MCSHANE

VON GLINOW

Organizational

BEHAVIOR

C H A P T E R
F I V E

Stress Management

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill

1

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE

VON GLINOW

Organizational

BEHAVIOR

What is Stress?
• An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person’s well-being • Stressors- an environmental condition or stimuli that places physical or emotional demand on a person

• Examples
– Physical – Emotional
Irwin/ McGraw-Hill

2

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

2000 . Inc.pattern of high stress followed by intervals of relief • Chronic Stress.constant confrontation of stressors without relief – Effects are: • constant • additive • Distress.MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Types of stress • Episodic Stress.stress that has a negative consequence on a person’s well-being Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 3 © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc.ability to cope rises above normal because of activated defense mechanisms such as adrenaline – Exhaustion.body must rest and recover from heightened resistance stage • Prolonged resistance leads to system breakdown 4 Irwin/ McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies.perception of stressor – Resistance.MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR General Adaptation Syndrome • Automatic defense system to help cope with with environmental demands • Three stages of adaptation – Alarm reaction. 2000 .

2000 . Inc.MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR General Adaptation Syndrome Stage 1 Alarm Reaction Stage 2 Resistance Stage 3 Exhaustion DANGER ZONE Normal Level of Resistance Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 5 © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

2000 . Inc.MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Stressors and Stress Outcomes Work Stressors Physical environment Role-related Interpersonal Organizational Individual Differences Consequences of Stress Physiological Stress over time Behavioral Psychological Nonwork Stressors Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 6 © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Role-Related Stressors • Role conflict – interrole conflict – intrarole conflict – person-role conflict • Role ambiguity – uncertain duties. 2000 . traffic problems Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 7 © The McGraw-Hill Companies. monitoring. Inc. authority • Role overload/underload • Task characteristics – decisions.

Job Complexity. 2000 .MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Stress Research • Type A and complexity leads to cardiovascular problems • Job Control.lack of energy and a feeling that one’s emotional resources are used up • Coping Strategy for emotional buffer Irwin/ McGraw-Hill • Sense of inadequacy 8 © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Self-Efficacy interact to influence blood pressure • Burnout as a process • Emotional Exhaustion .

Inc. psychological. 2000 .MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Job Burnout Process Interpersonal and Role-Related Stressors Emotional Exhaustion Physiological. and behavioral consequences Depersonalization Reduced Personal Accomplishment Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 9 © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

2000 . ambiguity. job context (shift. overload. Social Support.reward and punishment systems. Career progress Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 10 © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.client interactions.) • Personal Characteristics .MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Antecedents • Job Characteristics . psych environment. Marriage. Expectations. etc. conflict • Organizational Characteristics .Age.

Inc. 2000 .MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Consequences • Attitudinal • Behavioral • Interpersonal Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 11 © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

interpersonal transactions with others that provide either emotional or informational support – reduces effects of stress • feel valued • feel capable of handling a situation • buffers effects. etc. 2000 .MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Social Support and Undermining • Social Support. Inc. • Social Undermining Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 12 © The McGraw-Hill Companies. someone to talk to.

liking of the object – behavioral aspect.MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Leon Festinger 1967 • Three aspects of attitudes must follow each other – cognitive aspect.behavior toward the object • If dissonance is present there is stress and a need to change an aspect of the attitude to produce agreement among the elements Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 13 © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. 2000 .knowledge about an object – affective aspect.

2000 . Inc.MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Changing Aspects of Attitudes • Affected by level of control – “can I control the aspects of my attitude?” – “Do I have a choice regarding performance of the behavior?” • Behaviors are set by habit and view of others • Ignore current knowledge • Seek knew knowledge • Alter beliefs • Hypocrasy effects level of dissonance 14 Irwin/ McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc. 2000 .MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Emotional Labor • Experiencing dissonance as a part of an individual’s role • Presenting a friendly attitude while holding a negative attitude • Mainly in service positions where employees must always be “happy” – flight attendants – secretaries • Backstage areas – out of sight of customer Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 15 © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

hostile. Inc.MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Interpersonal Stressor: Sexual Harassment • Unwelcome conduct -. or offensive working environment Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 16 © The McGraw-Hill Companies.detrimental effect on work environment or job performance • Quid pro quo – employment or job performance is conditional on unwanted sexual relations • Hostile work environment – an intimidating. 2000 .

MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Interpersonal Stressor: Workplace Violence • 2 million people experience some form of violence at work each year • Most common cause of work-related death for women. Inc. 2000 . second most common for men • Severe distress after experiencing or observing violence • Also stress from working in high-risk jobs Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 17 © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Work-Family Stressors • Time-based conflict – due to work schedule. commuting. and vice versa • Role behavior conflict – incompatible work and family roles Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 18 © The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 .still do most household chores • Strain-based conflict – work stress affects home. Inc. travel – for women -.

Inc. Death Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 19 © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Jail Term 3. Marriage 6. Personal injury or illness 5. Fired from work 7.MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Top 10 Life Stressors 10. Divorce 1. Marital Separation 2. 2000 . Marital reconciliation 8. Retirement or quitting 9. Death of a family member 4.

2000 . Inc.S.MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Stress and Occupations Accountant Artist Auto Mechanic Forester Hospital manager Physician (GP) Psychologist School principal Police officer 911 operator U. president Waiter/waitress Low-Stress Occupations Irwin/ McGraw-Hill Medium-Stress Occupations 20 High-Stress Occupations © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

2000 .MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Individual Differences in Stress • Perceive the situation differently • Different threshold levels of resistance to stressor • Use different stress coping strategies • Personality Type Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 21 © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.

under intense perceived time pressure. works slowly and enjoyably on a variety of tasks • Important to match personality type with position to avoid stress 22 Irwin/ McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies. competitive.does not feel pressure. 2000 . Inc.MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Personality Type • Type A. always attempting to accomplish several things at once – need job and career control – have more health problems and shorter careers • Type B. restless.impatient. aggressive.

MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Consequences of Distress • Physiological consequences – 50%-75% of all illnesses – Lower for women – cardiovascular diseases – ulcers. Inc.due to sickness and flight – workplace aggression • Psychological Consequences – moodiness. accidents. decisions – absenteeism -. depression. emotional fatigue Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 23 © The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 . headaches • Behavioral consequences – work performance. sexual dysfunction.

punishments – Seeking Help • mentoring.process of senior performer coaching a junior one – Change jobs Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 24 © The McGraw-Hill Companies.self-management • scheduling. don’t procrastinate – Time management.MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Coping with STRESS • Individual Coping Strategies – Problem focused. 2000 .solve the problem. Inc. rewards.

Inc.MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Coping. 2000 .... • Emotion-focused – Relaxation • meditation • napping – Exercise – Psychological • Employee Assistance Programs – Recreation – Companionship Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 25 © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

2000 . Inc.MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Family-Friendly and Work/Life Initiatives • Flexible work time • Job sharing • Telecommuting • Personal leave • Childcare facilities Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 26 © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational BEHAVIOR Other Stress Management Practices • Withdrawing from the stressor – person-job matching – work breaks. Inc. stabilization zones. self-leadership • Controlling stress consequences – relaxation and meditation – fitness and lifestyle programs • Social support – emotional and informational Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 27 © The McGraw-Hill Companies. sabbaticals • Changing stress perceptions – self-efficacy. 2000 .