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STRATEGIC BRAND MANAGEMENT


BUILDING, MEASURING, AND MANAGING BRAND EQUITY
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Book by: Kevin Lane Keller

STRATEGIC BRAND MANAGEMENT


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Part I: Part II:


Part III: Part IV:

Part V: Part VI:

Opening Perspectives Identifying and Establishing Brand Positioning and Values Planning and Implementing Brand Marketing Programs Measuring and Interpreting Performance Growing and Sustaining Brand Equity Closing Perspectives
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PART III: PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING BRAND MARKETING PROGRAMS


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Chapter 4: Choosing Brand Elements to Build Brand Equity Chapter 5: Designing Marketing Programs to Build Brand Equity Chapter 6: Integrating Marketing Communications to Build Brand Equity Chapter 7: Leveraging Secondary Brand Knowledge to Build Brand Equity

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CHAPTER 4: CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS TO BUILD BRAND EQUITY


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Book by: Kevin Lane Keller

What is brand elements?


Brand

Elements are sometimes called as Brand Identities


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Names URLs Logos Symbols Characters Spokespeople Slogans Jingles Packages Signage

What is brand elements?

Marketers should use brand elements to


Enhance Brand awareness Facilitate formation of strong, favorable, and unique brand association Elicit strong judgments and feelings

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The test of brand-building ability of the brand element is

What consumer would think or feel about the product if they knew only its brand element
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SIX CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS


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1.Memorability 2.Meaningfulness 3.Likability 4.Transferability 5.Adaptability 6.Protectability

Offensive strategies

Defensive strategies

SIX CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS


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1.Memorability

It should facilitate recall or recognition

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SIX CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS


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2. Meaningfulness How well the brand conveys

General information about the nature of the product category Specific information about particular attributes and benefits of the brand

Brand awareness & Salience

Brand Image & Positioning

The We Nothing name dont inspires have official sports negatives Trust about Birla Adidas Polaroid Crest mutual Pepsi fund Dont leave Made Look home Ma for No each without cavities other it it American Wills Navy Express cut I Forever think, therefore IBM thinkpad

SIX CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS


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3.Likability
Aesthetically appealing Visually, verbally other way likable Rich in imagery Inherently fun & interesting

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SIX CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS


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4.Transferability
Extent to which brand element adds to the brand equity of NEW PRODUCT How useful is the brand for line or category extension Less specific is the name more easily it can be

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SIX CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS


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5.Adaptability
Adaptability over time More adoptable and flexible the brand element is the easier it is to update it

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SIX CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS


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6.Protectability

Philco, the Philadelphia Storage Battery Protectable legally and in Company prevented Philips from using Philips a competitive sense brand name in US. Marketer should Hence Philips sold there Choose brand element that can products under brand be legally protected name Norelco in US. internationally Later they purchased Philco, and now can use Formally register them with the Philips name. But they appropriate legal bodies still retained Norelco Vigorously defend trademarks from unauthorized competitive brand name for US 13 products infringement

OPTIONS AND TACTICS FOR BRAND ELEMENTS


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Apple logo
Simple but well-known word Distinctive in the product category Meaning gave friendly shine Warm brand personality Easily transferable geographically and culturally Provides platform for sub-branding like Macintosh

Unfortunately it is difficult to get a perfect brand name


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OPTIONS AND TACTICS FOR BRAND ELEMENTS


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Brand Names

Brands names can be an extremely effective shorthand means of communications


Descriptive: describes function literally: Air India Suggestive: Suggestive of a benefit: Feviquick, Medimix, m-seal, Dr Fixit Compounds: Combination of two or more unexpected words: PRAJ Classical: Real words with no obvious tiein to company: Tortoise Fanciful: Coined words with no obvious meaning: SX4

Naming guidelines:

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OPTIONS AND TACTICS FOR BRAND ELEMENTS


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Brand Names
Brand names that are simple and easy to pronounce or spell, familiar and meaningful, and different, distinctive and unusual can obviously improve brand awareness Brand name can reinforce an important attribute or benefit association that makes up its product positioning

Naming procedures
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Define objectives Generate names Screen initial candidates Study candidate names Research the final candidate Select the final name

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OPTIONS AND TACTICS FOR BRAND ELEMENTS


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URLs (Universal Resource Locator) Domain names Every three letter combination and virtually all words in a English dictionary have been registered Protecting brand names from unauthorized user is a issue threatening brands At the peak of the internet boom, investors paid $7.5 millions for business.com, $2.2 million for autos.com and $1.1 millions for bingo.com. Many of these common noun sites failed Many firms adopted i or e in the beginning. These names also failed over the period of time

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OPTIONS AND TACTICS FOR BRAND ELEMENTS


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Logos and symbols

Logos play critical role in building brand equity and essentially brand awareness. Logos range from corporate names or trademarks written in distinctive form to entirely abstract designs that may be completely unrelated to the word mark, corporate name or corporate activity Strong word mark and no logo: Cococola, Kit-kat Abstract logo: Mercedes star, Rolex crown, Nike swoosh, Olympic rings Many logos fall in between

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OPTIONS AND TACTICS FOR BRAND ELEMENTS


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Logos and symbols


Many logos fall in between these two extreme Some are literal representation of the brand name: Apple logo, Red cross Some can be pictorial: American Express, Nirma Some logos may show certain physical element, McDonalds arches Consumer survey shows use of survey enhances consumer impression of companies Abstract logos may be distinctive and recognizable BUT they may lack inherent meaning.

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OPTIONS AND TACTICS FOR BRAND ELEMENTS


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Characters

Character represents a special type of brand symbol- one that takes on human or real-life characteristics Some are animated like Pillsburys poppin Some are like Ronald Because they are colourful and rich in imagery, brand characters tend to be attention getting and quite useful for creating brand awareness It can help brand break through clutter

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OPTIONS AND TACTICS FOR BRAND ELEMENTS


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Slogans

Slogans are short phrases that communicate descriptive or persuasive information about the brand. They often appear in advertising but can play an important role on packaging and in other aspects of the marketing program. Like brand name they are shorthand devices to build brand equity. Dominos: Hungry Kya Citi: Citi never sleeps American Express: never go out without it Maser card: For everything else, there is Master card LIC

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OPTIONS AND TACTICS FOR BRAND ELEMENTS


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Jingles
Jingles are musical messages written around the brand. Typically composed by professional songwriters, they often have enough catchy hooks and choruses to become almost permanently registered in the minds of listeners. In radio days jingles were very important. Because of musical nature jingles are not as transferable as other brand elements. They can communicate brand benefits, but they often convey product meaning in a nondirect and fairly abstract fashion They are most valuable in enhancing brand awareness. Because of repetition of brand name it allows consumers multiple encoding opportunities

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OPTIONS AND TACTICS FOR BRAND ELEMENTS


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Packaging
Packages have long history from leaves and animal skin It works the best at the moment of truth Strongest association of packaging is look of the packaging What comes to your mind when you remember Coke: a bottle Innovation in packaging may increase sale of the product substantially Different sizes of packs can further increase sales It is also called as last five seconds of marketing, permanent media the last salesman Consumers have a color vocabulary. Some brands have color ownership. Red: Coke, Colgate

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PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER


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Consistency of brand elements. The cohesiveness of the brand identity depends upon consistency of brand elements

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