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Approaches, Methods and Techniques


Direct/ Expositive Instruction Approach A way of teaching which is aimed at helping students acquire some basic skills and procedural knowledge. It is straight forward and is done in a step by step manner.

1. Provide rationale 2. Demonstrate the skill 3. Provide guided practice 4. Check for understanding

5. Provide extended practice and transfer


Constructivist Approach
Anchored on the belief that every individual constructs and reconstructs meanings depending on past experiences which are evaluated with an end of reconstructing meanings.

Suggested steps
1. Review/ recall 2. Posing problems, Asking questions 3. Reflection 4. Critical thinking activities 5. Independent practice

Cooperative Learning Approach

Makes use of classroom activities which allow students to work in groups or teams to help each other learn.

Reflective Thinking Approach

Anchored on the ability of the teacher to guide students to reflect on their own experiences I order to arrive at new understandings and meanings.

Some strategies
1. Self analysis 2. Journal Writing 3. Portfolio / Scrap booking 4. Asking Questions

Other Methods & Techniques

Lecture Method
1.Component technique 2.Relevance technique 3.Outlining technique


Discussion Method
Small Group Discussion Technique Socialized Classroom Discussion Technique Panel Discussion Technique Direct Instruction Technique Recitation Technique

Reporting Method
Unit or Morrison Technique Individual or Group Technique Reading or Story Telling Technique Schematic Technique Symposium

Demonstration Method
Teacher Directed Technique Student Directed Technique Teacher Student Directed Technique Resource Speaker Directed Technique

Activity Method
Project Technique Field Trip Technique Brainstorming Technique Debate Technique Dramatization Technique Role Playing Technique Simulation - Game Technique

Investigatory Method
1.Laboratory Technique 2.Research Technique 3.Field Study Technique 4.Experimenting Technique 5.Problem Solving Technique


Self Pacing Method

1.Programmed Instruction 2.Modular Learning 3.Correspondence Courses


Cooperative Learning Techniques

1.Popcorn Topics 2.Fish Bowl/ Inside-Outside Circle 3.Jigsaw 4.Three Step Interview 5.Pairs Check


Integrated Method
1.Lecture Discussion 2.Demonstration Lecture 3.Film Showing Discussion 4.Reporting - Discussion


Unified Approach
Knowledge should be presented as a whole and not a fragmented bits.
Previous learning should be reinforced. Knowledge should be expanded.

Unified Approach
A way to treat relationships that exist among the significant components making up a given body of knowledge. Features Highly cognitive Leads to insightful learning Holistic treatment of knowledge (cause effect)

Unified Approach
Illustration Society
A group of people sharing a common


Every individuals behavior creates a so called

It is made up of

Social Institutions

Social Status Social Roles

Socialization to adopt the same