ENG4139 – Spring 2013 Lecturer 1

Introduction to Water & Wastewater Treatment
Dr Xue Jin School of Engineering University of Glasgow

Class Outline
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Course administration & objectives How do we use our water? Why do we treat water and wastewater? Historical Development of Water Treatment Health and Environmental Concerns How do we select the best process? Overview of water & wastewater treatment

To provide an introduction to the fundamental principles of water and wastewater treatment including water quality and treatment processes Develop understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water and wastewater sources Learn the fundamental physical and chemical processes underlying water and wastewater treatment technologies Be able to have a complete knowledge frame about the basic design and operation of a Waterworks or water treatment process

Reference Books  Water Quality: Characteristics. by G. Modeling and Modification. Tchobanoglous Water Treatment: Principles and Design. by MWH  .

Jin@glasgow.uk.ac. Rankine Building Or you can make appointments to see me   . Xue. 01413303557 Office hours: Tue 10-11am @ Room 803.Tutorial Time  Dr Xue Jin.

. Homework must be submitted in paper form (i. Show all work and be neat (typed or spreadsheet style preferred) Class project = 20% . The midterm (10%) and final (40%) exams will be cumulative.Assessment/Grading Grades will be assigned according to the following weighting system: Exams = 50%. and closed to notes and books Homework = 30%. not via email).e.

with individuals’ contribution towards to paper clearly identified. The review paper (10%) + the presentation (10%) One review paper shall be submitted from each group.Class Project Description A critical review paper and a final presentation on the application of water and wastewater treatment processes to mitigate a specific water quality problem Students shall form groups of 4 persons. Presentation: 15min + 5min (Q&A) Discuss the application of water and wastewater treatment processes to mitigate a specific water quality problem .

Examples of Project Topics           Inorganic contaminants removal from wastewater treatment with microalgae Application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors for removal of emerging contaminants from wastewater Disinfection byproduct formation. and removal by nanofiltration Control of rising salinity in the Salton Sea by reverse osmosis desalination Advanced water treatment for reuse of secondary municipal wastewater Removal of drinking water disinfection byproducts by advanced oxidation Particle and NOM removal by microfiltration with inline coagulation Increasing virus removal in media and membrane filtration processes by inline coagulation Removal of algae from reservoir water by enhanced coagulation and dissolved air flotation Use of powdered activated carbon for removal of synthetic organics from groundwater . characterization.

Class Schedule (planned) Day Mon Thu Mon Thu Mon Thu Mon Thu Mon Thu Mon Thu Mon Thu Mon Thu Mon Thu Mon Thu Mon Thu Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Date 07-Jan 10-Jan 14-Jan 17-Jan 21-Jan 24-Jan 28-Jan 31-Jan 04-Feb 07-Feb 11-Feb 14-Feb 18-Feb 21-Feb 25-Feb 28-Feb 04-Mar 07-Mar 11-Mar 14-Mar 18-Mar 21-Mar Topic/Event Introduction and principles of water and wastewater treatment Water characteristics Water characteristics Coagulation and Flocculation Coagulation and Flocculation Sedimentation Conventional Filtration technology Softening Disinfection Disinfection visit drinking water treatment plant Membranes and membrane filtration. Mid-term quiz Membranes and membrane filtration Advanced Adsorption Adsorption technology Ion exchange Ion exchange Group presentation Group presentation Group presentation Group presentation Group presentation. submit review paper .

000.000.000.How much water is there on Earth? 326.000.000 gallons    Earth is called the “water planet” 97% of it is in the oceans The majority. ~69% of fresh water is locked up in glaciers and icecaps .000.

Where Scotland Water Comes From…   Surface water (most) Ground water .

Uses of Natural & Waste Waters  Potable water production  Drinking. household. potable quality water or traditional (protected) fresh water sources used for food crops  Reclaimed wastewater used for landscape irrigation and gray water (toilet flushing) in many locations  . ensuring an adequate supply of potable quality water for fire protection is the determining factor in new housing construction and other development  Landscape and agricultural irrigation Generally. business and fire protection  Historically.

metal. or reclaimed waters used for cooling   Industry: food. electronics. cooling water.000 gal water consumed for every car produced in U. beverage.Uses of Natural & Waste Waters (cont’d)  Energy and oil production Turbine steam (ultra-pure). chemical. impaired. salt. and injected waters for oil extraction  Often non-potable water sources – brackish.S. plastics. mineral. . paper. and pharmaceutical production processes  Water is an excellent solvent and cleaning fluid consumed by many industrial activities  ~100.

Primary Use of Water Throughout the World Annual Water World Africa Asia and Pacific Europe Latin American and Caribbean Noth America Withdraws (km ) 3317 152 1850 465 263 512 3 Agriculture (%) Industry (%) Domestic (%) 70 20 10 85 6 9 86 8 6 36 49 15 73 9 18 39 47 13 .

toxics. particles. ???  To make it a suitable for reuse (WW)  Salts. metals. toxics. ??? . organics  To make it suitable for consumption (I/A)  Particles. organics. pathogens. organics.Why treat water & wastewater?  To make it safe & pleasant to drink (DW)  Pathogens. minerals. minerals. toxics. carcinogens. nutrients. metals  To reduce environmental impact (WW)  Organics. pathogens.

microorganisms Synthetic organic compounds . carcinogenicity reduce euthrophication of receiving waters & other environmental effects of discharge reduce toxicity to receiving environment All of the above pollutants can be categorized by particle size and chemical nature .soil particles. facilitate disinfection. Zn. household cleaners Nutrients . minerals.nitrogen & phosphorous Toxic metals .Why treat water & wastewater? Pollutant Pathogenic microorganisms . improve aesthetics . bacteria.virus.clarity & color reduce BOD. control of scale and corrosion reduce colour & disinfection byproducts. reduce BOD. Hg Reason for Removal protect humans from infectious disease acquired through drinking and bathing make water suitable for human consumption. toxicity. Cd. precipitates.industrial solvents. Pb.humic & fulvic acids.Cu. alkalinity Natural organic matter . reduce biofilm growth make water palatable to drink facilitate disinfection. hardness. & protozoa Dissolved solids .salts. biopolymers Taste & odour compounds .MIB & geosmin Turbidity & suspended solids .

001 – 1. polysaccharides wood & paper fibres.000 Grit. rocks. SOCs polypeptides humic acids.0 Filterable 1.The Properties of Pollutants Chemical Nature Fraction Soluble Size (µm) Inorganic <0. precipitates sediment of clays and minerals Organic Biological fulvic acids. alkalinity. oocysts. parasites dead plant and animal matter Colloidal 0. nucleic acids. exopolymers protozoa. lipids. N. silt Coarse >1. emulsified oil & grease coarse food particles viruses. sugars. spores multi-celled microbes. sand. fungi.001 salts. P. algae. proteins.0 – 100 Settleable 100 – 1. etc. worms. metals clays. metal oxides. plastic debris . bacteria. phenols. hardness.000 Stones. starches.

The Size of Water Pollutants .

Historical Development of Water Treatment        Ancient methods: boiling. filtered through sand and gravels 1800s Municipal water treatment plant built in Scotland using slow sand filters 1900s: use of chlorine and ozone as disinfectants 1940s: drinking water standards in US 1970s: discovery of trihalomethanes formation from chlorination 1980s: membrane filtration 2000s: new chemical contaminants and pathogenic protozoan .

 2000s – : emerging contaminants and pathogens  .g. disinfection byproducts (DBPs)   Oxidants used in disinfection can react with natural organic matter in water to form chemical byproducts. N nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA).Health and Environmental Concerns  1850s –1950s: elimination of waterborne disease such as cholera. some of which are carcinogens Helicobacter pylori and the noroviruses. pharmaceutical and personal care products. typhoid fever 1970s –1990s: health effects of trace manmade contaminants e. and nanoparticles.

abnormally low blood pressure. it releases an enterotoxin which causes intestinal cells to transport water and electrolytes from blood and tissue into the intestine   Symptoms: no fever. the whole process can reach completion in less than 24 hrs and the death rate is ~ 50% . explosive vomiting and diarrhea. abnormally low body temperature. death by dehydration If the victim is not treated.Classic Cholera Was Particularly Notable   Illness begins 2 to 3 days after exposure The bacillus colonizes the small intestine. Once there. coma. muscle cramps -often shock.

How do we remove pollutants?  There are two fundamental approaches to reduce the concentration of pollutants in water:  Conversion or Separation – or some combination of both!  Conversion Processes – implies a chemical reaction   Alters the chemical activity or structure of a pollutant by acid-base speciation. density. pollutant size. etc. or particle) filtration..g. precipitation. or evaporation. minerals. aggregation. oxidation/reduction. sugars. synthetic organics.  Separation Processes – implies physical removal   Creates two streams. hydrophobicity).. . charge. Dependent on the reactivity of the target compound (e. one that is highly concentrated and one that is dilute in the pollutant.g. or complexation. (molecular. by physically separating the contaminant from the aqueous stream via sedimentation. microbes. Dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the target compound (e. colloidal.). ion exchange.

000 settling tanks coarse screens .001 – 1.0 – 100 granular filtration flotation fine screens centrifugation Settleable 100 – 1.000 settling tanks medium screens hydrocyclones Coarse >1.001 adsorption ion exchange precipitation nanofiltration reverse osmosis electro-dialysis distillation evaporation air stripping Colloidal 0.Typical Approaches Used for Pollutants Removal Size fraction of pollutant (µm) Soluble <0.0 coagulation/ flocculation ultrafiltration microfiltration Filterable 1.

P.Fe) Low metals Low gases (O2.N2.1-0.N2.CO2) Low organics & bacteria Variable oxides & viruses Low silts and clays Low protozoa & algae  Colloidal   Colloidal  High organics & oxides High bacteria & viruses   Particulate   Particulate   Variable silts and clays High protozoa & algae TDS: Total Dissolved Solid .P.1-10 g/l for fresh to brackish) High hardness Low nutrients (N.S.S.2 g/l) Variable hardness Variable nutrients (N.Quality of Two Major Water Sources  Surface water   Ground water  Dissolved    Dissolved    Low TDS* (~0.CO2)      Variable TDS* (0.Fe) Medium to high metals High gases (O2.

/biol. N. metals. toxicity. salinity. toxics. hardness. physicochemical properties. (BOD. TSS.Selection of Technologies 1. carcinogenicity) 2. P. (size distribution.) 3. Determine treated water quality. COD. turbidity. Characterize the raw water quality. alkalinity./inorg.. etc. density. chemical nature – org. SOCs. colour. TOC. What is the simplest and most cost effective way to go from 1 to 2? .

but low dissolved minerals. odor. Communities are asked to meet increasing demands for water with limited supply and treatment capacity. Surface water. generally contains many organisms and high turbidity.Municipal Drinking Water     Providing safe drinking water for communities today is challenging for several reasons. The primary function of these facilities is to provide water that is safe to drink by removing contaminants and destroying harmful organisms in source water. Chemicals may be added to reduce corrosiveness or scaling. To meet these demands. In addition. or to soften the water. Each water source requires different treatment to some extent to provide as efficient a process as possible. protect the water from contamination. and follow continually changing regulatory requirements. municipal treatment facilities must monitor water quality parameters closely and be aware of any changes in the water system. . and appearance. on the other hand. Fluoride is often added to prevent dental decay. water is treated to improve taste. Groundwater typically contains few organisms and low turbidity but high dissolved minerals.

.Municipal Drinking Water   Influent and Pretreatment The source water or influent that flows into a drinking water treatment plant can vary greatly in the amount of solids. Pretreatment removes this debris before the water enters the treatment plant. Screens and strainers remove large debris. The influent. Micro-strainers remove algae and other aquatic organisms. manganese. Pre-sedimentation basins remove gravel. may contain debris that can clog pipes and damage pumps and other equipment. A disinfectant may also be applied at this point to remove taste and odors. dissolved minerals. especially from surface water. hydrogen sulfide. and silt. organic matter. and hydrogen sulfide. and aquatic organisms it contains. manganese. oxidize organic substances. and carbon dioxide. sand. Aeration may be used with groundwater to remove excess iron. and oxidize iron.

Removal of the floc before the water enters the filter beds greatly reduces the maintenance required on the filters. . The floc is removed as sludge and the remaining clear water then passes through large filter beds that remove most remaining particles. fluffy masses.Municipal Drinking Water   Coagulation and Flocculation  Coagulation is rapid mixing of chemicals such as lime or alum. which are very fine. Clarification and Filtration  The clarification process separates the floc from water via gravity settling. which leads to destabilization of charged colloidal particles. Flocculation induces destabilized particles to aggregate by gentle mixing. Coagulation and flocculation lead to the “clumping” of both suspended and colloidal particles into large flocs.

Water from the filtration system moves into a tank called the clearwell. The amounts of THM´s formed are directly related to the amount of organic compounds in the water at the time of chlorination. and ozone may be used where water enters the treatment system and the organic load is high. . disinfectants other than chlorine. Disinfectants are commonly added in the clearwell as well as the point where water first enters the system. monochloramine. When chlorine is used. ultraviolet light. After coagulation and filtration. One of the risks of using disinfectants is that they all form some type of harmful disinfection byproducts (DBP). For this reason. the by-products that form are called trihalomethanes or THM´s.Municipal Drinking Water  Disinfection and Distribution. where it is disinfected and conditioned. such as chlorine dioxide. chlorine or monochloramine is added to ensure that a residual disinfectant remains in the distribution system to prevent microbial growth.

Municipal Drinking Water Coagulation & Flocculation .

and pesticides . sulphate  disinfection by-products. chloride.Membrane Facility for Water Treatment  suspended solids  colloidal particles  disease-causing bacteria  some viruses  protozoan cysts  safety precaution  all organisms are inactivated pH control Microfiltration / Ultrafiltration Reverse Osmosis UV Disinfection Treated Sewage NEWater. aromatic hydrocarbons. Singapore  bacteria  viruses  heavy metals  nitrate.

End of Lecture QUESTIONS? .