# Module 2

Modal Analysis

Module 2

Modal Analysis
A. Define modal analysis and its purpose.

Training Manual

DYNAMICS 8.1

B. Discuss associated concepts, terminology, and mode extraction methods. C. Learn how to do a modal analysis in AN ! . D. "or# on one or two modal analysis exercises.

July 22, 2004 Invento ry

Modal Analysis

A. Definition & Purpose
• • "hat is modal analysis\$ A techni%ue used to determine a structure&s 'i(ration characteristics)

Training Manual

DYNAMICS 8.1

– Natural fre%uencies – Mode shapes – Mode participation factors *how much a gi'en mode participates in a gi'en direction+

Most fundamental of all the dynamic analysis types.

July 22, 2004 Invento ry

Modal Analysis

… Definition & Purpose
Benefits of modal analysis •

Training Manual

DYNAMICS 8.1

Allows the design to a'oid resonant 'i(rations or to 'i(rate at a specified fre%uency *spea#ers, for example+. ,i'es engineers an idea of how the design will respond to different types of dynamic loads. -elps in calculating solution controls *time steps, etc.+ for other dynamic analyses.
Recommendation: Because a structure&s 'i(ration characteristics determine how it responds to any type of dynamic load, always perform a modal analysis first before trying any other dynamic analysis.

July 22, 2004 Invento ry

the eigen'alues. where i ranges from / to num(er of D01. 22. u = U sin(ωt ) + ([ K ] − ω [ M ]){ u} = {0} 2 • . the July eigen'ectors.e.he roots of this e%uation are ω i2.eneral e%uation of motion) Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. Corresponding 'ectors are 2u3i. Terminology & oncepts • . 2004 Invento ry .Modal Analysis B.1  } + [ C]{ u  } + [ K ]{ u} = { F( t )} [ M ]{ u • Assume free 'i(rations and ignore damping)  } + [ K ]{ u} = { 0} [ M ]{ u • Assume harmonic motion * i.

. the structure&s natural circular fre%uencies *radians4sec+.Modal Analysis … Terminology & oncepts • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.he s%uare roots of the eigen'alues are ω i . 6t is the natural fre%uencies fi that are input (y the user and output (y AN ! .he eigen'ectors 2u3i represent the mode shapes 7 the shape assumed (y the structure when 'i(rating at fre%uency fi.1 . 2004 Invento ry . Natural fre%uencies fi are then calculated as fi 5 ω i 42π ( cycles4sec) . • July 22.

" • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. 1or all other methods. mode e\$pansion simply means writing mode shapes to the results file.Modal Analysis … Terminology & oncepts !cont. • July 22. 1or the reduced method. Mode #\$pansion has a dual meaning. mode e\$pansion means calculating the full mode shapes from the reduced mode shapes. 2004 Invento ry .1 Mode #\$traction is the term used to descri(e the calculation of eigen'alues and eigen'ectors.

nsymmetric Damped *full+ <: Damped Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 • "hich method you choose depends primarily on the model si8e *relati'e to your computer resources+ and the particular application. 2004 Invento ry . July 22.Modal Analysis % Terminology & oncepts Mode #\$traction Met&ods • e'eral mode extraction methods are a'aila(le in AN ! ) – – – – – – – Bloc# Lanc8os *default+ u(space 9owerDynamics :educed .

Modal Analysis % Terminology & oncepts … Mode #\$traction Met&ods % Bloc' (anc)os • .ypically used in complex models with mixture of solids4shells4(eams etc. 2004 Invento ry . Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.he Bloc# Lanc8os method is recommended for most applications.1 – =fficient extraction of large num(er of modes *>?@+ in most models – . – =fficient extraction of modes in a fre%uency range – -andles rigid7(ody modes well July 22.

enerally superseded (y Bloc# Lanc8os July 22.1 :e%uires relati'ely less memory (ut large dis#space May ha'e con'ergence pro(lems when rigid (ody modes are present. Not recommended when constraint e%uations are present. – – – – Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis % Terminology & oncepts … Mode #\$traction Met&ods % *ubspace • "hen extracting a small num(er of modes *A>?+ in similar si8e models. 2004 Invento ry . the su(space method can (e more suita(le. .

2004 Invento ry .1 – :e%uires large amount of memory.Modal Analysis % Terminology & oncepts … Mode #\$traction Met&ods % Po+erDynamics • 1or large */??B@ D01+ models and a small num(er of modes *A 2?+. 6t can (e significantly faster than Bloc# Lanc8os or u(space. – May not con'erge with poorly shaped elements or an ill7conditioned matrix. July 22. (ut) Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. – May miss modes *No turm se%uence chec#+ – :ecommended only as a last resort for large models. use the 9owerDynamics method.

typically (eams and spars. – Memory and dis# re%uirements are low. a techni%ue to reduce the si8e of CBD and CMD (y selecting a su(set of D01 called master D01.1 1or models in which lumping mass does not create a local oscillation.enerally not recommended due to • =xpertise re%uired in pic#ing master D01 • =fficient alternati'es such as Bloc# Lanc8os • reduced cost of hardware July 22.Modal Analysis % Terminology & oncepts … Mode #\$traction Met&ods % Reduced • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Invento ry . – :eduction of CBD is exact (ut CMD loses some accuracy – Accuracy of CMD depends on num(er and location of master D01. – 6n general fastest eigen sol'er – =mploys matri\$ reduction. – . use the :educed method.

July 22. positi'e means unsta(le.Modal Analysis % Terminology & oncepts … Mode #\$traction Met&ods % -nsymmetric • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. – Calculates complex eigen'alues and eigen'ectors) • :eal part is the natural fre%uency.1 .he unsymmetric method is used for acoustics *with structural coupling+ and other such applications with unsymmetric CBD and CMD. 2004 Invento ry . • 6maginary part indicates sta(ility 7 negati'e means sta(le.

Modal Analysis % Terminology & oncepts … Mode #\$traction Met&ods % Damped • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Invento ry . – Calculates complex eigen'alues and eigen'ectors) • 6maginary part is the natural fre%uency. July 22. • :eal part indicates sta(ility 7 negati'e means sta(le.1 Damping is normally ignored in a modal analysis. (ut if its effects are significant. allow gyroscopic effects to (e specified in the form of real constant 96N *rotational speed. – . B=AM> and 969=/E. the Damped method is used. radians4time+. – . positi'e means unsta(le.wo AN ! elements. where gyroscopic damping effects are important.ypical application is rotor dynamics.

1 A second mode extraction method that considers damping effects is the <7: Damped method.DM9:D in a su(se%uent mode superposition harmonic analysis July 22. – – – – 1aster and more sta(le than the existing Damped ol'er "or#s with poorly conditioned models All forms of damping allowed including damper elements Com(ines the (est features of the real eigensolution method *Bloc# Lanc8os+ and the Complex -essen(erg method *<: Algorithm+ – 0utputs complex eigen'alues * fre%uency and sta(ility+ and damping ratio of each mode – upports the use of a material dependent damping ratio CM9.%R damped • DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Invento ry .Modal Analysis % Terminology & oncepts Training Manual … Mode #\$traction Met&ods % .

<:DAM9.%R damped Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 M0D09. 2004 Invento ry .Modal Analysis % Terminology & oncepts … Mode #\$traction Met&ods % ..NM0D= July 22.

2004 Invento ry ./2F acti'e dofs /? damped modes Alpha. Beta and =lement damping 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 QRDAMP DAMP CPU (sec) ELAPSE (sec) July 22.1 Comparison Demonstrating the uperior olution 9erformance of the <: Damped Mode =xtraction Method 1=A M odel Characteristics) ///.%R damped Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis % Terminology & oncepts … Mode #\$traction Met&ods % .

Modal Analysis % Terminology & oncepts *ummary for symmetric.1 :emar#s Rec !!e"#e# \$ r ! st app%icati "s& M st sta'%e& Sta'%e '*t s% +& Re. 2004 Invento ry . undamped sol/ers =xtraction method Bloc# Lanc8os u(space Linear ol'er .sed Sparse Matrix (r "ta% S %)er Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.*ati "s 2 ri-i# ' #0 ! #es Sa!e as s*'space '*t +it1 PC3 s %)er& Ca" 1a"#%e )er0 %ar-e ! #e%s& L*!pe# !ass "%0& Ma0 !iss ! #es& M #es ca"" t 'e *se# i" s*'se.Master D5(7 9owerdynamics PC3 s %)er :educed (r "ta% S %)er July 22.*ires %ar-e #is.*ire# i" se%ecti". space& /as #i\$\$ic*%t0 +it1 c "strai"t e.*e"t spectr*! a"# PSD a"a%0ses 4" -e"era% \$astest& Acc*rac0 #epe"#s " Master D5( se%ecti "& Li!itati "s si!i%ar t S*'space& 6 t rec !!e"#e# #*e t expertise re.

2004 Invento ry DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis .1 . Procedure 1our main steps in a modal analysis) • • • • Build the model Choose analysis type and options Apply (oundary conditions and sol'e :e'iew results Training Manual July 22.

Nonlinearities are ignored.1 Linear elements and materials only. ee also Modeling onsiderations in Module /.Modal Analysis Procedure Build t&e Model • • • :emem(er densityG Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. July 22. 2004 Invento ry .

Modal Analysis Procedure &oose Analysis Type & 0ptions  Build the model Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. Mode extraction optionsH Mode expansion optionsH 0ther optionsH • • • HDiscussed next July 22.1 Choose analysis type and options • =nter olution and choose modal analysis. 2004 Invento ry .

*pecification of a fre3uency range re3uires additional factori)ations and it is typically faster to simply re3uest a number of modes +&ic& +ill o/erlap t&e desired range. 2004 Invento ry . 2re3uency range: Defaults to entire range. (ut can (e limited to a desired range *1:=<B to 1:=<=+. 1umber of modes: Must (e specified *except :educed method+. defaults to /eI Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 • • • July 22.Modal Analysis Procedure … &oose Analysis Type & 0ptions Mode extraction options • Met&od: Bloc# Lanc8os recommended for most applications. 1ormali)ation: Discussed next.

– Choose normali8ation to unity when you want to easily compare relati'e 'alues of displacements throughout the structure. 6t is therefore customary to normali8e them for numerical efficiency or user con'enience. harmonic. spectrum or random 'i(ration+ 22. – Normali8ation to mass matrix is the default. • Modes normali8ed to unity cannot (e used in su(se%uent mode July superposition analyses *transient. • 2004 Invento ry .1 0nly the shape of the D01 solution has real meaning. and is re%uired for a spectrum analysis or if a su(se%uent mode superposition analysis is planned.Modal Analysis Procedure … &oose Analysis Type & 0ptions Normali8ation of mode shapes) • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. Modes are normali8ed either to the mass matrix or to a unit matrix *unity+.

– Do a su(se%uent spectrum or mode superposition analysis.Modal Analysis Procedure … &oose Analysis Type & 0ptions Mode expansion) • !ou need to expand mode shapes if you want to do any of the following) – -a'e element stresses calculated. 2004 Invento ry DYNAMICS 8. Training Manual July 22.1 .

2004 Invento ry .he cost of this is minimal.Modal Analysis Procedure … &oose Analysis Type & 0ptions Mode expansion *continued+) • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. . July 22.1 Recommendation) Always expand as many modes as the num(er extracted.

2004 Invento ry .sed only if Damped mode extraction method is chosen. Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. July 22. or for wa'e propagation pro(lems.Modal Analysis Procedure … &oose Analysis Type & 0ptions • • 0ther analysis options) Lumped mass matrix – Mainly used for slender (eams and thin shells. 1ull damping – .1 • • 9re7stress effects – 1or 9re7stressed modal analysis *discussed later+. alpha damping. • <: damping – All types of damping are allowed. – B=AM> and 969=/E also allow gyroscopic damping. – Damping ratio. and (eta damping are allowed. – Automatically chosen for 9owerDynamics method.

2004 Invento ry . AN ! creates a load 'ector which you can use in a su(se%uent mode superposition analysis. *ol/e: Discussed next.1 Apply (oundary conditions and sol'e • • Displacement constraints: Discussed next. • July 22. #\$ternal loads: 6gnored since free 'i(rations are assumed.Modal Analysis Procedure Apply B 4s and *ol/e  Build the model  Choose analysis type and options Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. -owe'er.

Modal Analysis Procedure … Apply B 4s and *ol/e Displacement constraints) • Apply as necessary. Non78ero displacements are not allowed. July 22. • • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. to simulate actual fixity. 2004 Invento ry .1 :igid (ody modes will (e calculated in directions not constrained.

Modal Analysis Procedure .1 1ull Model ymmetry BC Anti7 ymmetry BC July 22. so some modes can (e missed. Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.. 2004 Invento ry .. Apply B 4s and *ol/e Displacement constraints *continued+) • • Be careful with symmetry ymmetry BC&s will only produce symmetrically shaped modes.

Modal Analysis Procedure … Apply B 4s and *ol/e Displacement constraints *continued+) Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.he JK7-8 mode was missed (y the anti7symmetry case (ecause :0. July 22. . the lowest non78ero mode for the full and the %uarter7symmetry case is shown (elow.1 1or the plate7with7hole model. 2004 Invento ry .L is non78ero along the symmetry (oundaries.

ypically one load step. for example+. 2004 Invento ry DYNAMICS 8. Training Manual July 22. Multiple load steps can (e used to study the effect of different displacement constraints *symmetry BC in one load step and anti7symmetry BC in another.Modal Analysis Procedure … Apply B 4s and *ol/e ol'e) • • .1 .

1 • • • • • :e'iew results using 90 .Modal Analysis Procedure Re/ie+ Results  Build the model  Choose analysis type and options  Apply (oundary conditions and sol'e Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. the general postprocessor List natural fre%uencies Miew mode shapes :e'iew participation factors :e'iew modal stresses July 22. 2004 Invento ry ./.

Modal Analysis Procedure … Re/ie+ Results Listing natural fre%uencies) • • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. Notice that each mode is stored in a separate su(step. July 22.1 Choose N:ead :esults O By 9ic#P in the . 2004 Invento ry .eneral 9ostproc menu.

2004 Invento ry .1 • • July 22.hen plot the deformed shape) General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape… Notice that the graphics legend shows mode num(er * . .Modal Analysis Procedure … Re/ie+ Results Miewing mode shapes) • 1irst read in results for the desired mode using 1irst et. Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. or By Load tep. Next et.B 5 + and the fre%uency *1:=< 5 +.

2004 Invento ry .1 !ou can also animate the mode shape) Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Mode Shape..Modal Analysis Procedure … Re/ie+ Results Miewing mode shapes *continued+) • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.. July 22.

1 -igh 'alue in a direction indicates that the mode will (e excited (y forces in that direction Malues are relati'e (ased on a unit displacement spectrum . 2004 Invento ry . command.=.he final participation factor 'alue *:0.?+ could (e used to o(tain other 'alues Also printed out *to the output file+ is the effecti'e mass. 6deally the sum of the effecti'e masses in each direction should e%ual total mass of structure =ffecti'e Mass 5 *participation factor+2 • • July 22.Modal Analysis Procedure … Re/ie+ Results 9articipation 1actors) • • • • Calculated for each mode in glo(al translation and rotation directions Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.?. A spectrum analysis with a specified direction * =D.Q+ can (e retrie'ed into a parameter using H./.

howe'er these can (e used to highlight hot spots 6f mode shapes are normali8ed to unity. 2004 Invento ry .1 A'aila(le if element stress calculation is acti'ated when choosing analysis options. you can compare stresses at different points for a gi'en mode shape July 22. tress 'alues ha'e no real meaning.Modal Analysis Procedure … Re/ie+ Results Modal stresses) • • • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.

1 Mode shapes normali8ed to unity July 22.Modal Analysis Procedure … Re/ie+ Results Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Invento ry .

1 .Modal Analysis Procedure  Build the model  Choose analysis type and options  Apply (oundary conditions and sol'e  :e'iew results Training Manual July 22. 2004 Invento ry DYNAMICS 8.

– !ou may choose to run this pro(lem yourself. Page 5*%68 +. 5or's&op % Modal Analysis . – 1ollow the instructions in your Dynamics 5or's&op supplement * 5*2: Modal Analysis % Plate +it& a 7ole.his wor#shop consists of two pro(lems) 6.D. Page 5*%29 +. 2. or your instructor may show it as a demonstration. 2004 Invento ry . Modal analysis of a model airplane +ing – . Modal analysis of a plate +it& a &ole Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.his is left as an exercise to you. July 22.1 – A step7(y7step description of how to do the analysis. – 1ollow the instructions in your Dynamics 5or's&op supplement * 5*9: Modal Analysis % Model Airplane 5ing.