Cardiovascular Physiology

Lecture Outline
• • • • Cardiovascular System Function Functional Anatomy of the Heart Cardiac Cycle Cardiac Output Controls & Blood Pressure

Cardiovascular System Function • Functional components of the cardiovascular system: – Heart – Blood Vessels – Blood • General functions these provide – Transportation • Everything transported by the blood – Regulation • Of the cardiovascular system – Intrinsic v extrinsic – Protection • Against blood loss – Production/Synthesis .

Cardiovascular System Function • To create the “pump” we have to examine the Functional Anatomy – Cardiac muscle – Chambers – Valves – Intrinsic Conduction System .

Lecture Outline • • • • • Cardiovascular System Function Functional Anatomy of the Heart Myocardial Physiology Cardiac Cycle Cardiac Output Controls & Blood Pressure .

Functional Anatomy of the Heart Cardiac Muscle • Characteristics – Striated – Short branched cells – Uninucleate – Intercalated discs – T-tubules larger and over z-discs .

Functional Anatomy of the Heart Chambers • 4 chambers – 2 Atria – 2 Ventricles • 2 systems – Pulmonary – Systemic .

Functional Anatomy of the Heart Valves • Function is to prevent backflow – Atrioventricular Valves • Prevent backflow to the atria • Prolapse is prevented by the chordae tendinae – Tensioned by the papillary muscles – Semilunar Valves • Prevent backflow into ventricles .

Functional Anatomy of the Heart Intrinsic Conduction System • Consists of “pacemaker” cells and conduction pathways – Coordinate the contraction of the atria and ventricles .

Lecture Outline • • • • Cardiovascular System Function Functional Anatomy of the Heart Cardiac Cycle Cardiac Output Controls & Blood Pressure .

Cardiac Cycle Coordinating the activity • Cardiac cycle is the sequence of events as blood enters the atria. leaves the ventricles and then starts over • Synchronizing this is the Intrinsic Electrical Conduction System • Influencing the rate (chronotropy & dromotropy) is done by the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS .

Cardiac Cycle Coordinating the activity • Electrical Conduction Pathway – Initiated by the Sino-Atrial node (SA node) which is myogenic at 70-80 action potentials/minute – Depolarization is spread through the atria via gap junctions and internodal pathways to the Atrio-Ventricular node (AV node) • The fibrous connective tissue matrix of the heart prevents further spread of APs to the ventricles • A slight delay at the AV node occurs – Due to slower formation of action potentials – Allows further emptying of the atria – Action potentials travel down the Atrioventricular bundle (Bundle of His) which splits into left and right atrioventricular bundles (bundle branches) and then into the conduction myofibers (Purkinje cells) • Purkinje cells are larger in diameter & conduct impulse very rapidly – Causes the cells at the apex to contract nearly simultaneously » Good for ventricular ejection .

Cardiac Cycle Coordinating the activity • Electrical Conduction Pathway .

Cardiac Cycle Coordinating the activity • The electrical system gives rise to electrical changes (depolarization/repolarization) that is transmitted through isotonic body fluids and is recordable – The ECG! • A recording of electrical activity • Can be mapped to the cardiac cycle .

.

Atrial Systole • Completes ventricular filling 3.Cardiac Cycle Phases • Systole = period of contraction • Diastole = period of relaxation • Cardiac Cycle is alternating periods of systole and diastole • Phases of the cardiac cycle 1. Isovolumetric Ventricular Contraction • Increased pressure in the ventricles causes the AV valves to close… why? – Creates the first heart sound (lub) • Atria go back to diastole • No blood flow as semilunar valves are closed as well . Rest • Both atria and ventricles in diastole • Blood is filling both atria and ventricles due to low pressure conditions 2.

Isovolumetric Ventricular Relaxation • Intraventricular pressure drops below aortic pressure – Semilunar valves close = second heart sound (dup) • Pressure still hasn’t dropped enough to open AV valves so volume remains same (isovolumetric) Back to Atrial & Ventricular Diastole .Cardiac Cycle Phases • Phases of the cardiac cycle 4. Ventricular Ejection • Intraventricular pressure overcomes aortic pressure – Semilunar valves open – Blood is ejected 5.

Cardiac Cycle Phases .

Cardiac Cycle Blood Volumes & Pressure .

Cardiac Cycle Putting it all together! .

Lecture Outline • • • • • Cardiovascular System Function Functional Anatomy of the Heart Myocardial Physiology Cardiac Cycle Cardiac Output Controls & Blood Pressure .

25 L/min .CARDIAC OUTPUT • CO = SV X HR • FOR A RESTING ADULT CO = 70mL/beat x75beats/min = 5250 mL/min = 5.

REGUALTION OF HEART RATE • SA NODE INITIATES 100 BEATS/MIN IF LEFT TO ITSELF. . • TISSUE REQUIRE DIFFERENT VOLUME OF BLOOD FLOW UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS(EX: EXERCISE) • ANS AND HORMONES OF ADRENAL MEDULLA ARE IMPORTANT IN REGULATING THE HEART RATE.

HEMODYNAMIC AFFECTING BLOOD FLOW • BLOOD PRESSURE • RESISTANCE • VENOUS RETURN .

BLOOD PRESSURE FALLS AS THE DISTANCE FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE INCREASES • IN ARTERIOLES AND ARTERIES – 35 mm Hg • IN VENOUS END OF CAPILLARIES– 16mm Hg • WHEN BLOOD FLOW IN RT.BLOOD PRESSURE • DURING SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION.VENTRICLE -0 mmHg .

.VASCULAR RESISTANCE IT IS THE OPPOSTION TO BLOOD FLOW DUE TO FRICTION BETWEEN BLOOD AND THE WALLS OF BLOOD VESSELS.