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CDMA Call Processing

Call Processing
There are four modes of operation in
call processing in CDMA technology as
 Initialization mode

 Idle mode

 Access mode

 Traffic mode

Init ial iz ation mod e
 The subscriber unit performs initialization
when the phone is turned on.
During initialization, the mobile:
 searches for a usable pilot signal acquires the
system via the Pilot code channel
 synchronizes with the system by reading the
Sync code channel broadcast from that site

Idle mod e
 The mobile is not involved in a call during idle
mode, but it must stay in communication with
the base station.
 The mobile and the base station
communicate over the access and paging
code channels
 So in the Idle State the mobile is mainly
listening to the Paging Channel for incoming
messages. (Also monitors the strength of pilot
channel in neighbouring cells)

Acces s mod e
 The mobile accesses the network via
the Access code channel during call
 The Access channel and Paging channel

carry the required call set-up

communication between the mobile
phone and the BTS until a traffic
channel is established.
Traf fic mode
 Once assigned to a Traffic Channel, the mobile is no
longer monitoring the Paging Channel.
 During a land to mobile (LTM) call:
 The mobile receives a page on the paging channel.
 The mobile responds on the access channel.
 The traffic channel is established and maintained throughout
the call.
 During a mobile to land call (MTL):
 The call is placed using the Access channel.
 The base station responds on the paging channel.
 The traffic channel is established and maintained throughout
the call.

Ca ll p rocess in g
(mes sages)
 During the call, overhead messaging
(signaling) continues on the traffic channel in
a limited fashion.
 This messaging uses "Dim and Burst" or
"Blank and Burst" signaling, which replaces
part of the voice traffic with system
 The user does not detect this signaling,
however, due to the strong data recovery
schemes inherent to CDMA.
Ty pes of CD MA h andof f
 CDMA has three primary types of
 hard
 soft
 idle
 The type of handoff depends on the
handoff situation.

Soft Handoff
 Soft handoff refers to the state where the
mobile is in communication with multiple base
stations at the same time.
 Soft handoff is a make-before-break type of
handoff whereby a mobile acquires a target
code channel before breaking an existing one.
 The advantages of soft handoff are several:
 Fewer dropped calls.

Soft handoffs in general require less mobile transmit

 A CDMA mobile station is said to be in soft
handoff when the mobile communicates with
two or more antennas (PN offsets).
 The PN offsets involved in softhand offs are
said to be in Mobile Stations Active Set.
 Up to six PN offsets can be present in active

Soft Handoffs

Sof t h andoff
 A soft handoff establishes a connection with the new BTS prior
to breaking the connection with the old one.
 This is possible because CDMA cells use the same frequency.
 The mobile detects a new pilot as it travels to the next coverage
area. The new base station then establishes a connection with
the mobile.
 This new communication link is established while the mobile
maintains the link with the old BTS. So Soft handoff refers to
the state where the mobile is in communication with multiple
base stations at the same time.
 Soft handoffs are also called "make-before-break."
 If the sectors are from same physical cell site (a sectorized
site), handoff is referred to as “softer handoff”.

Idle Handoff
 While in the Idle st at e, the mobile may
move from one cell to another.
 Idle handoff arises from the transition
between any two cells.
 Idle handoff is initiated by the mobile when it
measures a pilot signal significantly stronger
than the current serving pilot
(3 dB stronger).

Idle Handoff

Idle Handoffs

 CDMA soft handoff is driven by the handset
 Handset continuously checks available pilots
 Handset tells system pilots it currently sees
 System assigns sectors (up to 6 max.), tells
 All messages sent by dim-and-burst.

The Pilot Searching Process

 The M obi le Sea rches for St rong P il ots
 The searching process is continuous and is
conducted to find handoff candidates.
 Mob il e Report s
 The handoff process is “mobile assisted”:
When the mobile detects a pilot of sufficient
strength, it reports the event to the base

 The Bas e Statio n Dir ects
 When the base station receives a report
from the mobile, a handoff decision is
made and directions are sent to the
mobile to perform the handoff.

Coding and Spreading

Cod in g a nd Sp re adin g

Cod in g a nd Sp re adin g

 The encoded voice information is encoded using a

code that will separate it from other encoded voice
 This process, known as channelization, will spread
the encoded symbols over the entire bandwidth of
the CDMA channel.
Rece iv er Deco di ng / Desp read ing
 The code used to channelize and spread the encoded
voice info is known to the receiver.
 The receiver will use the code to despread/decode
the signal and recover the encoded voice data.

Codes used in CDMA

Two k in ds of cod es
 CDMA uses two important types of
codes to channelize users.
 Walsh codes channelize users on the
forward link (BTS to mobile).
 Pseudorandom Noise (PN) codes
channelize users on the reverse link
(mobile to BTS).

 Why we have two spreading codes?
 Walsh codes are used to differentiate
transmissions with in a cell.
 PN codes are used to isolate different cells
(base stations) that are using the same
 Same PN sequence is used in all cells with
different offsets.
 The code is of 32768 length with 64 bits in
the shift register producing 512 offsets.