Rational-emotive therapy (RET) • Develop by a researcher ALBERT ELLIS .

” . “than throwing myself into a good and difficult problem.“There is virtually nothing in which I delight more.” says Albert Ellis.

• His self-assurance — some would even say arrogance — enables him to confront his clients about their beliefs and tell them what is rational and what isn’t. his training institute. He made the best of a difficult childhood by using his head and becoming.• Rational emotive behavior therapy is a direct and efficient problem-solving method. well suited to Ellis’ personality. • The success of his clinical practice. and his books testify that his methods work for many and that he is one of America’s most influential therapists. • Ellis was born in Pittsburgh in 1913 and raised in New York City. “a stubborn and pronounced problem-solver. in his words.” .

themselves and others. evaluative beliefs.RET • People’s beliefs strongly affect their emotional functioning. • In particular. meanings and philosophies about the world. • in most cases. . anxious or angry and led to self-defeating behaviors. certain irrational beliefs made people feel depressed. human do not merely get upset by unfortunate things/situations. but also by how they construct their views of reality through their language.

• So a belief is a thought with an emotional component (conviction) and a factual component (truth. when one believes in something that is false. . however. a negative belief tends to become what Ellis called an “irrational” belief. • Having a negative belief is not necessarily a bad thing. • Irrational beliefs are not friendly to happiness and contentment and are definitely unhelpful for getting one’s basic desires for love and approval. or validity of something. actuality or validity). comfort and achievement or success met. actuality.BELIEF • The word “belief” means a conviction in the truth.

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worthless person. 3. . adequate and achieving in all important respects or else one is an inadequate. It is a necessity for adult humans to be loved or approved by virtually every significant other person in their community. 4. They are their bad acts. It is awful and terrible when things are not the way one would very much like them to be.11 Irrational beliefs listed by Allis 1. People absolutely must act considerately and fairly and they are damnable villains if they do not. One absolutely must be competent. 2.

5. then one should be constantly and excessively concerned about it and should keep dwelling on the possibility of it occurring. One must be quite dependent on others and need them and you cannot mainly run one's own life. 6. One cannot and must not face life's responsibilities and difficulties and it is easier to avoid them. If something is or may be dangerous or fearsome. . 8. Emotional disturbance is mainly externally caused and people have little or no ability to increase or decrease their dysfunctional feelings and behaviors. 7.

10.There is invariably a right. it should indefinitely have a similar effect. One's past history is an all-important determiner of one's present behavior and because something once strongly affected one's life.Other people's disturbances are horrible and one must feel upset about them. 11.9. . precise and perfect solution to human problems and it is awful if this perfect solution is not found.

Ellis’s 3 main irrational beliefs: 1. “I must be outstandingly competent. “The world should always give me happiness. or I will die. “Others must treat me considerately.” 3.” . or they are absolutely rotten. or I am worthless.” 2.

. Is there any evidence for this belief? 2. he/she may ask. what can the counseling or guidance teacher can do? • use his or her skills to argue against these irrational ideas in therapy. leads the client to make the arguments • For example.. or.SO. even better. And what is the best that can happen? . 1. What is the worst that can happen if you give up this belief? 4. What is the evidence against this belief? 3.

horrible and catastrophic. • 1. I must have love or approval from all the people I find significant • 2. I must be thoroughly competent. they should be blamed for being bad. terrible. or rotten individuals. . When I am seriously frustrated. When people act obnoxiously or unfairly. treated unfairly or rejected. • 3. wicked. adequate and achieving. I must view the situation as awful.Mark ‘TRUE’ or ‘FALSE’ for the sentences below. • 4.

• 7. I must preoccupy myself with it and make myself anxious about it. • 6. Emotional misery comes from external pressures and I have little ability to control or change my feelings.• 5. It is better to avoid facing my difficulties and responsibilities than it is to use self-discipline to obtain rewarding things. If something seems dangerous or fearsome. . It is awful and horrible if I do not find good solutions to life’s grim realities. • 8.

10.9. .

F. (2007). united state: Prentice-Hall. • G. r. united states: paramount publishing.lefton. (1996). • Baron. new jersey: Pearson education. C. psychology. a. • Davis. Psychology in Action. K.Morris.REFERENCES • A. (2008). Understanding psychology. Canada: John Wiley and sons. PSYCHOLOGY from Science to practice. (1997). united states of America: Pearson education. L. (1994). • Huffman. psychology. inc. . S.