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Subject : Numerical Aptitude Chapter : Indices and Surds
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Mathematics
Indices and Surds
Indices

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In the expression xn, n is called the exponent or index and x is called the base and xn is read as ‘x to the power of n’ or ‘x raised to the power n’.

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Mathematics
Indices and Surds
Laws of Indices:-

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Mathematics
Indices and Surds
Surds

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If n is a positive integer and ‘a’ is a positive rational number (a > 0), then is called a surd of order n or nth order surd if is an irrational number.

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Mathematics
Indices and Surds
Laws of Radicals

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Mathematics
Indices and Surds
Rationalization of a Surd

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If the product of two surds is rational, then each of the two surds is called a rationalizing factor of the other. In general if the surd is of type , then its rationalizing factor is .. The rationalizing factor of a surd is not unique. But it is always convenient to use the simplest of all rationalizing.

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Mathematics
Indices and Surds
Factors of a given Surd
(a)Rationalizing Factor of

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(b) Rationalizing Factor of
(c) Rationalizing Factor of

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Mathematics
Indices and Surds
‘Smart’ Facts

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• The symbol is called the radical sign. •In , ‘n’ is called the order of the surd. •In , ‘a’ is called the radicand. •By is a surd is understood that ‘a’ is rational number and is an irrational number.

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Mathematics
Indices and Surds
‘Smart’ Facts

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• The symbol is called the radical sign. •In , ‘n’ is called the order of the surd. •In , ‘a’ is called the radicand. •By is a surd is understood that ‘a’ is rational number and is an irrational number.

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