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Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Lebanon: Key Policies and Future Scenarios

K. Karaa, F. Karam and N. Tarabey


WASAMED Workshop, Cairo 7-11 December 2004

Necessity for non Conventional water use in Lebanon


Total Available Water Resources in Lebanon:2000 MCM Total Needs in 2020:
2450 MCM with actual Efficiencies Networks 1998 MCM with ameliorated Efficiencies (80% for potable water and 75% for irrigation )

Lebanon must search for new non conventional water resources

Non Conventional Water Resources Drainage water collection :


Flooding area in the Bekaa Valley (5000 ha):
Actually Drainage system is active and collected water is recuperated in the Litani river bed and stocked in Qaraaoun Reservoir Works for Recalibration and rehabilitation of Litani River and Effluents are ongoing.

Coastal plain area where gravity irrigation technique is practiced


Diminution of drainage water volume by using adequate irrigation techniques Water drainage reuse at on-farm level with a regular water quality monitoring

Gained volumes are insignificants compared to needs

Non Conventional Water Resources


Sea water desalination: Seems to be very costly to Lebanon according to actual cost: 0.5 to 0.6 US$ by Cubic Meter

Conclusion: Treated Waste Water is a god solution to assure new water resources

Waste water treatment plan


A master plan for secondary waste water treatment is already elaborated for all Lebanon and Funded at 70.47% of total Cost. Between 2005 and 2007, constructed plants are previewed to serve until 2015, 88% of the total Lebanese population.

-Topographical, demographic and urban conditions -Economical considerations Incite to preview a master plan where the major part of waste water (55%) is collected on the coastal area.

Master plan for waste water treatment in Lebanon

Possible Collected Waste Water for Treatment in 2020 (MCM)


Beirut & Mount Lebanon North Lebanon South Lebanon Nabatieh Bekaa Total Percentage from Total

Urban Zone Rural Total Coastal Inland Zone 88.65 25.39 3.61 117.65 28.55 5.08 16.08 49.71 18.17 1.75 9.14 29.06 0.00 10.50 6.43 16.93 0.00 22.46 10.72 33.18 135.37 65.17 45.99 246.53 54.91 26.44 18.65 100.00

Lebanon Land Form and Plain Areas

Treated waste water reuse Beirut region


- 36% of treated waste water is generated by Beirut Treatment Plants (Dora & Ghadir) where agricultural activity is very limited (green houses) and is invested regularly and very fast by urban activities - Beirut region suffer from lack on potable water and to fill up this lack about 3000 wells are drilled. - Underground water suffer from salinity problems - Main treated wastewater volume in Beirut region, can be used to control sea water intrusion

Treated waste water reuse Others Coastal areas and Inland Regions
- Treated water can be entirely used for agriculture purposes - This use is a water quality matter which to be adapted with Lebanese legislation.