Chapter-7

CODES, STANDARDS, SPECIFICATION & PROCEDURE

Presented by:

Muhammad Gulab
Head Radiographic Testing & Radiation Safety, NCNDT, SES

Course on Visual Testing Level-2
Organized by NCNDT

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE & OVERVIEW OF CODES & STANDARDS

• •

General knowledge of specifications and procedures Objectives of standardizations

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE & OVERVIEW OF CODES & STANDARDS

Quality

Quality of an industrial product is defined as fitness of the product to do the job required of it by its user.
Quality Control Quality control can be defined as the controls applied at each manufacturing stage to consistently produce a quality product.

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE & OVERVIEW OF CODES & STANDARDS Codes
Codes are type of standards that use the verbs shall or will to indicate the mandatory use of certain materials or actions or both. The use of codes is mandated with the force of law by governmental jurisdiction.

Specifications
Specifications are also a type of standards but they differ from code in that their use is not mandatory except when they are referred by a code or contractual documents.

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE & OVERVIEW OF CODES & STANDARDS
Standard
A technical Specification or other document available to the public is called a standard if it is: Drawn up with the cooperation and consensus or general approval of all interested. Based on the consolidated results of science, technology and experience. Aimed at the promotion of optimum community benefits. Approved by a body recognized on the national, regional or international level.

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE & OVERVIEW OF CODES & STANDARDS
Objectives of standardizations

• • • • • •

Clear Communication Economy of Effort Minimum Performance Historical Record Collective Wisdom Improvement in Quality

International Organizations Producing Standards On Visual Testing
• • • • • • • • • • • Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) American Society for Non-destructive Testing (ASNT) American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) American Welding Society (AWS) Department of Defense (DOD) Ship Structure Committee (SSC) Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) American Petroleum Institute (API)

International Organizations Producing Standards On Visual Testing
• • • • • • French Association of Standardization (AFNOR) British Standards Institute (BSI) The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) German Institute for Standardization (DIN) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC)

ASME (B & PV) Code

ASME (B & PV) Code

ASME (B & PV) Code
NDT / VT related: • • • • Section III, rules for the Construction of Nuclear facility components Section VIII, Rules for construction pressure vessel Section V, Non-destructive Examination (Article-9) Section XI, Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components

ASME (B & PV) Code
Section XI, Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components (IWA-2200) •

• •

VT-1 For general service inspection, conducted to detect discontinuities and imperfections on the wear, corrosion and erosion. VT-2 detect evidence of leakage from pressure retaining components VT-3 is conducted to detect discontinuities and imperfections such as loss of integrity at bolted or welded connections, loose or missing parts, debris, corrosion, wear or erosion.

14

ASME (B & PV) Code
Section XI, Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components (IWA-2300) Lists the requirements for: • • • near vision test charts remote visual testing illumination level requirements. As in Section V, Article-9

American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities
• •

API 1104 (Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities) explicitly addresses radiographi and visual testing. Section 6 (A/R)

American Welding Society (AWS) Structural Welding Code
Buildings with structural steels have been designed and built according to the requirements of AWS D 1.1 (Structural Welding Code - Steel).
• • • AWS D1.1 uses the term “inspection” Where the ASME document would use “examination” ASNT document would use “testing”.

American Society for Non-destructive Testing (ASNT)
• • ASNT Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A Set of guidelines or recommendations for employers to establish and conduct a non-destructive testing personnel qualification and certification programme.

ISO or EN standards related to Visual Testing
• • • • • ISO 3057 2nd edition (1998) : Non-destructive testing – Metallographic replica techniques of surface examination EN 13927 (2003) : Non-destructive testing Visual testing Equipment EN 13445-5 (2002) : Unfired pressure vessels ISO 3058 2nd edition (1998) : Non-destructive testing-aids to visual inspection-Selection of lowpower magnifiers EN 12454 (1998) : Founding- Visual examination of surface discontinuities- Steel sand castings general terms)

ISO or EN standards related to Visual Testing
• • • EN 1330-2 (1998) : Non-destructive testing – Terminology, (Part 2: Terms common to the nondestructive testing method) EN 1330-10 (1998) : Non-destructive testing Visual Examination -Terminology, EN 1330-1 (1998) : Non-destructive testing – Terminology, (Part 1: List of Terminology) EN 13018 (2001) : Non-destructive testing- Visual testing-General principles EN 970 (1997) : Non-destructive examination of fusion welds- Visual examination


• •

ISO or EN standards related to Visual Testing
• • • • EN 12454 (198) : Founding- Visual examination of surface discontinuities- Steel sand castings EN 1370 (1997) : Founding- Surface roughness inspection by visual tectile by visual tactile comparators ISO 5817 (1992) / BS EN 25817 (1992) : Arc-welded joints in steel- Guidance on quality levels for imperfections EN 10163-1 (2004) : Delivery requirements for surface condition of hot-rolled steel plates, wide flats and sections (Part 1: General requirements)

ISO or EN standards related to Visual Testing
• • • • BS EN 10163-2 (2004) : Delivery requirements for surface condition of hot-rolled steel plates, wide flats and sections (Part 2: Plate and wide flats) EN 10163-3 (2004) : Delivery requirements for surface condition of hot-rolled steel plates, wide flats and sections (Part 3: Sections) EN 13445-5 (2002) : Unfired pressure vessels (Part 5: Inspection and testing) EN 473 (2008) : Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of NDT personnelGeneral principles

ISO or EN standards related to Visual Testing

ISO 9712 (2005) : Non-destructive testingQualification and Certification of Personnel

VT: General requirements

• • • • •

Procedure Procedure qualification Personnel Demonstration Physical

VT: General requirements

INTERPRETATION OF PROCEDURES AND COMPILATION OF TEST INSTRUCTIONS


An individual certified to Level 3 • procedure writing An individual certified to Level 2 • perform and direct non-destructive testing in accordance with established or recognized procedures. • Includes interpreting and evaluating results Person qualified to Level 1 • Work according to the written Instructions by Level 2 or Level-3

PERFORMANCE OF TEST IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS
RECORDS OF OPERATING CONDITIONS ON TEST FORMS

• • •

The instruction sheet is derived from the procedure Result recorded on test form Report Form • Name of lab • code • Identification • stage, extent • Location of defect • date & place • Report No, inspector, client

INSTRUCTIONS FOR TESTING IN SPECIAL SITUATIONS

• • •

RANGE OF APPLICATION OF THE TEST EQUIPMENT TECHNIQUE

VISUAL TESTING ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR WELDS

WELDS • ISO 5817 (1992) / EN 25817 (1992): Arc-welded joints in steel- Guidance on quality levels for imperfections
OTHER THAN WELDS • IWF-3000 of ASME B&PV Code Sec. XI, requirements for class 1, 2, 3, and MC components supports of light-water cooled plants • IWF-3000 is standards for examination evaluations. • IWF-3400 is acceptance standards for component support structural integrity.