THERMOMETRY

a science which deals with the study, design, construction, calibration and testing of a thermometer. Thermometer – a device used in measuring the temperature of a body or a system.

Temperature (t or T) – a manifestation of heat. It is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or a system and tells the direction of the flow of heat.

temperature at which a substance undergo a change in phase Boiling/Condensation Point(BP/CP) – point at which liquid and gas co-exist at normal pressure and at thermal equilibrium. . Fahrenheit (oF) b.THERMOMETRY Temperature Scales: Metric (CGS and MKS) a. Freezing/Melting Point(FP/MP) – point at which solid and liquid co-exist at normal pressure and at thermal equilibrium. Rankine (oR) Fixed points – used to compare temperature scales. Centigrade or Celsius (oC) b. Kelvin (K) English a.

13 tf 32 tR 492 Conversion by Interpolation t  32 t 0 t  273.13 t  492    100  0 212  32 373.13 oF oR 100 212 672 tc 0 tk 273.THERMOMETRY Using Water BP/CP Temperature.13  273.13 672  492 c f k R . t FP/MP oC K 373.

1 Co = 1 K and 1 Fo = 1 Ro (observe temperature scales) . .oC. and oR are temperature readings directly from the thermometer. K. oF. . and Ro are units for any difference or change in the temperature. Fo.THERMOMETRY Note: .Co. .

when a substance are heated (temperature is increased). The change in dimension of the body depends on: 1.THERMAL EXPANSION a phenomenon whereby the dimensions of a body change when its temperature changes. . the original dimension 2. Generally. they contract. they expand but when they are cooled (temperature is decreased). the coefficient of expansion Linear Expansion . the change in temperature 3.change in length due a change in temperature.

final length. Lf = Lo + αLo∆T = Lo ( 1+ α ∆T ) where: Lo .initial length α .THERMAL EXPANSION Linear Expansion Therefore.To .coefficient of linear expansion ∆T – change in temperature ∆T = Tf .

coefficient of area expansion .THERMAL EXPANSION Area Expansion ∆A = γAo∆T (area thermal expansion) Therefore. Af = Ao + γ Ao∆T = Ao ( 1+ γ ∆T ) where: Ao .initial area γ . final area.

initial volume β .THERMAL EXPANSION Volume Expansion ∆T ∆V = βVo∆T (area thermal expansion) Therefore. Vf = Vo + βVo∆T = Vo ( 1+ β∆T ) where: Vo .coefficient of volume expansion . final volume.

THERMAL EXPANSION Consider a cube with sides L and V = L3 When the temperature change is dT its volume will change by dV V = L3 dV = 3L2dL but ∆L = αLo∆T or dL = αLodT dV = 3Lo2(αLodT) dV = 3Lo3αdT but Vo = Lo3 and dV = βVodT dV = 3VoαdT = βVodT 3α = β Repeating the same mathematical procedure for area expansion we’ll end with 2α = γ .