Solar Still

Turn undrinkable water into pure, crystalclear distilled water with a home-built solar still

 The water and the energy are two most essential things for the sustaining of life
Both are to be conserved and preserved for the sustainable development of the world.

Global Water Crisis:
Demand for Purification

Availability of Freshwater:
• 97.5% of the water on earth is in the ocean. • Only 2.5% freshwater

– 70% is permanently frozen in glaciers – 30% is groundwater – 0.3% is in rivers and lakes

• Water purification is an important phenomenon in day-today life • People living in remote areas where fresh water supply by means of transport is expensive, face the problem of water shortage every day • Due to increase in population growth the need of drinking water is shrinking

• Solar Still:
 The purification of water involves the removal of un dissolved substances, dissolved substances and harmful microbes


A system that is relatively cheap, portable, and depends only on renewable solar energy.

• Objectives: A solar still is a very simple way of distilling water, using the heat of the Sun . • To purify dirty/saline water • To supply clean water for family needs, hospital or dispensary etc. • To improve health standards by removing impurities from questionable water supplies.

• Solar still Construction:

Solar still presents some specific advantages for their use in these areas due to its easier construction using locally available materials, minimum operation and maintenance requirements and friendliness to the environment.

• Construction:

• Easy to maintain • Cheap to construct • All materials purchased Locally
• A top cover made up of glass, with an interior surface made up of waterproof membrane. This interior surface uses a blackened material to improve absorption of sun’s rays

• Principle:

Solar still are called stills because they distill or purify water. It operate on the same principle as rainwater: evaporation & condensation. The water from the oceans evaporate, only to cool, condense & return to the earth as rain.

 Solar Still operation: • Solar distillation generally uses less energy to purify water than other methods • ƒ Uses the sun and gravity • ƒ Uses Solar energy

Solar still Operation: • Solar still is used to convert the dirty/saline water into pure/potable water using the renewable source of energy (i.e. solar energy). The basic modes of the heat transfer involved are radiation, convection and conduction. The results are obtained by evaporation of the dirty/saline water and fetching it out as pure/drinkable water

• The process of distilling (purifying) water using solar energy. In the simplest arrangement, untreated water is placed in an air tight solar collector with a sloped glazing material, and as it heats and evaporates, distilled water condenses on the collector glazing, and runs down where it can be collected in a tray.

Distillate condensate trickles down the glass face of the distiller.

• Solar still is typically little more than glass covered box filled with polluted water. The glass is set at an angle allowing sunlight to enter the basin and heat the water. Heating drives evaporation and internal water vapor approaches saturation. The glass cover, exposed to the external air currents remain slightly cooler than the rest of the basin facilitating the condensation of water vapor. A drip catch is placed at the low end of the glass plane. The condensed water droplets run down the glass and are collected.

• Energy Requirement:

Solar energy is a very large, inexhaustible source of energy. The power from the sun intercepted by the earth is approximately 1.8*1011 MW.,which is many thousands times larger than the present all commercial energy consumption rate on the earth. 2.26 MJ/Kg or 2260 KJ/kg is required to evaporate water; to pump water through 20m head requires only 0.2 KJ/kg.

• Motivation

• Conclusion: • Our aim is to accomplish this goal by utilizing and converting the incoming radioactive power of the sun’s rays to heat and distill dirty and undrinkable water, converting it into clean drinkable water.

Solar Distillation is by far the most reliable, least costly method of 99.9% true purification of most types of contaminated water especially in developing nations where fuel is scarce or too expensive. Solar distillation is used to produce drinking water or to produce pure water for lead acid batteries, laboratories, hospitals and in producing commercial products such as rose water. Conventional boiling distillation consumes three kilowatts of energy for every gallon of water, while solar distillation uses only the free pure power of the sun. Expensive filtration and deionizing systems are even more expensive to purchase and use and will not totally purify the water by removing all