Quality and Philosophies on Quality

What is Quality?
Quality is “fitness for use”
(Joseph Juran) Quality is “conformance to requirements” (Philip B. Crosby) Quality of a product or services is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of the customer

Evolution of Quality Management
Inspection Quality Control
Salvage, sorting, grading, blending, corrective actions, identify sources of non-conformance

Develop quality manual, process performance data, self-inspection, product testing, basic quality planning, use of basic statistics, paperwork control.
Quality systems development, advanced quality planning, comprehensive quality manuals, use of quality costs, involvement of non-production operations, failure mode and effects analysis, SPC. Policy deployment, involve supplier & customers, involve all operations, process management, performance measurement, teamwork, employee involvement.

Quality Assurance
TQM

W. Deming and the 6 Era‟s of Quality 1920‟s : New statistical thinking and methods in manufacturing 1930/40‟s : Use of statistical thinking outside manufacturing 1950/60‟s : Systems of improvement 1970/80‟s : The fourteen points Late 80‟s : The “New Climate” 1990‟s : System of Profound Knowledge . E.

assembly.Deming‟s view of a production as a system Receipt & test of materials Suppliers. machines. methods. inspection Distribution Consumers Test of processes. cost . materials & equipment Design & redesign Consumer Research Production.

Deming‟s Chain Reaction Improve Quality Provide jobs and more jobs Stay in business Cost decreases because of less rework. fewer delays. snags. fewer mistakes. better use of machine time and materials Productivity improves Capture the market with better quality and lower price .

DO Implement the change on a small scale and measure the effects CHECK Study the results to learn what effect the change had. Predict the effect this change will have and plan how the effects will be measured ACT Adopt the change as a permanent modification to the process. . or abandon it. if any.The Deming Cycle or PDCA Cycle PLAN Plan a change to the process.

statistical evidence that quality is built in. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points 1) Create constancy of purpose towards improvement of product and services. We can no longer live with commonly accepted levels of delays. 2) Adopt the new philosophy. 3) Cease dependence on mass inspection. mistakes. instead. defective workmanship. 4) End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag.W. Require. .

. 6) Institute modern methods of training on the job. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points 5) Find problems. 7) Institute modern methods of supervision of production workers. It is management‟s job to work continually on the system. The responsibility of foremen must be changed from numbers to quality.W. 8) Drive out fear that everyone may work effectively for the company.

11) Eliminate work standards that prescribe numerical quotas. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points 9) Break down barriers between departments.W. 10) Eliminate numerical goals. . 12) Remove barriers that stand between the hourly worker and his right to pride of workmanship. posters and slogans for the workforce asking for new levels of productivity without providing methods.

Edwards Deming’s 14 Points 13) Institute a vigorous programme of education and retraining. .W. 14) Create a structure in top management that will push everyday on the above 13 points.

Deming‟s System of Profound Knowledge Knowledge about variation Appreciation for system Theory about knowledge Knowledge of psychology .

Philip Crosby‟s Four Absolutes What is Quality? What system is needed to cause quality? What performance standard should be used? Definition : Conformance to requirements System of quality is prevention Performance Standard : Zero Defects What measurement system is required? Measurement : Price of nonconformance (PON) .

Crosby‟s Successful Company Characteristics of the Eternally Successful Organisation People do things right routinely Growth is profitable and steady Customer needs are anticipated Change is planned and managed People are proud to work there .

Crosby‟s 14 Points 1) Make it clear that management is committed to quality. 2) Form quality improvement teams with representatives from each department. . 4) Evaluate the cost of quality and explain its use as a management tool. 3) Determine where current and potential quality problems lie.Philip B.

8) Train supervisors to actively carry out their part of the quality improvement programme. 7) Establish a committee for the zero defects programme. Crosby‟s 14 Points 5) Raise the quality awareness and personal concern of all employees.Philip B. . 6) Take actions to correct problems identified through previous steps.

Philip B. Crosby‟s 14 Points 9) Hold a „zero defects day‟ to let all employees realise that there has been a change. 12) Recognise and appreciate those who participate. 10) Encourage all individuals to establish improvement goals for themselves and their groups. . 11) Encourage employees to communicate to management the obstacles they face in attaining their improvement goals.

. Crosby‟s 14 Points 13) Establish quality councils to communicate on a regular basis.Philip B. 14) Do it all over again to emphasise that the quality improvement programme never ends.

Juran‟s Quality Trilogy Quality Planning Establish quality goals Identify customer needs Translate needs into our language Develop a product for these needs Quality Control Quality Prove the process can Improvement produce under operating conditions Transfer process to operation Seek to optimise the process via tools of diagnosis Optimise product features for these needs .Joseph M.

Juran‟s Trilogy Diagram Quality Planning Quality control (during operations) Quality improve -ment 40 Cost of Poor Quality 20 Original zone of quality control New zone of quality control 0 0 TIME Lessons learned .

Juran‟s Quality Planning Road Map 1) Identify who are the customers 2) Determine the customer‟s needs 3) Translate the needs into our language 4) Develop a product to meet those needs 5) Optimise a product so as to meets our needs as well as the customer‟s. 6) Develop a process which is able to produce the product 7) Optimise the process 8) Prove the process can make the product under operating conditions .

QC) Avoidable Costs: defects and product failures (scrapped materials. losses from unhappy customers “Gold in the Mine” .Joseph M.Juran and the Cost Of Quality 2 types of costs: Unavoidable Costs: preventing defects (inspection. complaint processing. labour for re-work. sampling. sorting.

Juran and the Cost Of Quality Costs Total Costs Unavoidable costs Avoidable costs 100% defective Point of “Enough quality” .Joseph M.

select projects. designate facilitators) 4) Provide training.Joseph M. 5) Carry out projects to solve problems . identify problems. 2) Set goals for improvement. 3) Organise to reach the goals (establish a quality council. Juran‟s 10 Points 1) Build awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement. appoint teams.

7) Give recognition.Joseph M. 8) Communicate results. . 10) Maintain momentum by making annual improvement part of the regular systems and process of the company. 9) Keep score. Juran‟s 10 Points 6) Report progress.

Management by Fact Concern for employee involvement and development Result Focus Passion to deliver customer value / excellence Organisation response ability Partnership perspective (internal / external) Actions not just words (implementation) Process Management .What is TQM? Constant drive for continuous improvement and learning.

LEARNING AND TQM Learning Process Improvement Quality Improvement Customer Satisfaction Shareholder Satisfaction Employee Satisfaction .

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TQM Approach Scope Scale Philosophy Standard Control Theme Management Led Company Wide Everyone is responsible for Quality Prevention not Detection Right First Time Cost of Quality On going Improvement .

Act short term .FOUR KEY PRINCIPLES •Measure quality so you can affect it •Focus on a moving customer •Involve every employee •Think long term .

THE CASE FOR QUALITY 1 Success of competitors who take quality seriously 2 Rising expectations of customers 3 Quality differentiates companies from the competition 4 Narrowing of supplier bases by quality conscious companies . .

THE CASE FOR QUALITY 5 Growing evidence that growth in market share comes from sustained quality. 6 Cost advantages 7 High cost of catastrophic failure 8 Inspection poor substitute for right first time .