Twinkle twinkle little star How I wonder what you are?? Up above the world so high Like a diamond in the sky

Newton and the falling apple .

Newtons view of gravitation Gravitation is the force of attraction between two objects It is directly proportional to product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from them F=GMm/r2 It is an instantaneous force .

Problems with Newtonian view!!!!! .

1.Bending of light due to massive objects Light is massless F=GMm/r2 =GM(0)/r2 =0 Gravitaional force on light rays is zero but it is bending near massive objects .

2.Perihilion of mercury Perihelion advance(in particular. of Mercury’s orbit) .

how can gravity be instataneous .4.Gravity cant be instantaneous Nothing can travel faster than light So .

I must be on a planet!!!!! .Accelerating elevator in space (i)when apple is released. it fell down (ii)Weighing machine is showing weight I am feeling gravity .3.

it is not falling down (ii)Weighing machine is showing zero weight Ei am not feeling gravity…ohhhhh .Elevator in Freefall in a planet (i)when apple is released.4.

Gravity….totally confusing and really complicated .

. Yeah.Einstein GRAVITY is not the force of attraction between two bodies….gravity is not the force of attraction between two bodies…. .

greater is the distortion and greater is the gravity .GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY     Universe is a space –time fabric mass distorts the space time fabric this distortion of space-time fabric is gravity Greater the mass .

Why two bodies get attracted??? Consider two bodies they have their dimples in fabric. If they get close to each other. they roll into each other’s dimples It appears as force of attraction but its just Falling in each others DIMPLE(distortion) Spring 2008 14 .

so will the trajectory of light .GTR explains bending of light • Light will always travel at a constant velocity. therefore. it will follow the straightest possible path through space-time • if space-time is curved near a massive object.

GTR explains complications in orbit of planets an object will travel on as straight a path as possible through spacetime curvature of spacetime determines the paths of freely moving objects .

Nothing can escape from within the ‘event horizon’ of a Black Hole. •Black Hole punches a hole in the fabric of spacetime. . •White dwarf imposes steeper curvature at Sun’s former position.The Strength of Gravity All three objects impose the same curvature at a distance.

•However.•Einstein discovered that GTR predicts the possibility that black holes could connect our universe to another “parallel” universe via an Einstein-Rosen bridge. . •A wormhole also could be connected to another part of our own universe. •Such a bridge is called a wormhole. theories suggest that these wormholes collapse as soon as they are formed.

you could start at present time and emerge at a time in the past (or the future) -time travel! .Also. since traversing a wormhole means that you are emerging at a different spacetime domain than the one you started with.

Time runs more slowly the closer you are to a source of gravity! .

launched April 20. L gyroscope axis rotates Spring 2008 21 . Frame dragging occurs because a rotating mass has a tendency to pull space-time along with it. 2004. and others) • Frame Dragging at Earth being measured using Gravity Probe B.Curved Space is Real (Part Deux) • Orbiting gyroscope (Gravity probe B.