle accumulation at flaw  Magnifies flaw size  Relatively quick process  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

Module 10 .35 Aspects of a Magnet Magnetic flux (field)  North and south poles  Like sign poles repel  Opposite signs attract  Flux lines are parallel to each other. do not cross  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Module 10 .36 Magnetic Fields Produced by two methods:  Permanent magnets  Electro magnets – Direct current – Alternating current – Half wave rectified AC Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Module 10 .37 Permanent Magnet Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Module 10 .38 Electromagnets “A current-carrying conductor creates a magnetic flux around the conductor and perpendicular to the current flow.” Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

39 Magnetic Field Around Conductor Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

Module 10 . Very attractive to iron particles” Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .40 MT Principles “A flaw oriented transverse to magnetic flux creates poles of opposite signs at edges of flaw.

Module 10 .41 Magnetic Particles Iron based  Dry or wet  Types  – Color dyed – Fluorescent Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

42 Longitudinal Magnetism Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

43 Circular Magnetism Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

44 MT Steps Magnetize part  Apply iron particles  Evaluate accumulation  Clean part  Demagnetize part  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

45 MT Equipment AC / DC bench units  AC yokes  AC / DC yokes  AC / DC prods  AC / DC coils  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

Module 10 - 46

Central Conductor Method

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Module 10 - 47

MT Method --Yoke

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Module 10 - 48

MT Method --Prods

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Module 10 .49 MT Advantages Rapid  Very sensitive  Low cost  Portable  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Module 10 .50 MT Limitations Magnetic materials only  Poor with thick coatings  Limited to surface. or near-surface  Demagnetization may be required  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Module 10 .51 MT Results Sketches  Photographs  Lift off tapes  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Module 10 .” Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .52 Radiographic Testing “Based on the principle of preferential radiation transmission or absorption.

Module 10 .53 X-Ray Machine (aimed down) Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

or higher density materials absorb more radiation.Module 10 . resulting in less transmission to the film.54 Radiation Absorption “Thicker.” Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

55 Absorption vs Thickness Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

70 7.87 8.Metal Densities Grams/cubic centimeter Aluminum Steel Copper Lead Tungsten 2.34 19.56 Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .30 Module 10 .96 11.

57 Absorption vs Density Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

58 Radiation Types  Gamma radiation sources – Iridium 192 – Cobalt 60 – Cesium 137  X-Ray – Machine Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

Module 10 .59 RT Steps Position radiation source  Position film behind object  Expose radiation  Develop film  Evaluate  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

60 Film Density Vs Flaws Darker film zones:  Cracks.Module 10 . slag. porosity  Incomplete joint penetration Lighter film zones:  Tungsten inclusions  Melt through. reinforcement Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

61 2 T hole 1 T hole 4 T hole Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Hole Type Image Quality Indicators Module 10 .

62 Wire Type Image Quality Indicators Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

63 RT Equipment  Radiation source – X-ray machine – Gamma radiation source Densitometer / film density strips  Film processor   Radiation monitor  Film holders  IQI‟s  Film viewers Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

Orientation of Source.64 Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y . Plate. & Film Module 10 .

Module 10 .65 RT Advantages Detects subsurface flaws  Used for all materials  Film is permanent record  – If stored properly Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Module 10 .66 RT Limitations Radiation hazard  Requires access to both sides  Flaw orientation  Flaw types  Film interpretation  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Module 10 .67 RT Results Film  Video tape  Sketches  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Module 10 .” Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y . and the reflected echo from density changes.68 Ultrasonic Testing “Based on the propagation of sound waves through materials.

” Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .69 Piezoelectric Effect “Refers to materials which can convert electrical energy to mechanical energy and vice versa.Module 10 .

based in part. on material density.70 Principles of Sound Sound travels within a given material at a constant velocity. There are several types of sound waves: Longitudinal (straight beam)  Shear (angle beam)  Others not pertinent to weld inspection  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 . Sound will not travel in a vacuum.

Module 10 - 71

UT Equipment & Operation
Electronic base unit  Piezoelectric transducer  Calibration blocks

Couple probe to part with couplant  Carry out testing  Evaluate signals

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Module 10 - 72

UT Process

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Module 10 - 73

Longitudinal Calibration

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74 Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .1 of 2 Module 10 .UT Process .

Module 10 .75 UT Process .2 of 2 Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

76 Angle Beam Testing of Weld Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

77 Weld Testing .Module 10 .1 of 2 Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

2 of 2 Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .78 Weld Testing .Module 10 .

200”  Critical flaws found  Equipment fully portable  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .79 UT Advantages A true volumetric test  One side access  Very accurate  Deep penetration .Module 10 .

Module 10 .80 UT Limitations Highly skilled operator  Smooth surfaces  Groove welds > 1/4” thick  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

” Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .81 Eddy Current Testing “Based on the principle of eddy currents being formed in conductive materials in the presence of an AC coil and changes in those eddy currents by material changes.Module 10 .

Module 10 .82 Test Coil Induced Eddy Currents Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Module 10 .83 ET Uses Flaw detection  Metal thickness  Coating thickness  Metal hardness  Heat treatment  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

84 ET CRT Displays Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

Module 10 . CRT or meter  AC probe (coil)  Calibration standards  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .85 ET Equipment Base unit.

Module 10 .86 ET Advantages No contact required with part  No couplant required  Readily Automated  Applicable to all metals  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

87 ET Limitations Highly skilled operator  “Too sensitive”  Shallow penetration .3/16”  Calibration standards required  Requires surface cleanliness  Magnetic materials more difficult  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .Module 10 .

Module 10 .88 NDE Symbols Similar to weld symbols  Shorthand notation  Very useful  Combine with weld symbols  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Standard Location of Elements for NDE Symbols Module 10 .89 Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

NDE Test Methods .Abbreviations 1 of 2 Acoustic Emission Eddy Current Leak Magnetic Particle Neutron Radiography AET ET LT MT NRT Module 10 .90 Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .

Abbreviations 2 of 2 Penetrant Proof Radiography Ultrasonic Visual PT PRT RT UT VT Module 10 .91 Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .NDE Test Methods .

92 WIT Summary Have covered much material in 3 days  Workbook and Sample Fundamentals Exam are good guides to your grasp of each Module.Module 10 . and may point towards areas needing more study in Manual  Urge all to study these subjects in greater depth as part of continuing education  Am e r i c a n We l d i n g So c i e t y .