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Chapter 11: Metal Alloys Applications and Processing

• How are metal alloys classified and how are they used? • What are some of the common fabrication techniques? • How do properties vary throughout a piece of material that has been quenched, for example? • How can properties be modified by post heat treatment?

Taxonomy of Metals
Metal Alloys Ferrous Steels Steels <1.4wt%C <1.4 wt% C Cast Irons Cast Irons 3-4.5 wt%C 3-4.5 wt% C Nonferrous







1400 1200

L g austenite g+L
1148°C 4.30

microstructure: ferrite, graphite cementite


Fe3C cementite

a800 ferrite
600 400


g+Fe3C a+Fe3C
3 4 5 6 6.7

0.76 1 2

0 (Fe)

Co , wt% C

Low Alloy low carbon Med carbon <0.25 wt% C 0.25-0.6 wt% C
Name plain HSLA plain

High Alloy high carbon 0.6-1.4 wt% C
tool austenitic stainless Cr, Ni, Mo

heat plain treatable Cr,V Cr, Ni Additions none none none Ni, Mo Mo Example 1010 4310 1040 43 40 1095 Hardenability 0 + + ++ ++ TS 0 + ++ + EL + + 0 Uses auto struc. sheet bridges towers press. vessels crank shafts bolts hammers blades
pistons gears wear applic.

Cr, V, Mo, W 4190 +++ ++ -drills saws dies

304 0 0 ++
high T applic. turbines furnaces V. corros. resistant

wear applic.

increasing strength, cost, decreasing ductility

Nomenclature AISI & SAE 10xx Plain Carbon Steels 11xx Plain Carbon Steels (resulfurized for machinability) 15xx Mn (10 ~ 20%) 40xx Mo (0.20 ~ 0.30%) 43xx Ni (1.65 - 2.00%), Cr (0.4 - 0.90%), Mo (0.2 - 0.3%) 44xx Mo (0.5%) where xx is wt% C x 100 example: 1060 steel – plain carbon steel with 0.60 wt% C Stainless Steel -- >11% Cr

System and Composition of Plain Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel

Low carbon .

High carbon .Medium.

require surface protection .Plain Carbon Steel Low carbon • Good formability and weldability • Strengthening by coldwork • Structure usually pearlite and ferrite Medium carbon • Can be quenched to form martensite or bainite • Compromising structure between ductility and strength High carbon • Low toughness and formability • Good hardness and wear resistance • Can form martensite by quenching but risk of cracking Compare to other engineering materials • High strength and stiffness. easy to recycle and low cost • Rust easily. reasonable toughness.

spring. with remain ductility. resist.stable machining Ti .Effect of alloy elements • • • • • Bi. in Cr steels W .4% .magnetic p.4% corrosion resistance Mn 0. 12-20% .5-2% .2-5% . Cu 0. str.strength.25-0.003% .2-0.stable carbides Ni 2-5% . hardn.powerful hardenability agent Cr 0. reduce mart.7% .combine with S to prevent brittleness • • • • • • • Mo 0.corr.corrosion resistance Si 0. fine grain .1-0. inc. Pb .improve machinability B 0. 2% . higher% . S 0.increase hardenability.08-0.fix C in inert particles.hardness at high temperature V .15% . 4-18% .toughener.

above A1 but below A3 to form structure of ferrite and martensite • Strength comparable to HSLA while improve formability with no loss of weldability • Automotive structure and body application . good weldability and acceptable corrosion resistance • Limited ductility and hardenability • Resist to form martensite in weld zone Dual-Phase Steel • Quench from temp.Alloy Steels HSLA • Large applications • High yield (nearly twice of plain C steel).

Se. low cost easy recycle .Alloy Steels Free-machining steels • S. crash energy. Bi. Pb. ductility • cold working also improve machinability Bake-Hardenable steel sheet • Significant in automotive steel sheet • Low carbon steel • Good formability and increase strength after forming with heat exposure in paint-baking process • Good spot weldability. Te or P • Making chip-breaking discontinuity in structure and a build-in lubrication • Higher cost may compensated with higher speed and lower wear of cutting tools • Additives may reduce concerned properties such as strength.

4%Ti. • Good strength. 0. corrosion resistance. 0. 4. 0.01% Zr.1% Al. tough.01%P • Can be hot worked to get soft. 0.5% Co.1% Si. 0. low martensite and easy to machine • Can be cold worked and aging with a yield of 1725 MPa and %EL 11% • Weldability Steel for HighTemp.8% Mo.5% Ni. 8. 0.01%S and 0.Alloy Steels Maraging Steels • Super high strength alloy • Typical composition is 0. 7. ferrous alloy tend to has low carbon (less than 0. 0.1% Mn.03% C.003% B.1%) • Can be used at higher than 550 C . creep resistance • Plain C steel – 250 C • Conventional alloy – 350 C • High temp.


Bake hardenable steel Dual Phase Steel .

Tool Steels Water hardening (W) Cold Work O – Oil hardening A – Air hardening D – High C high Cr Shock resistance (S) High speed T – W base. strength and wear resistance . M – Mo base Hot work H1-H19 – Cr base H20-H39 – W base H40-H59 – Mo base Plastic mold (P) Special purpose L – Low alloy F – carbon-tungsten • High carbon. high strength ferrous alloy • Balance of toughness.

Tool Steels .

Mn or Ni Cr and Ni Cr. adherent.Stainless Steels Series 200 300 400 500 Alloys Cr. Ni. corrosion resistance and heals itself Ferritic stainless steel • Normally contain >12% Cr (Cr is ferrite stabilizer) • Corrosion resistance • Limited ductility or formability but weldable (no martensite can form in weld zone) • The cheapest stainless steel . (C) Low Cr (<12%) and (C) Structure Austenitic Austenitic Ferritic or martensitic Martensitic • Oxide of additive elements is tough.

• Slow cool may allow carbide of Cr (loss of chromium oxide film) • Higher cost than ferritic stainless steel due to the heat treatment (austenitization.Stainless Steels Martensitic Stainless • The lower content of Cr lead to more stable of austenite at high temp. quench. stress relief and temper Austenitic Stainless • Ni is austenite stabilizer • The most expensive stainless due to Ni cost • Mn and N are used as stabilizer instead of Ni to reduce cost but lower quality • Non-magnetic. highly corrosion resistance except HCl and other helide acid/salt • Outstanding formability(FCC) • 304 alloy (18-8) is popular one. high response to CW .

Popular stainless steels .

Stainless Steel (1) .

modified by addition of alloying elements like Al to form hard intermetallic compound during temper .Stainless Steel (2) Precipitation hardenable stainless steel is the special class • Martensitic or austenitic type.

Cast Iron • Ferrous alloys with > 2.4.1 wt% C – more commonly 3 .5 wt%C • low melting (also brittle) so easiest to cast • Cementite decomposes to ferrite + graphite Fe3C  3 Fe (a) + C (graphite) – generally a slow process .

Fe-C True Equilibrium Diagram Graphite formation promoted by • Si > 1 wt% • slow cooling T(°C) 1600 1400 1200 1000 L g Austenite g +L 1153°C 4.65 g + Graphite 740°C •Ductile or Nodular iron •White iron •Malleable iron •Compacted graphite iron a + Graphite 0 1 2 3 4 90 100 Co . wt% C .2 wt% C Liquid + Graphite •Gray cast iron a+g 800 600 400 (Fe) 0.

Production of Cast Iron .

Types of Cast Iron Gray iron • graphite flakes • weak & brittle under tension • stronger under compression • excellent vibrational dampening • wear resistant Ductile iron • add Mg or Ce • graphite in nodules not flakes • matrix often pearlite .better ductility .

Types of Cast Iron White iron • <1wt% Si so harder but brittle • more cementite Malleable iron • heat treat at 800-900ºC • graphite in rosettes • more ductile .

.Types of Cast Iron Compacted Graphite Iron • Mg/Ce and others are added • Worm-like shape graphite • Microstructure is between gray cast iron and ductile iron • Sharp edge of graphite should be avoided • High thermal conductivity • Better resistance to thermal shock. fracture and fatigue • Lower oxidation at elevated Temp.


Limitations of Ferrous Alloys 1) Relatively high density 2) Relatively low conductivity 3) Poor corrosion resistance Nonferrous Alloy .

Zn additions corrosion resistant) -solid sol. Mn. -Cu. Ni are strengthened (struct. Si. Mg. Ta .9 for steel -reactive at high T -space applic.7g/cm3 Alloys precip. Si. resistant • Noble metals -high melting T -Nb. Pt -oxid. • Refractory metals -Ag. Al. Au. W. Mo. Bronze : Sn. impurity (costume jewelry.5g/cm3 vs 7.Nonferrous Alloys -lower r: 2. impurity aircraft parts (bushings. missiles • Cu Alloys • Al Alloys • Ti Alloys -lower r: 4./corr.7g/cm3 Brass: Zn is subst. subst. hardened -ignites easily for strength -aircraft. coins. or precip. landing & packaging) gear) • Mg Alloys NonFerrous Cu-Be : -very low r: 1.

• Wrought Alloy – amenable to mechanical deformation Sometimes the heat treatability of an alloy is frequently mentioned as “heat treatable” .Non-Ferrous Alloys • Cast Alloy – Forming or shaping by appreciable deformation is not possible. ordinarily by casting. So. brittle.

lighter weight .Cu and its alloys • 3 important properties are high electrical and thermal conductivity. corrosion resist. ductile • Alloy for mechanical appl. strength as HSLA level • Alloy for corrosion resist.ductile.. great stiffness. recycle • Serious weakness is low modulus of elesticity • Pure Al – soft. difficult to weld • Al-Li – high strength. brittle • Cu-Ni – high thermal conductivity. cable • Cu-Zn – brass – popular alpha brass . good elec. form. workability. high strength at high temperature • Cu-Sn ../thermal cond. useful strength with high ductility and corrosion resistance • Heavily than iron • Pure Cu – wire.bronze Al and its alloys • The most important of nonferrous metal • Light weight. beta brass – Zn rich.

creep and fatigue • Modulus less than Al • In positive side. high energy content and high reactivity at elevated temperature • Fabrication can be by casting. wear. good damping of noise/vibration • Higher purity alloy – good corrosion resistance • Formability – at high temp. forging. corrosion resistance • Good mechanical properties up to 535 C • High cost. high energy absorption.Mg and its alloys • Lightest of commerc. extrusion or welding . high strength/weight ratio. rolling. fabrication difficulty. Metal • Pure Mg – weak • Alloy – poor ductility. • Good machinability/weldab. • Fire hazards Ti and its alloys • Strong. light weight.

Ag. W (3410 C). Mo.Refractory metal • Extremely high melting T • Nb (2468 C). Rh. electrochemical. Pd. ultrasonic m/c Noble metals • Au. Ta • Ta-Mo to improve corrosion resistance Super alloys • Use in aircraft turbine component • Difficult to form and machine • Special methods are used. EDM. Ir and Os • Expensive Miscellaneous nonferrous • Ni (coating) • Pb • Sn • Alkaline . Ru. Pt.

Metal Fabrication • How do we fabricate metals? – Blacksmith . Cold working • well below Tm • work hardening • smaller deformations .cast • Forming Operations – Rough stock formed to final shape Hot working • T high enough for recrystallization • Larger deformations vs.hammer (forged) – Molding .

Cu. Stamping) • Rolling (Hot or Cold Rolling) (wrenches.Metal Fabrication Methods . tubing) Ao container (rods. rails. wire. Al (hot) container .I FORMING CASTING JOINING (I-beams. tubing) Ad tensile force force die holder extrusion ram billet Ad die must be well lubricated & clean die ductile metals. e. T Ao roll Ad • Drawing die Ao die force • Extrusion (rods. sheet & plate) roll A d often at • Forging (Hammering.g. crankshafts) force die A o blank elev.

internal defects – good option for brittle materials .II FORMING CASTING JOINING • Casting.mold is filled with metal – metal melted in furnace. perhaps alloying elements added. cheapest method – gives good production of shapes – weaker products. Then cast in a mold – most common.Metal Fabrication Methods .

Metal Fabrication Methods .easy to mold => sand!!! • pack sand around form (pattern) of desired shape molten metal . e.g.II FORMING • Sand Casting (large parts.. auto engine blocks) Sand Sand CASTING JOINING • trying to hold something that is hot • what will withstand >1600ºC? • cheap .

g.. e.. jewelry.II FORMING • Sand Casting (large parts. turbine blades) plaster die formed around wax prototype wax .g. • mold made by encasing in plaster of paris • melt the wax & the hollow mold is left • pour in metal molten metal • Investment Casting (low volume. complex shapes e.Metal Fabrication Methods . auto engine blocks) Sand Sand CASTING JOINING Investment Casting • pattern is made from paraffin.

turbine blades) plaster die formed around wax prototype • Continuous Casting (simple slab shapes) molten solidified wax . complex shapes e..g.Metal Fabrication Methods .II FORMING • Sand Casting (large parts. auto engine blocks) Sand Sand CASTING JOINING • Die Casting (high volume. e..g. low T alloys) molten metal • Investment Casting (low volume. jewelry.

Continuous casting .


.Metal Fabrication Methods .III FORMING • Powder Metallurgy (materials w/low ductility) pressure CASTING • Welding JOINING (when one large part is impractical) filler metal (melted) base metal (melted) fused base metal unaffected piece 1 heat affected zone unaffected piece 2 heat area contact densify • Heat affected zone: point contact at low T densification by diffusion at higher T (region in which the microstructure has been changed).

then cool slowly. • Normalize (steels): Deform steel with large grains. Soaking. then cool in furnace to get coarse P. Heat just below TE & hold for 15-25 h. Types of Annealing • Process Anneal: Negate effect of cold working by (recovery/ recrystallization) • Full Anneal (steels): Make soft steels for good forming by heating to get g.Thermal Processing of Metals Annealing: Heat to Tanneal. • Spheroidize (steels): Make very soft steels for good machining. then normalize to make grains small. • Stress Relief: Reduce stress caused by: -plastic deformation -nonuniform cooling -phase transform. (air cool) .

Fe-Fe3C diagram .

Heat Treatments 800 Austenite (stable) a) Annealing b) Quenching c) Tempered Martensite T(°C) 600 A P TE 400 A B 200 M+A M+A 0% 50% 90% b) 10 -1 a) 10 time (s) 10 3 10 5 c) .

HRC Distance from quenched end . Hardness.Hardenability--Steels • Ability to form martensite • Jominy end quench test to measure hardenability. flat ground Rockwell C hardness tests specimen (heated to g phase field) 24°C water • Hardness versus distance from the quenched end.

1 1 10 100 1000 Time (s) . Hardness. HRC 60 40 20 distance from quenched end (in) 0 1 2 3 T(°C) 600 400 200 M(start) 0% 100% AM 0 M(finish) 0.Why Hardness Changes with Position • The cooling rate varies with position.

Mo (0. 8640) --contain Ni. 5140.Hardenability vs Alloy Composition Hardness. --martensite is easier to form.2 to 2wt%) --these elements shift the "nose". Cr. 4340. HRC • Jominy end quench results. C = 0.4 wt% C • "Alloy Steels" (4140. 100 60 10 3 2 Cooling rate (°C/s) 100 4340 80 %M 50 40 4140 8640 5140 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 Distance from quenched end (mm) 800 T(°C) 600 400 200 0 -1 10 10 A B TE shift from A to B due to alloying M(start) M(90%) 103 105 Time (s) .

Equivalent distance and Bar diameter (Quenched in water) (Quenched in oil) .

Radial hardness profile (Quenched in water) (Quenched in oil) .

Quenching Medium & Geometry • Effect of quenching medium: Medium air oil water Severity of Quench low moderate high Hardness low moderate high • Effect of geometry: When surface-to-volume ratio increases: --cooling rate increases --hardness increases Position center surface Cooling rate low high Hardness low high .

500 400 a A C a+L L q+L CuAl2 a+q 20 30 40 50 q • Other precipitation systems: • Cu-Be • Cu-Sn • Mg-Al (Al) 300 0 B 10 composition range needed for precipitation hardening wt% Cu Temp. Pt A (sol’n heat treat) Pt C (precipitate q) Time Pt B .Precipitation Hardening • Particles impede dislocations. --Pt C: reheat to nucleate small q crystals within a crystals. 700 • Ex: Al-Cu system T(°C) • Procedure: 600 --Pt A: solution heat treat (get a solid solution) --Pt B: quench to room temp.

Precipitate Effect on TS. %EL • 2014 Al Alloy: • TS peaks with precipitation time. 400 300 200 100 149°C 204°C 1min 1h 1day 1mo 1yr precipitation heat treat time %EL (2 in sample) 30 20 10 204°C 0 149 °C 1min 1h 1day 1mo 1yr precipitation heat treat time . tensile strength (MPa) • %EL reaches minimum with precipitation time. • Increasing T accelerates process.

Metal Alloy Crystal Structure Alloys • substitutional alloys – can be ordered or disordered – disordered solid solution – ordered .periodic substitution example: CuAu FCC Cu Au .

Metal Alloy Crystal Structure • Interstitial alloys (compounds) – one metal much larger than the other – smaller metal goes in ordered way into interstitial “holes” in the structure of larger metal – Ex: Cementite – Fe3C .

Hardness (and cost) by adding --C (low alloy steels) --Cr. Mo. and noble metals. • Non-ferrous: --Cu. • Precipitation hardening --effective means to increase strength in Al. Refractory. Cu. casting.Summary • Steels: increase TS. V. Ti. . W (high alloy steels) --ductility usually decreases w/additions. Mg. Al. and Mg alloys. joining. • Fabrication techniques: --forming. Ni. • Hardenability --increases with alloy content.