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Discovering Computers 2008

Chapter 7 Storage

Chapter 7 Objectives
Differentiate between storage devices and storage media Describe the characteristics of magnetic disks Describe the characteristics of a hard disk

Slide # 2

Differentiate among CD-ROMs, recordable CDs, rewritable CDs, DVD-ROMs, BD-ROMs, HD DVDROMs, recordable DVDs, and rewritable DVDs Identify the uses of tape Discuss PC Cards, ExpressCard modules, and the various types of miniature storage media Identify uses of microfilm and microfiche

Discuss various types of miniature, external, and removable hard disks
Describe the characteristics of optical discs

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Storage
What is storage?
 Holds data, instructions, and information for future use  Storage medium is physical material used for storage
 Also called secondary storage

Slide # 3

p. 354 - 355 Fig. 7-1

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Storage
What is capacity?

Slide # 4

 Number of bytes (characters) a storage medium can hold

Kilobyte (KB)

1 thousand

Megabyte (MB) 1 million
Gigabyte (GB) Terabyte (TB) Petabyte (PB) Exabyte (EB) Zettabyte (ZB) Yottabyte (YB)
p. 356

1 billion 1 trillion 1 quadrillion 1 quintillion 1 sextillion 1 septillion
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CDs) p. 356 . hard disks. Zip disks.Storage How does volatility compare? Slide # 5  Storage medium is nonvolatile—contents retained when power is off  Memory is volatile—holds data and instructions temporarily ON OFF Display disappears Data and instructions erased Contents retained Next Volatile Screen Display Display appears Data and instructions available to user Contents available to user Nonvolatile Memory (most RAM) (chips on motherboard) Storage Medium (floppy disks.

356 Creates output Next .Storage What is a storage device? Hardware that records and retrieves items to and from storage media Slide # 6 Reading Process of transferring items from storage media to memory Writing Process of transferring items from memory to storage media Functions as source of input p.

357 Fig. application software. movies. user data and information Digital pictures or files to be transported Software. backups. music Backups Small files to be transported Next Floppy Disk .Storage What is access time?  Time it takes storage device to locate item on storage medium  Time required to deliver item from memory to processor faster transfer rates Slide # 7 Transfer rates Primary Storage Memory (most RAM) Stores … Items waiting to be interpreted and executed by the processor Secondary Storage Hard Disk Flash Memory Cards and USB Flash Drives CDs and DVDs Tape slower transfer rates p. 7-4 Operating system.

Magnetic Disks What are tracks and sectors? Slide # 8 Track is narrow recording band that forms full circle on disk Sector stores up to 512 bytes of data Formatting prepares disk for use p. 7-5 Next . 357 Fig.

7-6 Next . click Chapter 7.Magnetic Disks What is a hard disk?  High-capacity storage  Consists of several inflexible. then click Perpendicular Recording below Chapter 7 Slide # 9 hard disk mounted in system unit Perpendicular recording p. Click Web Link from left navigation. circular platters that store items electronically  Components enclosed in airtight. 358 Fig. sealed case for protection Longitudinal recording Click to view Web Link.

5 ms Slide # 10 actual disk capacity p.168 7. 359 Fig. 7-7 Next .383 512 63 973.773.200 300 MB per second 8.Magnetic Disks What are characteristics of a hard disk? Sample Hard Disk Characteristics Advertised capacity Platters Read/write heads Cylinders Bytes per second Sectors per track Sectors per drive Revolutions per minute Transfer rate Access time 500 GB 4 8 16.

Slide # 11 Step 2. Step 4. read/write heads determine current or new location of data. 360 Fig. Circuit board controls movement of head actuator and a small motor. Step 1.Magnetic Disks How does a hard disk work? Step 3. Small motor spins platters while computer is running. p. Head actuator positions read/write head arms over correct location on platters to read or write data. When software requests a disk access. 7-8 Next .

Magnetic Disks platter Slide # 12 What is a cylinder?  Vertical section of track through all platters track sector  Single movement of read/write head arms accesses all platters in cylinder read/write head platter sides p. 360 Fig. 7-9 cylinder Next .

Magnetic Disks What is a head crash?   Slide # 13 Occurs when read/write head touches platter surface Spinning creates cushion of air that floats read/write head above platter   Clearance between head and platter is approximately two-millionths of an inch A smoke particle. or human hair could render drive unusable p. 360-361 Fig. 7-10 Next . dust particle.

Magnetic Disks What is a disk cache?  Portion of memory that processor uses to store frequently accessed items Slide # 14 first request for data—to disk cache second request for data—to hard disk p. 361 Fig. 7-11 Next .

click Chapter 7. then click RAID below Chapter 7 p. Click Web Link from left navigation.Magnetic Disks What is RAID?  Redundant Array of Independent Disks  Connects multiple smaller disks into a single unit that acts as a single large hard disk Slide # 15 Click to view Web Link. 362 Next .

Click Web Link from left navigation. 362 Fig. then click Pocket Hard Drives below Chapter 7 p. 7-13 Next . click Chapter 7.Magnetic Disks What is a miniature hard disk?  Provide greater storage capacities than flash memory  Smaller than notebook computer hard disks  A pocket hard drive is a self-contained unit Slide # 16 Click to view Web Link.

363 Fig.Magnetic Disks  Slide # 17 What are external hard disks and removable hard disks? Used to back up or transfer files Removable hard disk—hard disk that you insert and remove from hard disk drive External hard disk—freestanding hard disk that connects to system unit p. 7-14 Next .

363 . printers. CD and DVD drives scanners. CD hard disks. network cards p. and information EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Drive SCSI controller supports up to fifteen Electronics) controller supports four devices including hard disks.364 Next . instructions. tape drives. provides connections for and DVD drives.Magnetic Disks What is a disk controller? Slide # 18 Chip and circuits that control transfer of items from disk SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) controller uses serial signals to transfer data.

then click Online Storage below Chapter 7 p.Magnetic Disks What is online storage?   Slide # 19   Service on Web that provides storage for minimal monthly fee Files can be accessed from any computer with Web access Large files can be downloaded instantaneously Others can be authorized to access your data Click to view Web Link. click Chapter 7. Click Web Link from left navigation.365 Fig. 7-15 Next . 364 .

inexpensive storage medium (also called diskette) Slide # 20 Thin. 365 Fig. 7-16 Next . flexible film enclosed in 3.Magnetic Disks What is a floppy disk?  Portable. circular.5” wide plastic shell p.

366 Fig. 7-17 Next . and lacquer Can be read only or read/write Most PCs include an optical disc drive Insert the disc. label side up.  Flat. plastic. p.Optical Discs What are optical discs?  Slide # 21 Push the button to slide out the tray. portable metal discs made of metal.  Push the same button to close the tray. round.

which sends digital signals of 1 to computer. Absence of reflected light is read as digital signal of 0. 367 Fig. lens Step 3. land If light strikes a pit. 1 prism lightsensing diode Reflected light is deflected to a light-sensing diode. Step 1. Laser diode shines a light beam toward disc.Optical Discs How does a laser read data on an optical disc? disc label Slide # 22 lens pit 0 prism Step 2. p. it scatters. it is reflected back toward diode. 7-18 laser diode lightsensing diode laser diode Next . If light strikes a land.

367 Fig.Optical Discs How is data stored on an optical disc?   Slide # 23 Typically stored in single track Track divided into evenly sized sectors that store items single track spirals to edge of disc disc sectors p. 7-19 Next .

Optical Discs How should you care for an optical disc? Slide # 24 p. 368 Fig. 7-20 Next .

Optical Discs What is a CD-ROM?     Slide # 25 Compact disc read-only memory Cannot erase or modify contents Typically holds 650 MB to 1 GB Commonly used to distribute multimedia and complex software Click to view Web Link. Click Web Link from left navigation. 369 Fig. click Chapter 7. then click CD-ROMs below Chapter 7 p. 7-22 Next .

Optical Discs What is the data transfer rate of a CD-ROM drive? Slide # 26 Ranges from 48X to 75X or faster 1X is 150 KBps (KB per second) 75X 75  150 KBps = 11.250 KBps or 12. 369 Next .2 MBps p.200 KBps or 7.25 MBps 48X: 48  150 KBps = 7.

print images from Picture CD on your ink-jet photo printer. 370 Fig. At a store. Click Web Link from left navigation. Mark the Picture CD box on the film-processing envelope. Click to view Web Link. Step 2. Slide # 27 Film developers offer Picture CD service Can be modified using photo editing software Step 3. a Picture CD contains digital images of each photograph. click Chapter 7. then click Picture CDs below Chapter 7 p. 7-23 Next . When you pick up prints and negatives. print images to Picture CD at kiosk. At home.Optical Discs What is a Picture CD? Stores digital versions of roll of film Step 1. Drop off film to be developed.

Optical Discs What are CD-Rs and CD-RWs? Must have CD recorder or CD-R drive Slide # 28 CD-R (compact disc-recordable) — disc you can write on once c Cannot erase disc’s contents CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable) — erasable disc you can write on multiple times ce Click to view Web Link. click Chapter 7. 370 . then click CD-Rs and CD-RWs below Chapter 7 p.371 Must have CD-RW software and CD-RW drive Next . Click Web Link from left navigation.

Optical Discs Slide # 29 Video: Got Your Video Right Here CLICK TO START Next .

Optical Discs What is a DVD-ROM (digital versatile disc-ROM or digital video disc-ROM)?      Slide # 30 Must have DVD-ROM drive or DVD player to read DVD-ROM Stores databases.8 GB p. music. 372 Fig. and movies Blu-ray discs have storage capacity of up to 100 GB HD-DVD discs have storage capacity of up to 60 GB UMD can store up to 1. complex software. 7-24 Next .

lower layer is semitransparent so laser can read through Some are double-sided Many types of recordable and rewritable DVDs are available  DVD-R and DVD+R  DVD-RW and DVD+RW Click to view Web Link. 372 .373 Fig. Click Web Link from left navigation.Optical Discs How does a DVD-ROM store data?  Slide # 31   Two layers of pits are used. then click Blu-ray and HD DVD below Chapter 7 p. click Chapter 7. 7-25 Next .

374 Fig.Tape What is tape?  Magnetically coated plastic ribbon capable of storing large amounts of data at low cost  Primarily used for backup Slide # 32 p. 7-27 Next .

Tape How is data stored on a tape?  Sequential access   Reads and writes data consecutively. and DVDs — which can locate particular item immediately Slide # 33 p. like music tape Unlike direct access — used on hard disks. 374 Next . CDs.

PC Cards and ExpressCard Modules What are PC Cards and ExpressCard Modules?   Slide # 34 Adds capabilities to computer Credit-card-sized device commonly used in notebook computers p. 374 Figs. 7-28 Next .

375 Fig.Miniature Mobile Storage Media What is miniature mobile storage media?  Slide # 35 Storage for small mobile devices p. 7-29 Next .

Click Web Link from left navigation. then click Flash Memory Cards below Chapter 7 p.Miniature Mobile Storage Media What are common types of flash memory cards? CompactFlash Secure Digital xD Picture Card Slide # 36 Memory Stick Memory Stick PRO Duo Click to view Web Link. 376 Fig. 7-30 Next . click Chapter 7.

Miniature Mobile Storage Media How does one type of flash memory card work? Slide # 37 p. 377 Fig. 7-31 Next .

Miniature Mobile Storage Media What is a USB Flash Drive?    Slide # 38 Plugs in a USB port on a computer or mobile device Storage capacities up to 64 GB May eventually make the floppy disk obsolete Click to view Web Link. Click Web Link from left navigation. 377 Fig. 7-32 Next . click Chapter 7. then click USB Flash Drives below Chapter 7 p.

378 Fig. 7-33 Next . Click Web Link from left navigation. and storage capabilities Click to view Web Link. process. then click Smart Cards below Chapter 7 p. output.Miniature Mobile Storage Media What is a smart card?   Slide # 39 Stores data on microprocessor embedded in small card Input. click Chapter 7.

usually 4”  6” Slide # 40 p. 379 Fig.to 215-foot roll of film Microfiche — small sheet of film. 7-34 Next .Microfilm and Microfiche What are microfilm and microfiche? Store microscopic images of documents on roll or sheet of film Images recorded using computer output microfilm recorder Microfilm — 100.

379 Fig.Microfilm and Microfiche How do life expectancies of various media compare?  Slide # 41 Microfilm and microfiche have longest life of any storage media p. 7-35 Next .

Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for home users?      250 GB hard disk Online storage CD or DVD drive Card reader/writer USB flash drive Slide # 42 p. 7-37 Next . 380 Fig.

7-37 Next .Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for small office/home office (SOHO) users?      500 GB hard disk Online storage CD or DVD drive External hard drive for backup USB flash drive Slide # 43 p. 380 Fig.

7-37 Next .Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for mobile users?       100 GB hard disk Online storage CD or DVD drive Card reader/writer Portable hard disk for backup USB flash drive Slide # 44 p. 380 Fig.

380 Fig.Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for power users?      1.5 TB hard disk Online storage CD or DVD drive Portable hard disk for backup USB flash drive Slide # 45 p. 7-37 Next .

Putting It All Together What are recommended storage devices for large business users?  Desktop computer 500 GB hard disk CD or DVD drive Smart card reader Tape drive USB flash drive  Server or Mainframe Network storage server 40 TB hard disk system CD-ROM or DVD-ROM server Microfilm or microfiche Slide # 46 p. 7-37 Next . 380 Fig.

and microfiche . microfilm.Summary of Storage Internal hard disks HD DVD discs External and removable hard disks Slide # 47 Recordable and Rewritable DVDs Floppy disks Tape CD-ROMs Recordable and Rewritable CDs DVD-ROMs Blu-ray Discs (BDs) Chapter 7 Complete PC Cards and ExpressCard modules Flash memory cards and USB flash drives Smart cards.