# Vibration:- Any motion that repeats itself after an interval of time is called vibration or oscillation.

Example:The swinging of a pendulum and the motion of a plucked string . Deals:The theory of vibration deals with the study of oscillatory motions of bodies and the forces associated with them

the bob starts swinging to the left from position 1. A potential energy of magnitude mgl (1-cosθ)with respect to the datum position 2. includes a means for storing potential energy (spring or elasticity) A means for storing kinetic energy (mass or inertia) A means by which energy is gradually lost (damper).Elementary Parts of Vibrating Systems A vibratory system. The gravitational force mg induces a torque mgl sinθ about the point O. in general. . At position 1 the velocity of the bob and hence its kinetic energy is zero. some energy is dissipated in each cycle of vibration and must be replaced by an external source if a state of steady vibration is to be maintained. alternately. The vibration of a system involves the transfer of its potential energy to kinetic energy and of kinetic energy to potential energy. If the system is damped.

If a system. Failures of such structures as buildings. a repeating type of force). the ensuing vibration is known as free vibration. is left to vibrate on its own.Classification of Vibration Free Vibration. after an initial disturbance. . No external force acts on the system. and airplane wings have been associated with the occurrence of resonance. The oscillation that arises in machines such as diesel engines is an example of forced vibration. Forced Vibration. a condition known as resonance occurs. The oscillation of a simple pendulum is an example of free vibration. turbines. the resulting vibration is known as forced vibration. bridges. If a system is subjected to an external force (often. Resonance :If the frequency of the external force coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system. and the system undergoes dangerously large oscillations.

If the vibration is linear. Damped Vibration:. the vibration is called nonlinear vibration. and techniques of analysis are less well known. For nonlinear vibration.If no energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other resistance during oscillation. respectively. Linear vibration :. and the damper behave linearly. .Undamped vibration :. the superposition principle is not valid. and the mathematical techniques of analysis are well developed.If all the basic components of a vibratory system the spring. the mass.any of the basic components behave nonlinearly. the vibration is known as undamped vibration. The differential equations that govern the behavior of linear and nonlinear vibratory systems are linear and nonlinear. the principle of superposition holds. the resulting vibration is known as linear vibration Nonlinear Vibration:.If any energy is lost in this way. it is called damped vibration. however.

In some cases. road roughness. the value of the excitation at a given time cannot be predicted. . the excitation is nondeterministic or random. Examples:Random excitations are wind velocity. The resulting vibration is known as deterministic vibration.Deterministic vibration:. the excitation is called deterministic.If the value or magnitude of the excitation (force or motion) acting on a vibratory system is known at any given time. and ground motion during earthquakes. Random Vibration:.

Cycle The movement of a vibrating body from its undisturbed or equilibrium position to its extreme position in one direction. then to its extreme position in the other direction. The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from its equilibrium position is called the amplitude of vibration. Period of oscillation The time taken to complete one cycle of motion is known as the period of oscillation or time period and is denoted by τ . Amplitude. then to the equilibrium position. and back to equilibrium position is called a cycle of vibration.

ω is called the circular frequency to distinguish it from the linear frequency. is left to vibrate on its own. the frequency with which it oscillates without external forces is known as its natural frequency. The variable ω denotes the angular velocity of the cyclic motion. .Frequency of oscillation The number of cycles per unit time is called the frequency of oscillation or simply the frequency and is denoted by f. f is measured in cycles per second (hertz) while is measured in radians per second. after an initial disturbance. Natural frequency. If a system.