What are these cells? How are they specialised to perform their function?

root hair cells. sperm cells. palisade cells. Phloem & cambium .CELL SPECIALISATION Define terms differentiation & specialisation -erythrocytes. xylem. neutrophils. epithelial cells.

Which organism has the highest surface area to volume ratio? The single celled Amoeba Polar bear or other multi cellular organism .

Which organism has the highest surface area to volume ratio? The single celled Amoeba 12:8 = 3:2 Polar bear or other multi cellular organism 20:25 .

Single celled organisms Multi-cellular organisms Large s/a: volume  All cells exposed to environment  Effective exchange surface-for what?  All cells perform all functions  Smaller s/a: volume  Not all cells in contact with external environment  Therefore: Specialised cells to perform different functions  .

Young cell Cell division Cell growth Cell specialisation Mature cell -Unlikely or unable to divide again What is Differentiation When a cell becomes specialised to carry out a particular job/function What categories of differentiation are there?  Change number of particular organelle e.g. muscle cell  Change the shape of the cell e. RBC  ALL 3!! .g. root hair cell  Change some of the contents of the cell e.g.

In your group. Later you will need to explain your findings to the rest of the group Specialised Cell Erythrocyte Neutrophil Sperm cell Palisade Cell Root hair cell Guard Cell Ciliated Epithelium How the cell is specialised for its function . split the cells between you. Research your cell.

organs and organ systems? Write a definition and an example of the following on the yellow post-its and stick under the appropriate heading:  Tissue  Organ  Organ system . .What are tissues.

organs and organ systems? Cells make up TISSUES. groups of the same kind of cells performing a common function e. . organ systems consist of a number of organs working together to perform an overall life function . xylem and phloem in plants.What are tissues. reproductive system. muscle tissue.g. respiratory system. muscle tissue in animals Groups of different types of tissues are arranged together to form organs e.g.g. etc Organs are grouped into systems e. the stomach consists of mucus membrane tissue.

Describe how red blood cells. one mark is available for the quality of spelling. Below is a picture of blood showing both red and white blood cells. such as those shown in the picture are adapted for their function.  (Allow one lined page). punctuation and grammar. [6]  Quality of Written Communication [1]  [Total 7 marks]  Think about the other side of the course too!!  .GROUP ESSAY   In this question.

e. 9 describe. 12 AVP. into capillaries. 1[7] . 8 contain carbonic anhydrase. fit/squeeze.1 haemoglobin/haem. 10 transport of carbon dioxide as carbamino-haemoglobin/CO2 combines with Hb. named organelles. 3 small size/large SA:V ratio. 5 small size/‘stretchiness’/AW. 4 flexible/elastic/stretchy/changes shape/AW. the reaction catalysed by carbonic anhydrase/role in maintenance of diffusion gradient/AW. carries oxygen/AW. 6 biconcave/AW [A ‘dimpled’]. of oxygen molecules carried. increased/AW. 7 no nucleus to maximise room for.g. further detail of oxygen carriage variable oxidation state of Fe idea that small size allows them to be close to tissue or cells lack of. 11 ref buffering effect. surface area relative to volume (for diffusion). haemoglobin/oxygen/AW. also increases room for Hb/O2 max 6 13 QWC – legible text with accurate spelling. allows red cells to. 2 detail of no. gives. punctuation and grammar. so haemoglobin never far from cell surface/AW. other/named.