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IM2654 Smart Electronic Materials

Piezoelectric Material and Applications

Chia Wei Xian


How Piezoelectric Material work

Limitations of Piezoelectric materials Current applications of Piezoelectric Materials Future developments of Piezoelectric Materials

What are Smart Materials

Types of Smart Materials

What is Piezoelectricity? Examples of Piezoelectric materials

What are Smart Materials?

"Smart" materials respond to environmental

stimuli with particular changes in some

variables. For that reason they are often also called responsive materials.

Types of Smart Materials

Colour changing materials: Thermochromic materials

Light emitting materials : Fluorescent materials; Electroluminescent materials Moving materials : Shape memory alloys (SMA); Piezoelectric materials

Types of Smart Materials

A Nickel-Titanium spring in coffeepots marketed in Japan is trained to open a valve and release hot water at the proper temperature to brew a perfect pot of coffee.

How can it be used in shower heaters?


Types of Smart Materials

Colour changing materials: Thermochromic materials; Photochromic materials Light emitting materials : Fluorescent materials; Electroluminescent materials Moving materials : Shape memory alloys (SMA); Piezoelectric materials

What are Piezoeletric materials?

The piezoelectric effect describes the relation between a mechanical stress and an electrical voltage in solids.

Examples of Piezoeletric materials

Piezoelectric materials can be divided in 2 main groups: crystals and ceramics.

Quartz SiO2 Gallium orthophosphate

GaPO4 Ceramics
Barium Titanate BaTiO3 Lead Zirconate Titanate PZT

Polyvinylidene DiFluoride PVDF

How Piezoelectric Material work?

Piezoelectric materials are crystalline solids whose asymmetric structures create an electric dipole moment in the crystal lattice, which is sensitive to both elastic strain and applied electrical field
When an electrical field is applied to a piezoelectric material, a stress is induced and the material 10

Ion charges neutralized in unstrained crystal

Unbalanced ions charge surface of strained materials



How Piezoelectric Material work?

In Quartz, the --application of + - + a stress along + + a polar axis produces an - + + electric field +++ --between the two opposing faces. The application of stress results in a finite displacement of the cation charge relative to the center of anion charges; hence this structural unit is piezoelectric. The axis, where pressure is applied has to be polar. 11

How Piezoelectric Material work?

"g" Constant

Piezoelectric coefficient relating the amount stress applied to a crystal to the resultant electric field in the crystal. Piezoelectricity.
The piezoelectric constant relating applied electric field to resultant strain. Electrostriction. Temperature at which the crystal structure undergoes a phase change from non-symmetrical lattice (such as tetragonal) to symmetrical lattice (such as cubic). Drastic dielectric and piezoelectric coefficient changes accompany this phase change.

"d" Constant

Curie Temperature:

Dependent on Strain, Temperature, E-field, Displacement


How Piezoelectric Material work?

TABLE 1: Comparison between commonly used crystalline piezoelectric materials and PVDF. Relative Dielectric Const. 4.5 13 1300 Piezoelectric Const. d33 (pC/N) 2.3(d 11) -33 289 Piezo. Strain/Volt. Const. g33 (10 exp-3 Vm/N) 50.0 (g31) -339.0 25.1


Quartz PVDF PZT-4

How is PZT created?

Raw Materials Lead oxide (PbO), Titanium oxide (TiO), Zirconium oxide (ZrO2), Mixing The materials are weighed and mixed with water in a pot mill to provide slurry. Calcining The slurry is heat treated to a maximum of 800C to obtain calcined powder.

How is Piezo materials created?

Milling The powder is milled with water to obtain slurry. It is then dried and grounded, hence providing piezoelectric ceramic powder of lead oxide. Mixed with solvent, it is then spread out to obtain sheets of piezoelectric ceramic composite. Conductive Paste Piezoelectric ceramic powder and powder of oxided is added and milled to form a conductive paste for sintering. Pressing The conductive paste is applied and pressed repeatedly to the sheets of piezoelectric ceramic to print internal 15 electrodes.

How is PZT created?

Binder Burnout The multilayer body is heated to around 700C so as to remove organic compunds.

Sintering The multilayer body is then fired to 1200C to sinter the sheets and internal electrodes together.
Grinding/ Polishing The material undergoes cutting, grinding and polishing to have internal electrodes on the sides.

How is PZT created?

Electroding Electrodes are applied either by screen printing or chemical plating or vacuum deposition Polarizing The material is immersed in silicon oil at 100C. E field of is applied between internal electrodes for 30 minutes to polarize the ceramic layers.


Limitations of Piezo-materials
Electrical Limitations The typical operating limit is between 400500V/mm. Alternating fields can have the same affect Mechanical Limitations High mechanical stress


Limitations of Piezo-materials
Temperature Limitations Curie point Long exposure at elevated temperature Operating temperature for a ceramic usually is approximately half-way between 0C and the Curie point.


Applications of Piezo-materials
1) Generators Piezoelectric ceramics can generate voltages sufficient to spark across an electrode gap. Eg: Ignitors in fuel lighters, gas stoves, flash rocks, Piezoelectric Transformers


Applications of Piezo-materials


Applications of Piezo-materials
Piezoelectric Transformer


Applications of Piezo-materials

Piezotransformer Smaller Lighter Higher efficiency Less noisy

Electromagnetic Transformer Bulky Heavy Heat generation Eddy currents Magnetically noisy - Humming

Applications of Piezo-materials
2) Sensors A sensor converts a physical parameter, such as acceleration or pressure, into an electrical signal.

Eg: Smart skis, bumper sensors, seatbelt, Mine detectors


Applications of Piezo-materials


Applications of Piezo-materials

3) Actuators A piezoelectric actuator converts an electrical signal into a precisely controlled physical displacement, to finely adjust precision machining tools, lenses, or mirrors. Eg: Printers, Nano-positioning actuators


Applications of Piezo-materials


Applications of Piezo-materials
Electrostrictive polymers Lightweight, low power, wiper mechanisms for nanorover explorations


Applications of Piezo-materials


Applications of Piezo-materials
4) Transducers Piezoelectric transducers convert electrical energy into vibrational mechanical energy, often sound or ultrasound
A transducer can both generate an ultrasound signal from electrical energy and convert incoming sound into an electrical signal. Eg: Transducer probe

Applications of Piezo-materials
When an electric current is applied, the crystals change shape rapidly. The rapid shape changes produce sound waves that travel outward. When sound or pressure waves hit the crystals, they emit electrical currents.

Applications of Piezo-materials


Future of Piezo-materials
Materials with higher Piezo Coefficients Lighter materials

Higher Curie Point

Bio-compatible materials Microelectronic compatible

Composite Piezo materials


Future of Piezo-materials

Human-Powered Devices?


Future of Piezo-materials
Electroactive polymers

Large E field-induced strain Ultra-lightweight Excellent processability Mechanical and electrical toughness Excellent compatibility with other electroactive polymers for multifunctionality hybrid molecular systems

Graft Units

Piezo Crystals

ElectrostrictivePiezoelectric Blends

Future of Piezo-materials
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IM2654 Smart Electronic Materials



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