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Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Virology

What are Viruses?
• It is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms. • It can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea.

The main purpose of a virus is to deliver its genome into the host cell to allow its expression (transcription and translation) by the host cell.

Virus Properties
• Virus is defined as a nucleoprotein complex which infects cells and uses their metabolic processes to replicate • Smallest known infective agents • Metabolically inert - no metabolic activity outside host cell; must enter host cell to replicate • Most are highly species specific

Virus versus Virion • Virus is a broad general term for any aspect of the infectious agent and includes: •the infectious or inactivated virus particle •viral nucleic acid and protein in the infected cell • Virion is the physical particle in the extra-cellular phase which is able to spread to new host cells. complete intact virus particle .

000 Prokaryotes No Viruses 30 .40.000 .300 ---Yes Fungi 4.40.000 .000 Eukaryotes No DNA/RNA Haploid Yes DNA or RNA DNA/RNA DNA/RNA No Yes Yes .Characteristics of Infectious Microorganisms Property Size (nm) Nuclear structure Obligate intracellular Nucleic acids Culture on Artificial media Bacteria 100 -10.000 Eukaryotes No Protozoa 4.

40 m Classes of organisms Viruses 0.Relative Sizes of Microorganisms Limits of resolution 50.003 m Light microscope 0.000-V electron microscope 0.0.1 Size (m) 1 10 100 .1 .001 0.10 m 0.2 m Unaided human eye 40 m Microscopic protozoa & fungi 4 .01 0.03 .3 m Bacteria 0.

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History of Virology • Virus discovery came about when the cause of an infectious disease could not be explained by the presence of bacteria • Observation of a virus under electron microscopy and the development of cell tissue culture started the golden era of virology • Eradication of smallpox following a worldwide vaccination program .

and presence of membranes. including type of symmetry. (6) Natural methods of transmission. (8) Pathology. (5) Immunologic properties. especially ether. (9) Symptomatology. (2) Size and morphology. strategy of replication. . particularly RNA and DNA polymerases. number of capsomeres. single-stranded or doublestranded. and cell tropisms. inclusion body formation. (7) Host.CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES (1) Nucleic acid type: RNA or DNA. (3) Presence of specific enzymes. tissue. and neuraminidase (4) Susceptibility to physical and chemical agents.

Classification Parameters • Several Parameters Are Used for Classification – – – – – – – Viral classification study is referred to as Taxonomy 73 families exist so far!! Type of genomic nucleic acid Size of virion and genome Capsid structure Host Replication mechanism .

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Viruses: Structures .

Viral Nucleic Acid • Polymeric macromolecules essential for all known forms of life • DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid • RNA: ribonucleic acid .

Viral Capsid • Protein shell of a virus • Protect the viral nucleic acid from detrimental chemical and physical conditions • Characterized by the shape of the capsid • Capsomere – basic unit of a capsid .

Viral Capsid • Icosahedral • Helical .

Icosahedral capsid • Constructed from 12 pentamers .

Prolate Capsid .

Helical Capsid .

Viral Envelope • Lipidic envelope that surrounds the viral capsid • Originates from the host cells • Added during the replication process or following excision of the viral progeny from the host cells • It fuses with the host membrane allowing the capsid and viral genome to enter and infect the host .

Viral Receptors • Structures protruding from the viral envelope • Glycoproteins and proteins .

Baltimore Classification System • • • • Class 1: ds DNA Virus Class 2: ss DNA Virus Class 3: ds RNA Virus Class4 and 5: ss RNA – Class 4: ss RNA Virus – Positive Sense – Class 5: ss RNA – Negative Sense • Class 6:Positive –sense – ss RNA • Class 7: ds DNA that replicate through a ss RNA intermediate .

Class 1: ds DNA Virus • Usually must enter the host nucleus before it is able to replicate • Replication of the viral genome is highly dependent on a cellular state permissive to DNA replication and thus on the cell cycle .

Class 2: ss DNA Virus • They replicate within the nucleus and form a ds DNA intermediate during replication Class 3: ds RNA Virus • Do not rely on host polymerases for replication to the extent that viruses with DNA genomes do .

Class4 and 5: ss RNA • Class 4: ss RNA Virus – Positive Sense – can be directly accessed by host ribosomes to immediately form proteins • Class 5: ss RNA – Negative Sense – viruses containing non-segmented genomes for which the genes cannot be directly accessed by host ribosomes – They must be transcribed by viral polymerases into readable complementary positive sense .

Class 6:Positive –sense – ss RNA • Reverse transcriptase and integrase Class 7: ds DNA that replicate through a ss RNA intermediate • Hepatitis B • form a ccc DNA (covalently closed circle DNA) .

Virus – Host Cell interaction .

All viruses have to solve three different problems to persist in nature: • Replication inside the cell • Movement from one cell (and host) to another • Evasion of host antiviral defenses .

die as a result of the infection – a phenomenon usually described in tissue culture as “cytopathic effect” (CPE). – The bad news is that the intense antiviral response often does collateral damage to noninfected cells within the organ bearing a viral infection and causes “immunopathology”. • The combinations of virus-induced cell dysfunction and CPE and host response-induced cell destruction are the basic processes involved in viral pathogenesis. – The good news is that many virally infected cells are destroyed as a result of the immune response.What is viral pathogenesis? • Viruses must infect cells to replicate. • The “intention” of the host response is to destroy virally infected cells and rid the host of the virus. but not always. . • Virally infected cells often.

Examples of organ-specific effects of viral pathogenesis: • Viral infection of the central nervous system usually results in meningitis. encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. . • Viral infections of the respiratory tract are among the most common infections of man.

the basis of viral pathogenesis is the same -viruses targeting a certain population of human cells in a given organ system and causing a combination of direct cell destruction and an elicited host response that contributes to cell and organ dysfunction (immunopathogenesis). .No matter what the organ system.