Seminar - I
Agriculture Performance- Food Security and Public Distribution System (PDS)

Major advisor Dr. H. Basavaraja

By Najath Paraveen Navalur PGS12AGR5750 UAS Dharwad

Flow of Presentation
Introduction Agriculture performance in India Food security - Dimensions of food security Projected demand & supply of food- food gap Public distribution system (pds) Case study conclusion

INTRODUCTION

India’s population is 1.25 billion. India’s food grain tonnes. production 259 million

India achieved national food self -sufficiency 35 years ago,
Yet about 35% of its population remains food insecure. Low incomes and high food prices prevent individual food security.

Another aspect of India’s food insecurity situation is that even after over three decades of operation, Public Distribution System (PDS) meets less than 10% of consumption of grains by the poor.

pulses mangoes. bananas. cashew nuts and ginger.Indian Agriculture Sector Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy. population of India depends on Produces 51 major Crops. Around 58% Agriculture.. India is the leading producer of Jute. India ranks second worldwide in farm output. .

. India ranks among world’s 5 largest producers of over 80% of agriculture commodity viz coffee.Second largest producer of wheat. livestock and poultry meat. Agriculture accounts for 10% of the total exports earning and provide raw material to a large number of industries. . cotton. Contributes 16% to GDP. cotton. fruits and vegetables. paddy sugar.

8 tonnes in 1948.7 tonnes of wheat in 1975 from the same land. Indian farms adopted wheat varieties capable of yielding 6 tonnes of wheat per hectare. By 2000. . produced 4. A hectare of Indian wheat farms that produced an average of 0. Punjab led India's green revolution.Success story of Indian Agriculture…… Prior mid-1960s India relied on imports (PL-480).

1990-1991 Kg/ha 1740 2281 Average YIELD. 2010–2011 Kg/ha 2240 2938 Pulses Oilseeds Sugarcane Tea Cotton 524 579 48322 1182 106 578 771 65395 1652 225 689 1325 68596 1669 510 . growth in average yields from 1970 to 2010 Crop Average YIELD. 1970-1971 Kg/ha Rice Wheat 1123 1307 Average YIELD.Agriculture productivity in India.

chemicals. use of fertilizers. and Integrated production and cash crops. land development. mechanization. programmes (1950) focused on food Five year plans of India. Operation Flood(1970-1996).oriented towards agriculture development. . Yellow revolution (1986-1990).Mile Stones in Agricultural Development Special programmes were undertaken to improve food cash crops supply Grow more food campaign (1940). Land reclamation. electrification. Blue revolution (1973-2002). Green revolution(1960).

Total Output in last five years 155 150 Growth only 2 % Agriculture Output in USD(b) 145 140 135 130 125 120 115 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 Value In USD (b) Source: Ministry of Agriculture .

Agriculture contribution to GDP 14.8% 14.2% 2009-10 Source: Ministry of Agriculture 2010-11 Years 2011-12 2012-13 .2% 14.01 Contribution to GDP in % 13.4% 13.0% 13.7 14.8% 13.6% 13.6% 14.4% 14.

coarse grains and pulses) production.4mt 1980-81 1990-91 2000-01 2011-12 2012-13 Source: Ministry of Agriculture. Year Food production 1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 50. wheat.8mt 259mt 255mt .India’s food grain (rice. India 129.6mt 176.4mt 196.8mt 82mt 108.

46 34.87 94.46 33.59 33.91 40.28 230.79 Wheat 69.76 14.6 -7.88 92.29 255.38 (million tones) Total food grains 196.24 17.57 14.08 Pulses 11.37 26.36 4.69 99.57 80.07 33.66 18.13 13.76 72.80 86.77 65.78 234.64 69.05 14.56 43.82 88.85 174.36 208.18 89.09 95.35 Other cereals 31.60 Increase per year 8. 2011-12 .19 198.81 212.49 259.20 14.98 105.16 68.98 93.0 12.13 91.91 13.4 42.2 6.95 5.Food grain production in India Year 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Rice 84.1 -17.06 37.68 72.04 33.8 21.47 218.2 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 93.76 40.08 13.36 96.2 1.81 78.40 75.1 -1.5 Source: Economic survey.77 213.98 -6.30 104.37 11.45 217.68 80.2 6.11 244.53 83.02 40.13 14.34 71.09 18.

27 1.84 8.30 0.68 7.32 -0.61 3.07 5.31 4.08 0.69 2.90 3.61 6.Crops Rice Wheat Jowar Bajra Maize Ragi Small millets Barley Coarse cereals Average Annual growth rate 10th plan (2002-03 to 2006-07) Area Production Yield -0.64 11.21 -0.21 4.01 -0.59 0.26 7.65 0.69 -18.52 -2.71 5.90 6.28 -0.60 Tur 1.12 7.91 5.62 4.55 1.28 -1.32 3.11 -0.70 1.31 Total food grains 0.32 Sunflower 14.66 1.36 0.18 3.55 13.15 -5.89 2.46 1.32 3.66 4.46 7.38 Total pulses 1.82 8.00 3.47 3.80 Total nine oilseeds 3.97 0.25 1.84 4.11 6.98 Ground nut -1.49 2.26 -5.77 4.com -1.53 19.07 -2.99 15.26 3.32 4.41 0.24 0.42 -1.07 Gram 3.04 Soyabean 5.26 1.19 0.84 1.32 0.38 0.40 -5.37 6.67 0.13 4.64 5.30 1.55 Cotton 0.98 Rape and mustard 7.20 3.28 3.71 -1.76 6.03 2.49 Average Annual growth rate 11th plan (2007-08 to 2011-12) Area Production Yield 0.42 -0.83 12.02 -0.00 -0.74 0.29 Sugar cane 3.18 2.74 4.87 13.39 1.86 2.76 2.82 -0.29 -3.61 3.28 3.38 7.54 10.41 8.51 3.41 1.65 Seasamum 0.37 -14.32 -0.66 -4.93 0.90 2.99 20.79 4.54 2.06 2.28 -0.03 -2.04 -0.40 1.17 1.90 5.57 Jute Source: Indiastat.16 8.80 0.55 0.78 3.13 1.75 -0.29 4.62 .67 17.59 Total cereals 0.64 2.27 -1.74 0.

D C.2 733.15 1.0 94.12 2.89 - Source: The relevance of the concept of food security in the context of the Indian Economy.57 43.7 113.59 53.13 2001 2011 Average S.47 28.Growth rates of Population and net food grain production Years Population (In million) Net production of food grains (in million tons) 48.4 551. 2012 .4 154.95 1.V 1027 1210.9 CGR per decade of the growth of population 1.2 123.40 172.25 2.34 1.2 210.23 CGR per decade of the growth of food grains 4.9 39.99 2.1 72. Dhirendra Nath Konar.5 851.2 442.3 2.3 1981 1991 688.65 - 1.10 2.80 1951 1961 1971 363.80 3.

68 2026 9.66 2021 8.67 -74.92 -17.31 -39.26 21.13 .04 -16.98 27.94 -24.31 -26.99 Sugar Source: Surabi (2011) -4.05 -6.Supply-Demand Gap for selected Food Item (million metric tones) Gap (Supply-Demand) Food items 2011 Rice Wheat Total cereals Pulses Edible oil 1.13 32.97 -39.21 21.19 -8.33 -2.

13 0.51 5.45 0.95 8.Per cent annual growth rate of projected supply and demand Food items Rice Demand 1.91 2.34 1.55 Supply 1.22 1.17 6.01 Wheat Total cereals Pulses Edible oil Sugar Source: Surabi (2011) 1.14 .42 3.

economic access to sufficient. at all times have physical. healthy life. safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life”.Food Security: According to FAO (Food security) All people at all time have both physical and economic access to the basic food they need. social. Its essential elements are the availability of food and the ability to acquire it” The World Food Summit of 1996 food security exists “when all people. . WORLD BANK DEFINITION (1986): “Access by all people at all times to enough food for an active.

Food Security ensured in the country only if Enough food is available for all the persons.(Food Availability) There is no barrier on access to food (FOOD ACCESS) Food Availability Food Security All persons have the capacity to buy food of acceptable quality(FOOD Utilization) and Food Access Food Utilization Food security is a complex sustainable development issue. .

Why India still not achieved food security????? Growing population Shifting of food grains area to non food grains areas. Worrisome of food inflation The sick public distribution system Food subsidies Climate change 18 .

. Natural disasters or natural calamity like earthquake.Why food security is needed? Ever growing population. flood and tsunami. 0 For the poor section of the society. Wide spread of crop failure due to drought.

.Stark realities of India  India has 872. According to latest GHI report 2012 from IFPRI. India ranks 65 behind china (2nd) and Pakistan (57th).9 (29%) million undernourished people(FAO)  49% of the world's underweight children(WHO)  34% of the world's stunted children (WHO) over 46% undernourished children (WHO).

5 14.5 5.5 27.4 39.8 42.7 47.6 15.1 28.7 37.0 18.1 59.3 19.4 Indian state hunger index rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Punjab Kerala AP Assam Haryana Tamilnadu Rajasthan West Bengal UP Maharashtra Karnataka Orissa Gujarat Chhattisgarh Bihar Jharkhand MP India .6 40.0 24.1 57.4 7.3 23.6 6.6 56.5 9.7 32.6 14.6 23.1 21.6 22.7 36.9 44.0 8.4 20.4 38.1 9.6 19.5 9.5 8.1 14.2 3.5 42.7 5.3 8.4 23.3 9.2 1.0 28.1 6.5 5.7 30 40.6 4.3 36.5 Under 5 mortality rates (deaths per hundred Lives) 5.3 17.9 9.major States at hunger index and the underlying components State Prevalence of calorie Under weight undernourishment (%) children below 5 years (%) 11.1 29.

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Palamau district of Jharkhand . Kalahandi and Kashipur in Orissa 2.killed 1.Food insecurity will result in Starvation Famines and starvation deaths in India Bengal famine 1943.5 million to 3 million people. Baran district of Rajasthan. Bihar famine 1966-67 – 2353 deaths due to starvation Starvation deaths have also been reported in 1. 3.

5 million (38%) 1990-92: 215. number of hungry people in India had been: 1979-81: 261.6 million (25%) 1998-2000: 233.According to report of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.3 million (24%) 2000-2012: 300 million (30%) 26 .

6. In September 2001.000 crore . Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana with an outlay of Rs. 25000 crore National Food Security Mission with an outlay of about Rs. different programmes were merged into an umbrella programme called SGRY (Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana – Comprehensive Rural Employment Scheme) In February 2006.Several schemes started to achieve food security are: The Food for Work Programme was started in 1977-78. The Rajiv Gandhi Drinking Water Mission. a National Rural Employment Guarantee (NREG) scheme was launched in 200 most backward rural districts under NREG Act passed by the Parliament.

particularly the vulnerable sections of the society at affordable prices through PDS and •Maintenance of food buffers for food security and price stability.Food security Management in India •Procurement of food grains from farmers remunerative prices.(Procurement price/MSP) at •Distribution of food grains to the consumers. .

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Public Distribution System (PDS) Definition: Public distribution system is a government-sponsored chain of shops (Fair price shops) entrusted with the work of distributing basic food and non-food commodities to the needy sections of the society at very cheap prices. PDS means distribution of essential commodities to a large number of people through a network of Fair Price Shops (FPS) on recurring basis. The Indian PDS is a national food security system that distributed subsidized food to India’s poor. .

000 crore.The commodities distributed are as follows: Wheat Rice Sugar Kerosene In India there are about 4. Each shop covers about 2000 people.5 lakh Fair price Shops distributing food grains to about 16 crore families spending more than Rs.30. PDS in India perhaps the largest distribution network of its type in the world. .

PDS Evolution in India At the time of world war II British government introduced the first structured public distribution of cereals in India through the rationing system in Bombay and Calcutta. After independence in 1950 due to inflationary pressure in the economy. In 1943 India abolished the rationing system. Due to the ineffectiveness of Rationing System to reach the poor. India reintroduced rationing . .

To target the needy people and provide them an assured supply of food grains. 1997.Contd…… Revamped Public distribution System (RPDS) was launched on Jan 1 1992 and made effective from June 1. Targeted Public distribution system (TPDS) was launched. 1992. In June. in selected blocks (1775 blocks). The distribution of food grains operated under two tier system of delivery to households Below poverty line (BPL) Above poverty line (APL) . In TPDS the main aim was to target the “poor in all areas”.

Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (integrated rural employment scheme) . .In December 2000. Antyodaya Anna Yojana Annapurna Scheme In August 2001. scheme for supply of food grains to SC/ST. wheat based nutrition programmes.five million tons Mid day meal scheme .

India’s Food Security System Buffer Stock Food Security system of India Public Distribution System .

How Public Distribution works: Farmers or Producers Consumer Grains MSP Distributes Grains Allocates Grains FCI (Maintains Buffer Stocks) Central Issue Price States .

84 277.16 665.10.04 319 212 250 Source: Food.80 288.2012 1.94 533.2013 498.2011 1.2010 1.44 255.84 640.2012 1.40 153.66 184.21 118 72 138 805.25 335.02 Total Minimum Buffer norms 212 319 212 250 212 319 212 250 212 1.2012 1.26 666.21 471.2010 1.52 Minimum Buffer norms 70 201 140 112 70 201 140 112 70 Actual stock 267.26 256.10.76 199.85 553.1.64 371.7.77 215.38 578.59 297.2012 1.7.2010 1.08 431.7.50 462.1.1.20 441.83 201 140 112 307.4.18 333.50 Rice Minimum Buffer norms 142 118 72 138 142 118 72 138 142 Actual stock 428.4.13 242.20 268.2011 1.79 314.10.73 322.2011 1.4.57 203.Stock position of food grains in the central pool vis-à-vis minimum buffer norms (Lakh tones) Wheat As On Actual stock 161. Civil supplies and consumer affairs .36 517.2011 1.08 233.53 343.

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.Quantum of food subsidies released by government of India Year 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Amount(crore) 17.00 24.00 % of Total Govt Expenditure 3.00 31.61 4.46 9.42 13.17 6.12 Source: Department of food and public distribution.160.21 7.370.60 10.929.83 5.242.00 25.56 72.668.08 58.827.02 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 23.259.45 62.071.45 25.68 43.45 23.20 14.90 8.176.494.746.00 7.

540 0.755 0.378 66.136 16.728 34.890 52.790 17.455 349.380 620.018 56.580 13.710 110.324 8.389 34.531 8.927 119.710 172.010 9.890 0.214 0.032 64.838 0.509 136.262 12.746 0.790 16.633 23.148 161.322 4.780 170.930 0.549 7.240 193.366 0.201 26.560 65.540 0.187 1.258 189.661 5.119 11.130 1.146 365.254 APL 352.820 10.429 6.999 181.196 104.942 1.922 98.959 33.518 126.995 363.514 1.355 0.214 105.922 1.779 9.080 4.620 58.635 41.410 67.313 0.480 4.898 64.614 0.658 52.156 70.420 87.524 5.519 21.263 2.744 0.616 103.922 91.690 21.940 5.315 279.336 77.002 87.559 301.058 178.872 12.594 79.380 539.680 167.018 65.254 79.352 194.328 88.401 33.054 85.890 463.136 299.137 0 2.942 2.626 0.990 126.770 87.495 88.084 and consumer 2.214 71.266 13.884 209.498 258.296 85.820 3.203 31.100 10.367 150.540 150.691 15.184 4.470 13.506 347.085 793.204 281.262 20.992 337.036 284.364 103.566 199.00 4.556 362. Civil supplies 3.445 669.040 4.562 80.498 77.442 BPL 219.486 46.476 617.400 0.790 6.055 62.501 78.104 0.343 87.772 5.052 1117.842 50.334 31.202 0 4.996 137.953 1.568 101.769 19.285 1211.948 18.146 7.190 8.288 245.914 1.100 3.379 196.537 8.560 affairs 4.926 314.662 2.110 70.348 4.191 12.927 0.242 204.670 360.076 29.324 10.084 18.654 1.340 229.080 89.242 136.730 460.309 188.855 5.524 84.156 150.930 12.737 301.770 10.860 TOTAL 637.480 5.472 50.359 109.137 53.331 155.430 11.652 68.174 0.010 185.524 7.720 4.235 AAY 138.620 6.199 0.661 6.454 4.770 52.637 0.896 2.516 79.282 175.721 195.604 276.014 1.256 54.070 50.950 21.904 7.210 0.993 1.448 456.955 TOTAL 603.914 19.340 280.840 0.010 0.159 130.879 11.134 226.332 642.990 160. Pondicherry 139.409 261.680 76.126 Food.271 2.106 0.905 641.631 48.010 74.466 83.775 194.766 Karnataka Kerala MP Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim TN Tripura UP Uttarakand West Bengal A & N islands Chandigarh D & N haveli Damen and Diu Lakshadweep Source:.956 196.575 APL 245.513 457.670 6.960 20.022 35.470 280.Allocation and off take of rice and wheat for the year 2012-13 under TPDS (in tones) States AP Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana HP J&K Jharkhand Allotment Off take BPL 175.048 2.680 20.248 1.300 0.328 AAY 109.200 408.894 98.174 28.352 99.142 16.056 455.119 279.250 7.867 282.948 2.854 34.190 33.168 7.679 0.740 10.664 49.876 82.520 12.707 632.166 0.152 13.340 335.537 1.920 286.080 71.870 18.534 266.345 2.998 92.762 22.188 .614 19.492 31.312 207.

2 lakh household Due to maladministration 1. Karnataka’s PDS system occur an monthly leakage of Rs.3 lakh household Due to maladministration 6.8crore.6 lakh household Karnataka issued 1.2 crore. Exclusion Error Due to miss classification 4. that means 40 lakh ghost cards.6 crore ration card but the present total number of family in the state is only 1. 144. . Currently Karnataka food bill is issued under this Anna Bhagya Scheme was introduced spending about Rs 460 crore a year.Status of PDS in Karnataka In Karnataka there are about 21026 active fair price shops.6 lakh household Inclusion Error Due to mis classification 52.

R. 2012 . Source: Dr.Magnitude of loss at different levels of PDS in Karnataka.Balasubramaniam.

51 471.99 240.63 56.82 52.78 0.38 13.46 1.10 0.88 58.75 341.71 164.52 15.42 56.77 382.06 218.64 127.13 2.81 150.65 136.39 0.01 7.27 6.21 Wheat 25.31 0.19 0.DEFENCE etc Open sale/tender sale/export Sub total(C) Grand total (A+B+C) Rice 51.88 0.19 19.95 18.82 74.52 231.35 Total 76.33 1. RELIEF.09 1.47 10.14 19.76 6.56 Source: Karnataka Food.39 0.13 1.70 1.49 0.44 3.08 22.53 0.08 14.10 56.34 49.22 0.60 8.66 30.00 0.Off take of Rice and wheat during 2012-13 by Karnataka In Tonnes Scheme (A)TPDS AAY BPL APL Sub Total Special/Adhoc Poorest districts Sub Total (A) (B) Welfare Schemes MDM WBNP EFP Hostels/Welfare Institutions Annapurna other Sub total (B) (C) other schemes WEF.00 0.95 191. Civil supplies and consumer affairs .31 86.

Orissa.MP.TN and West Bengal Assam. Orissa.Kerala. Uttarpradesh and west Bengal AP. Assam. Kerala. Rajasthan and TN Source: Food Security in India: Biswajit Chaterjee.2012 . Orissa. Haryana and Punjab UP & Rajasthan Bihar. Himachal Pradesh. TN and west Bengal Bihar. Gujarat. Orissa.HP &MP.Leakages from PDS Type of leakage Total leakage Abnormal leakage Very high leakage Low leakage Leakage at fair price shop Very high leakages High leakage Moderate leakage Low leakage Leakage through ghost card Very high Leakage High leakage Moderate leakage Percent >70 % 25-50% <25 % >50% 25-50% 10-25 % <10% >30% 10-50% <10% States Bihar and Punjab Assam. Gujarat.Punjab.Maharashtra. KTK.TN & West Bengal. Karnataka.Ktk. Gujarat.HP. Maharashtra and Rajasthan AP. Maharashtra.Haryana. Bihar.

00 248.24 169.58 365.43 181.89 Off take by States 466.53 120.73 246.08 340.27 175.49 326.37 364.89 150.32 12.00 241.37 226.16 490.47 138.24 416.53 525.Diversion of Food grains State AP Assam Bihar Gujarat Haryana HP KTK (kg/BPL Family/annum) Food Grains not reaching the poor house hold 268.16 336.04 227.14 139.14 92.19 160.62 227.51 263.78 380.00 128.59 219.10 344.77 277.22 480.75 .79 266.58 124.24 366.02 100.25 238.16 492.76 138.95 285.43 90.13 320.44 125.25 159.91 Kerala MP Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Rajasthan TN UP West Bengal 16 states total 407.57 347.29 276.80 Off-take by identified BPL families 197.88 38.81 192.

The Major reasons for leakage are: Inclusion Error Ghost Cards Shadow Ownership Non-accountability of FPS .

Many FPS dealers resort to malpractice.C. . Illicit fair price shop owners have been found to create large number of bogus cards to sell food grains in the open market. Regional allocation and coverage of FPS are unsatisfactory and the core objective of price stabilization of essential commodities has not met.I(Food Corporation of India) with inferior stock and sell FCI stock in the black market. Deceitful dealers replace good supplies received from the F. illegal diversions of commodities.S. Inferior quality food grains.Fallouts of P.D. hoarding and black marketing due to the minimal salary received by them.

Address.Aadhaar and PDS: The Primary Focus What is Aadhaar? Demographic features like Name. Gender and Date of birth Unique identification called Aadhaar Biometric features Iris Finger print .

Portability in Identification Address the issues of leakages and proxy withdrawals.Aadhaar can be a potent tool for the government in making the PDS effective in these identified area in the following manner: One Aadhaar one beneficiary Aadhaar as sufficient Proof of Identity(POI) and Proof of Address (POA). these individuals can provided with ration cards. Flexibility .

Aadhaar in Karnataka In Karnataka about 103 Biometric Machines are introduced Each machine costs about 46.000 Karnataka in total spending about 97 crore to install biometric machine in all fair price shops Bio-metric machine .

Case Study .

Pawan Kumar Dhiman June 2013 .Case study I Role and Effectiveness of Public Distribution System in providing Food Security in India Ms. Gurdeep kaur Ghumaan and Dr.

Objective of the study: 1. Study area The study was conducted all over India. Information on purchases of rice. . and kerosene from fair price shops were also collected. Nature of Data Secondary data were collected from NSSO( National Sample Survey Organisation) . wheat. 2. To study the performance and challenges of food security in India. Role and Effectiveness of Public Distribution System in providing Food security in India. sugar.

9 Sector Item 1 2 Rice Wheat/atta Rural Sugar Kerosene Rice Wheat/atta Urban 0.3 63.587 % of hhs reporting % share of consn.477 0.6 72.1 27.6 10 24.706 86.6 9 39.763 0.8 13.8 .511 0.268 6.594 3.5 14.295 0.8 81.097 4 4.625 0. consumed 2009-10 2004-05 8 13. all-India 2009-10 Per capita consumption(kg) % share of PDS in qty.350 0.7 2004-05 Per capita consumption(kg) PDS 6 0.7 33.0 15.3 9.0 9.885 0.814 0. From PDS PDS in during 30 days qty.169 10.619 0.Per capita consumption and percentage of households reporting consumption from PDS of rice.062 Other source 7 5.2 7.6 0.6 14.408 0.1 5.167 0. wheat/atta.4 11.3 3.3 18.563 5 23.839 0.371 0.307 0.181 4.6 56.1 0.5 17.706 3.8 20.6 18. sugar and kerosene in 2004-05 and 2009-10.8 Sugar Kerosene 0.6 27.537 3.5 32.700 0.192 77.081 3. PDS Other consumed 3 1.080 0.142 4.1 11.0 11.530 0.054 0.

0 8.5 2.2 20.14 54.7 17.8 0.58 Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamilnadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal All India .38 56.7 62.3 0.32 85.6 6.6 4.16 82.51 91.0 14.2 8.3 Kerosene share of PDS in consumption Rural 91.4 11.99 89.50 79.2 24.5 39.2 32.2 0.0 0.5 13.3 31.7 5.9 7.6 18.5 6.1 21.9 11.1 Rice share of PDS in consumption Rural 32.3 1.01 86.6 2.2 5.52 23.0 20.34 93.1 4.9 15.4 39.5 1.8 2.8 16.84 90.52 53.7 11.64 36.5 1.22 63.1 0.6 17.46 83.9 18.1 7.05 82.55 70.36 95.3 5.9 11.4 17.99 80.1 17.0 4.47 92.Percentage of households reporting : Wheat.9 1.2 14.59 90.95 86.5 6.0 11.1 34.6 8.7 14.1 2.69 73.7 24.13 93.68 50.0 10.6 9.1 2.8 13.9 28.5 14.9 20.4 7.89 67.2 14.5 13.6 5.9 73.53 82.0 10.0 1. Sugar and Kerosene consumption from PDS.7 6.2 25.49 85.1 85.1 4.6 41.80 72.3 0.0 51.46 72.2 7.7 33.1 0.3 23.0 Sugar share of PDS in consumption Rural 24.0 45.9 0.5 5.7 8.33 47.7 Urban 12.8 7.6 9.6 14.7 5.3 0. Rice .3 52.2 40.0 3.5 Urban 21.5 53.3 10.3 7.1 9.0 27.0 0.43 83. share of PDS in quantity consumed : major States State Wheat share of PDS in consumption Rural Urban 5.64 52.24 Urban 67.4 8.2 14.8 64.8 0.1 41.37 79.

Conclusion .

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Thank you…… .