A Presentation on Smart card

Tandel Vardhi(89) Uplana Virji(94) Chaudhary Mukesh(46)

Introduction to Smart Card

A smart card contains a "chip" with memory and is typically used to hold customer account information and a "balance" of money similar to a checking account. The card is inserted into a device that can read and write to it updating information appropriately. The integrated circuit chip (ICC) embedded in the smart card can act as a microcontroller or computer. Data are stored in the chip’s memory and can be accessed to complete various processing applications.

Kinds of Information Smart Card Contain
 Personal information, including the card serial number, date of issue and cardholder’s name, gender, date of birth, ID number, and picture.  Information relating to cardholder status, remarks for catastrophic diseases, number of visits and admissions, accumulated medical expenditure records and amount of cost-sharing.  Medical service information, including drug allergy history and long-term prescriptions of ambulatory care and certain medical treatments.  Public health administration information (such as the cardholder’s personal immunization chart and instructions for organ donation).

Privacy and Security
 multiple smart card security mechanisms to prevent counterfeiting and protect cardholder information.  mechanisms to protect the security of information during transmission, practices to prevent computer viruses.  Encryption of information stored on the card.  Cardholder personal identification numbers (PINs) to protect on-card personal information.

TYPES OF CHIP CARDS
Often the terms “chip card,” “integrated circuit card” and “smart card” are used interchangeably, but they can mean different things. There are three different types of chips that can be associated with these cards: Memory only Wired logic Microcontroller

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 Memory-Only Integrated Circuit Chip Cards (including Serial Protected Memory Chip Cards). Memory-only cards are “electronic magnetic stripes,” and provide little more security than a magnetic stripe card. The two advantages they have over magnetic stripe cards are: a) they have a higher data capacity (up to 16 kilobits (Kbits) compared with 80 bytes per track), and b) the read/write device is much less expensive. The memory-only chip cards do not contain logic or perform calculations; they simply store data. Wired Logic Integrated Circuit Chip Cards. A wired logic chip card contains a logic-based state machine that provides encryption and authenticated access to the memory and its contents. Wired logic cards provide a static file system supporting multiple applications, with optional encrypted access to memory contents.

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Secure Microcontroller Integrated Circuit Chip Cards. Microcontroller cards contain a microcontroller, an operating system, and read/write memory that can be updated many times. The secure microcontroller chip card contains and executes logic and calculations and stores data in accordance with its operating system. The microcontroller card is like a miniature PC one can carry in a wallet.

Functions of Smart Card
 Access Control Tools. Smart cards can provide significantly enhanced security features that allow the card to operate as an authentication token for secure logical access to terminals and networks (such as local area networks (LANs) and the Internet).  Payment Tools. Smart cards can serve as credit, debit, or stored-value payment and/or payment token instruments and provide the capability to access financial accounts and transfer funds between accounts.

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 Information Storage and Management Tools. Depending upon the size of the ICC, smart cards can store and manage data to assist with various applications. For example, medical information stored on a smart card can be accessed by an authorized medical official in the event of an emergency or on a routine medical visit. Oncard information availability can reduce the amount of time spent locating hard-copy paperwork. If the medical event were a life-threatening emergency, the information would be immediately accessible, possibly saving critical time.

Advantages of Smart Cards
     The capacity provided by the on-board microprocessor and data capacity for highly secure, off-line processing Established track record in real world applications Durability and long expected life span (guaranteed by vendor for up to 10,000 read/writes before failure) Chip Operating Systems that support multiple applications Secure independent data storage on one single card

Barriers to Acceptance of Smart Cards
• Relatively higher cost of smart cards as compared to magnetic stripe cards. (The difference in initial costs between the two technologies, however, decreases significantly when the differences in expected life span and capabilities- particularly in terms of supporting multiple applications and thus affording cost sharing among application providers- are taken into account).  Present lack of infrastructure to support the smart card • Proprietary nature of the Chip Operating System. The consumer must be technically knowledgeable to select the most appropriate card for the target application. • Unresolved legal and policy issues related to privacy and confidentiality or consumer protection laws.

Comparison with Magnetic Stripe Cards
• The increasing complex performance and application requirements of today's card systems have spurred interest in smart cards as an alternative to magnetic stripe cards, or as an enhancement to magnetic stripe cards in the form of a hybrid card which can support more than one technology (a smart card micro-module and a magnetic stripe).

More Examples of Smart Card Applications
Financial Applications  Electronic Purse to replace coins for small purchases in vending machines and over-the-counter transactions.  Credit and/or Debit Accounts, replicating what is currently on the magnetic stripe bank card, but in a more secure environment.  Securing payment across the Internet as part of Electronic Commerce. Communications Applications  The secure initiation of calls and identification of caller (for billing purposes) on any Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) phone.  Subscriber activation of programming on Pay-TV.

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Information Security  Employee access cards with secured passwords and the potential to employ biometrics to protect access to computer systems. Physical Access Control  Employee access cards with secured ID and the potential to employ biometrics to protect physical access to facilities. Transportation  Drivers Licenses.  Electronic Toll Collection Systems.

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Student Identification  All-purpose student ID card (a/k/a campus card), containing a variety of applications such as electronic purse (for vending machines, laundry machines, library card, and meal card). Health Care  Consumer health card containing insurance eligibility and emergency medical data.

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