Performance comparison of thermoacoustic engines with constant-diameter resonant tube (CRDT) and tapered resonant tube (TRT

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K. Tang, G.B. Chen *, T. Jin, R. Bao, X.M. Li
(Received 22 September 2005; received in revised form 21 April 2006; accepted 24 April 2006)

Advisor: Prof. Akiyoshi Iida Assistant Prof. Hiroshi Yokoyama Student: Subhan Ullah Student ID: M135117
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Table of contents
• Introduction
– Background – Previous research – Objective

• Methodology
– Analysis model and design – Computed results and analysis

• Conclusions
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Introduction

• Background • Previous research • Objective

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Background
• The researches indicate that the relative low pressure ratio is one of pivotal limits to the substitution of thermoacoustic engines for mechanical compressors as drivers for pulse tube refrigerators. • A resonant tube is of great importance for a thermoacoustic engine, since working frequency and profiles of pressure and velocity are significantly influenced by its geometries and dimensions

• Recently, tapered tubes, substituting for constant-diameter tubes, were used as resonators to enhance the gas oscillation in thermoacoustic engines
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Previous research
• Li XM, Ling H, Dai W, et al. Effect of resonance tube shape on performance of thermoacoustic engine. Adv Cryo Eng (B) 2006;51:1109–14. The tapered resonator system achieved a maximum pressure ratio of about 1.3, a maximum net acoustical power output of about 450 W and a highest thermoacoustic efficiency of about 25% • N.M. Hariharan a, P. Sivashanmugam, S. Kasthurirengan. Influence of stack geometry and resonator length on the performance of thermoacoustic engine
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Objective
• To explore the reasons for the performance improvement of the thermoacoustic engine with the tapered resonant tube substituting for the constant-diameter one • To identify the losses which affects mostly the acoustic power

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Methodology

• Analysis model and design • Computed results and analysis

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Analysis model and design

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Computed result and analysis

• The values for TRT are markedly higher than those of CDRT under same heating power for both the computed results and the experimental data.

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• However, it is seen that the increase of the acoustic power generation in stack is less than the increase of the acoustic power loss in hot tube, thermoacoustic core and T-shaped tube with TRT substituting for CDRT indicating that the higher acoustic power generation is not the reason for the oscillation enhancement with TRT • Consequently, the lower acoustic power loss in resonant tube and resonant cavity is essential reason for the enhanced oscillation in the thermoacoustic engine with TRT
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• •

Viscous resistance in TRT is much smaller than that in CDRT, which results in a lower viscous loss in TRT than that in CDRT The higher thermal-relaxation loss in TRT is mainly caused by the larger interface area

• There is no acoustic loss due to sharp variation of flow area in TRT
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• Although the volume velocity amplitude in TRT is higher than that in CDRT, the velocity amplitude in TRT is lower than that in CDRT due to the gradually increasing flow area
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Fig. 10 shows the computed acoustic power transferred to the RC load versus the viscous resistance in the needle valve, compared with the experimental data, under the conditions of 2200 W heating power

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Conclusions
• The computed results based on linear thermoacoustics indicate that the viscous loss in TRT is much smaller than that in CDRT • The sharp variation of flow area at the joint of CDRT and the resonant cavity causes a considerable acoustic power loss • The thermal-relaxation loss depends not only on the pressure amplitude but also on the area of gas–solid interface • The lower viscous loss in TRT and no sharp variation of flow area lead to the lower total loss in TRT and the resonant cavity

• Both the computed values and the experimental data indicate that a higher acoustic power is delivered to the RC load with TRT, because the oscillation in the thermoacoustic engine is enhanced by TRT

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