The time and location in which a story takes place is called the setting. The location and time frame in which the action of a narrative takes place.


a) b) c) d) e)

Place Time Weather conditions Social conditions Mood or atmosphere -

What feeling is created at the beginning of the story? Is it bright and cheerful or dark and frightening?

foreshadow events. and • sometimes even plays a part in the story. reflect the society in which the characters live. affect the dialog.THE IMPORTANCE OF SETTING IN A STORY influence the way characters behave. invoke an emotional response. • • • • • .


the best setting in a children’s story is a setting that is closely related to the children’s surrounding. • The use of local setting is greatly encouraged to help children ‘connect’ to the story. .• In Malaysian ESL classroom context.

. – increase the children’s understanding and awareness of the different cultures in Malaysia.• The use of local setting will help: – to familiarise primary school children with the stories. – primary school children to understand the stories better – children to learn new vocabulary faster.

• A foreign setting will help children to learn the different lifestyles. values. customs and cultures of other people.• However. the use of foreign setting in a story is also highly recommended since it can be used as a medium to introduce new experience and knowledge to the children. . belief.

.• It will also helps children to understand and value the diversity and uniqueness of other people’s cultures.

Examples Of Stories With Local Setting: .

Examples Of Stories With Foreign Setting: .



Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 1. The choice and use of words in literature . The way that somebody pronounces words 2.

• The level of vocabulary. • If they know less than 75% .80% of the vocabulary. they may lose confidence in their ability to understand the story. .

” “I know that one.” said Jane. “We passed it on our way here. His neck’s so long.“He is the most enormous bird. it’s quite absurd. At the Zoo. It’s an…OSTRICH!” And so it was. Ruth Thomson .


• Definition : The amount of writing in a book. short stories with repetitive language work best for young EFL learners. • Simple. .

1) observed that. Selecting Literature section." . para.• Choosing the right book may be difficult. • Radhika O'Sullivan (1991. "It is all very well to point out the advantages of teaching literature but the key to success in using literature in the ESL classroom depends primarily on the works selected.

students will feel frustrated and you will be overwhelmed. .• If the selection is too easy. If the selection is too difficult. students will feel bored and you will have difficulty designing enough activities.

. 47 of which are the word feet or foot. beginning learners. • We're Going on a Bear Hunt.Eown Brown’s research. a book based on a popular children's summer camp song. yet spending five or six hours on a simple book like this is appropriate with young. • Dr. but my second grade EFL students spent over ten hours and sixteen class periods studying it. Seuss's The Foot Book contains 131 words. is very short and simple by adult standards.

many days a week. "Many children do not tire of practicing a repetitive and rhythmic text several times a day.• Sabrina Peck (2003." . who advises teachers of young learners that. 141). p.

or wordless books. or concept books (teaching colors. these books are generally lullabies. The length and format varies with the content.Toddler books Very simple stories for ages 1-3 (under 300 words) familiar to a child's everyday life. etc.Baby books Features For infants and young toddlers.) Books are short (12 pages is average) and the format can be board books (sturdy paperover board construction). have different textures. numbers. nursery rhymes. shapes. .Type of children books Picture books . etc. lift-the flaps or novelty books (books that make sounds. pop-ups. Picture books . fingerplays.) See the "Max" series of board books by Rosemary Wells (Dial).

The list of Caldecott Medal winners. Nonfiction in the picture book format can go up to age 10. Plots are simple (no sub-plots or complicated twists) with one main character who embodies the child's emotions. 48 pages in length.Picture books Features Picture books are 32-page books for ages 4-8 (this age may vary slightly by publisher). The illustrations (on every page or every other page) play as great a role as the text in telling the story. with 1000 words being the average length. Picture books cover a wide range of topics and styles. this is usually geared toward the upper end of the age spectrum.Type of books Picture books . concerns and viewpoint. is a good place to start your research. Manuscripts are up to 1500 words. . available from your library. Occasionally a picture book will exceed 1500 words. or up to about 2000 words of text.

Many early picture books have been reprinted in the board book format. See the "Amelia Bedelia" books by Peggy Parish or other "I Can Read" books published by Harper Trophy. in grammatically simple sentences (one idea per sentence). the books can be 32-64 pages long. with 200-1500 words of text. The stories are told mainly through action and dialogue.Early picture books Features term for picture books geared toward the lower end of the 4-8 age range. but the format is more "grown-up" -. thus widening the audience. These stories are simple and contain under 1000 words. The length varies greatly by publisher. these books are for children just starting to read on their own (age 6-8). The Very Hungry Caterpillar by Eric Carle (Philomel) is an example. They have color illustrations on every page like a picture book. Also called "easy-to-read". occasionally going up to 2000 words. sometimes broken into short chapters. Books average 2-5 sentences per page. Easy readers .Type of books Picture books .smaller trim size.

though still contain a lot of action. broken into 3-4 page chapters. Stories are meatier than transition books. transition books are longer (manuscripts are about 30 pages long. Chapter books . but paragraphs are still short (2-4 sentences is average). See "The Kids of the Polk Street School" series by Patricia Reilly Giff (Dell) or the "Stepping Stone Books" published by Random House. The sentences can be a bit more complex. Chapters often end in the middle of a scene to keep the reader turning the pages. Written like easy readers in style. these books are 45-60 manuscript pages long. broken into 2-3 page chapters). books have a smaller trim size with black-and-white illustrations every few pages. they bridge the gap between easy readers and chapter books. Look at the "Herbie Jones" books by Suzy Kline (Puffin) and the "Ramona" books by Beverly Cleary (Morrow). For ages 7-10.Type of books Features Transition books Sometimes called "early chapter books" for ages 6-9.

Themes should be relevant to the problems and struggles of today's teenagers. nonfiction includes biographies.Type of books Middle grade Features This is the golden age of reading for many children. the Newbery Medal award list also contains many worthy titles. though one character should emerge as the focus of the book. stories more complex (sub-plots involving secondary characters are woven through the story) and themes more sophisticated. especially with young adult nonfiction. The Outsiders by S. A new age category (10-14) is emerging.E. Kids get hooked on characters at this age. These books are slightly shorter than the 12 and up category. Manuscripts suddenly get longer (100-150 pages). and topics (both fiction and nonfiction) are appropriate for children who have outgrown middle grade but aren't yet ready for the themes (fiction) or who aren't studying the subjects (nonfiction) of high school readers. Hinton defined young adult when it was first published in 1967. which explains the popularity of series with 20 or more books involving the same cast. these manuscripts are 130 to about 200 pages long. ages 8-12. For ages 12 and up. Check out some middle grade novels from the list of Newbery Medal winners at your library to get you started. Plots can be complex with several major characters. Fiction genres range from contemporary to historical to science fiction/fantasy. Young adult . science. regardless of the genre. history and multicultural topics.