Phototrophic Energy Metabolism: PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Reported by: Nolizel Jhean A. Resurreccion BSEd 3-C (Biology)

What is Photosynthesis?
• The conversion of light energy to chemical energy and its subsequent use in synthesizing organic molecules. • a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the sun, into chemical energy that can be used to fuel the organisms' activities. • is the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water.
Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013

Forms of Photosynthesis:
• Phototrophs – are organisms that convert solar energy to chemical energy in the form of ATP and the reduced coenzyme NADPH. • Photoheterotrophs- are organisms that acquire energy from sunlight but depend on organic sources of reduced carbon. • Photoautotrophs- are organism that use solar energy to synthesize energy-rich organic molecules from simple inorganic starting materials such as CO2 and H20.
Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013

also known as “Calvin Cycle”.Photosynthesis : An overview Two major biochemical processes of Photosynthesis • Energy Transduction Reaction. fully oxidized carbon atoms from carbon dioxide are fixed forming carbohydrates. • Carbon Assimilation Reaction.light energy is captured by chlorophyll molecules and converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP & NADPH. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .

Photosynthesis : An overview .

• Usually large (1-5 um wide & 1-10 um long) and opaque • They were described by Antonie van Leeuwoek and Nehemiah Grew in the 17th Century.Chloroplast • The organelle responsible for most of the events of photosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs. • A mature leaf cell contains 20-100 chloroplasts • An algal cell contains only one or few chloroplasts Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .

Chloroplast Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .

Oxygenic Phototrophs.algae.Solar Energy to Chemical Energy Light energy from the sun is captured by a variety of green pigments called chlorophylls. and light energy absorbed by the chlorophyll powers the movement of two electrons from H20 to NADP+. w/c is reduced to NADPH.plants. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 . which are present in the green leaves of plant and in the cells of algae and photosynthetic bacteria. and cyanobacteria-water is their electron donor.

and oxidized forms of these compounds are released. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .Solar Energy to Chemical Energy Anoxygenic Phototrophs. thiosulfate.green and purple photosynthetic bacteria.compounds such as sulfide. or succinate serve as electron donors.

A general reaction for the complete process of photosynthesis may be written as Light + CO2 +2H2A [CH2O] + 2A + H2O Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .Carbon Assimilation Reactions Fix Carbon by Reducing CO2 Most of the energy accumulated within photosynthetic cells by the light-dependent generation of ATP and NADPH is used for carbon dioxide fixation and reduction.

and subtracting water molecules that appear on both sides of the reaction.Carbon Assimilation Reactions Fix Carbon by Reducing CO2 When we focus on oxygenic phototrophs. Light + 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 602 Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 . which do use water as an electron donor. multiplying all reactants and products by 6. we can rewrite Reaction by substituting H2O for H2A.

The Choloroplast: Photosynthetic Organelle in Eukaryotic Cells Chloroplast – is the organelle responsible for most of the events of photosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs. Examples: Spirogyra -contains one or more ribbon shaped chloroplasts. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .

Proplastids. Some proplastids differentiate into amyloplasts. a newly differentiated plant cells having smaller organelles. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .The Choloroplast: Photosynthetic Organelle in Eukaryotic Cells Not all plant cells contain chloroplasts. Like. It can developed into any several kinds of plastids. which are sited for storing starch.

Chloroplast: Three-membrane Thylakoids. Thylakoid lumen.a single continous compartment encloses grana and stroma thylakoids. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 . Grana.a third membrane system inside the chloroplasts that creates an internalcompartment.are interconnected by a network of longer thylakoids called stroma thylakoids.

• Outer Membrane – contains transmembrane proteins called porins. a gellike matrix teeming with enzymes for carbon. • Inner Membrane – encloses the stroma . nitrogen. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .Chloroplast: Three-membrane Mitochondrion. and sulfur reduction and assimilation.a chloroplast which has three membrane. • Inter Membrane – performs a significant permiability barrier.

Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 . Their energy is rapidly passed to a special pair of chlorophyll molecules at the reaction center of a photosystem.Photosynthetic Energy Transduction I: Light Harvesting • Photons of light are absorbed by chlorophyll or accessory pigment molecules within the thylakoid or photosynthetic bacterial membranes.

Photosynthetic Energy Transduction I: Light Harvesting Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .

Photosynthetic Energy Transduction I: Light Harvesting • At the reaction center. generating oxygen. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 . this electron is replaced by an electron obtained from a water molecule. the energy is used to excite and eject an electron from chlorophyll and induce charge separation. In oxygenic phototrophs.

Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 . with photosystem II responsible for the oxidation of water and photosystem I responsible for the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH in the stroma.Photosynthetic Energy Transduction II: NADPH Synthesis • Electron transfer from water to NADP+ relies on two photosystems acting in series.

Photosynthetic Energy Transduction II: NADPH Synthesis .

The resulting proton gradient represents the stored energy of sunlight.Photosynthetic Energy Transduction II: NADPH Synthesis • Electron flow between the two photosystems passes through a cytochrome b6/f complex. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 . which pumps protons into thylakoid lumen.

• As protons flow back from the lumen to the stroma through the CF0 proton channel in the membrane.Photosynthetic Energy Transduction III: ATP Synthesis • The proton motive force across the thylakoid membrane is used to drive ATP synthesis by the CF0CF1 complex embedded in the membrane. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 . ATP is synthesized by the CF1 portion of the complex that extends into the stroma.

Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .Photosynthetic Carbon Assimilation I: The Calvin Cycle • In the stroma. ATP and NADPH are used for the fixation and reduction of carbon dioxide into organic form by enzymes of the Calvin cycle.

Photosynthetic Carbon Assimilation I: The Calvin Cycle Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .

Photosynthetic Carbon Assimilation I: The Calvin Cycle • The Calvin cycle involves three main stages: fixation of carbon dioxide from rubisco to form 3-phosphoglycerate. the initial carbon dioxide acceptor. and regeneration of ribulose1. reduction of 3phosphoglycerate to glyceraldehyde-3phosphate. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .5-bisphosphate.

Photosynthetic Carbon Assimilation I: The Calvin Cycle • The net synthesis of one triose phosphate molecule requires the fixation of three CO2 molecules and uses nine ATP and six NADPH molecules. For each three CO2 fixed. one molecule of glyceraldehyde-3phosphate leaves the cycle to be used for further carbohydrate synthesis. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .

Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 . being made only in photosynthetic tissues that are exposed to the light. Several of them are regulated at the level of synthesis.Regulation of the Calvin Cycle • Key enzymes of the Calvin cycle are regulated to ensure maximum efficiency. They are also activated by the high stromal pH and magnesium concentration that occur in the light.

Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 . and rubisco activate. which senses the redox state of the cell.Regulation of the Calvin Cycle • Additional means of regulation involve thioredoxin. which removes inhibitors from the rubisco active site in the light.

starch.Photosynthetic Carbon Assimilation II: Carbohydrate Synthesis • The initial product of CO2 fixation is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Some of these triose phosphate moleculesl are used for the biosynthesis of more complex carbohydrates. or glycogen. which can be converted to a second triose phosphate called dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 . sucrose. such as glucose.

Photosynthetic Carbon Assimilation II: Carbohydrate Synthesis • In addition. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 . ATP produced in the chloroplast is used for fatty acid and chlorophyll synthesis and for nitrogen and sulfur reduction and assimilation.

which can enter the Calcin cycle. which cannot be used in the Calvin cycle.Rubisco’s Oxygenase Activity Decreases Photosynthetic Efficiency • Rubisco can use oxygen as well as CO2. The glycolate pathway converts two molecules of phosphoglycolate into one molecule of 3phosphoglycerate. resulting in the production of phosphoglycolate. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .

C4 plants. Hatch and C.Marshall D. C3 plants. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .the immediate product of CO2 fixation from Hatch-Slack cycle is the four-carbon organic acid oxaloacetate.the first detectable product of CO2 fixation is the three-carbon compound 3phospoglycerate. Roger Slack.Rubisco’s Oxygenase Activity Decreases Photosynthetic Efficiency Hatch-Slack cycle. two plant physiologists who played key roles in the elucidation of pathway.

Rubisco’s Oxygenase Activity Decreases Photosynthetic Efficiency Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .

this process is also called photorespiration.Rubisco’s Oxygenase Activity Decreases Photosynthetic Efficiency • The glycolate pathway involves the chloroplasts. and the mitochondrion. the peroxisome. Because CO2 is released and oxygen is consumed in a lightdependent manner. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .

Rubisco’s Oxygenase Activity Decreases Photosynthetic Efficiency Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .

Then it is decarboxylated under conditions of low oxygen and concerntrated CO2 – either in a different cell type or at a different time of day – conditions that favor rubisco’s carboxylase activity. Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 . CO2 is fixed by a preliminary carboxylation that does not involve rubisco.Rubisco’s Oxygenase Activity Decreases Photosynthetic Efficiency • In C4 and CAM plants.

Rubisco’s Oxygenase Activity Decreases Photosynthetic Efficiency Topic: PHOTOSYNTHESIS © 2013 .

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