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History of Superconductivity
Superconductivity was discovered by H. Kamerlingh Onnes in Leiden in 1911 while studying the temperature dependence of the electrical resistance of mercury within a few degrees of absolute zero. He observed that the resistance dropped sharply to an immeasurably small value at a temperature of 4.2K (452F).

Superconductors have the ability to conduct electricity without the loss of energy. When current flows in an ordinary conductor, for example copper wire, some energy is lost. In a light bulb or electric heater, the electrical resistance creates light and heat.

As the electrons begin moving through the maze , they collide with tiny impurities or imperfections in the lattice. When the electrons bump into these obstacles they fly off in all directions and lose energy in the form of heat.

Inside a superconductor the behavior of electrons is vastly different. The impurities and lattice are still there, but the movement of the superconducting electrons through the obstacle course is quite different. As the superconducting electrons travel through the conductor they pass unobstructed through the complex lattice.

The phenomenon of losing resistivity when sufficiently cooled to a very low temperature (below a certain critical temperature).


Critical Temperature (TC)

Temperature at which a normal conductor loses its resistivity and becomes a superconductor.


Superconductivity occurs in a wide variety of materials, including simple elements like tin and aluminium, various metallic alloys and some heavily-doped semiconductors. Superconductivity does not occur in noble metals like gold and silver, nor in pure samples of ferromagnetic metals.

In conductors current flows movement of individual electrons. by the

In superconductive materials currents flows by the movement of pair or electron.

This electron pair is named as COOPER PAIR

Cooper Pair
A Cooper pair is two electrons that are bound together at low temperatures in a certain manner.

First described in 1956 physicist Leon Cooper.



When electrons are passing through the superconductive material its atoms experiences the deformation. This deformation helps the electrons to foam pair and move through the lattice.

How the Cooper pairs are formed

One theory is an electron passing by the crystal lattice of atoms in the conductor distorts the lattice in such a way the next electron is attracted to the lattice distortion. Or instead of the electron-pairing being mediated by lattice vibrations, the interaction of the conduction electrons may be due to charge or electron spin fluctuations in some electronic subsystem.

How do two electrons stick together to make a pair? As they repel each other, dont they?
Two isolated electrons do repel each other, but two electrons in a superconductor arent isolated theyre in the middle of a huge lattice of positively charged atoms making up the solid. Two electrons by themselves cant be stuck together, but two electrons inside a lattice can develop an attractive force between them thats mediated by the lattice.

Applications of Superconductors
MEDICAL: # Biotechnical engineering # Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) # Diagnosis of brain tumor INDUSTRIAL: # Separation # Magnets # Sensors & Transducers # Magnetic Shielding

ELECTRONICS: # SQUIDs # Transistors # Josephson Junction Devices # Circuitry Connections # Particle Accelerators # Sensors # Memory Storage Element in Computers Transportation: # Magnetically Levitated Vehicles # Marine Propulsion

Power Generation: # Motors # Generators # Energy Storage # Transmission # Fusion # Transformers and Inductors