 Introduction

 The

design concept  Mode of operation  Important design and features  Comparision Conclusions  References

The machine design concept is applicable as a compressor, pump, motor, or engine.
The new design concept of the Ball Piston Engine has many advantages, including low part count and simplicity of design. The engine design utilizes existing recent technology to advantage, such as silicon nitride ball pistons.

Beginning at top dead center (TDC) at 0 degrees rotation. First 90 degrees of rotation (intake stroke). Next 90 degrees of rotation (compression stroke). Just past 180 degrees rotation, the compressed charge is ignited. Next 90 degrees of rotation (combustion stroke). Exhaust is expelled as the ball moves radially inward for the next 90 degrees of rotation (exhaust stroke). Cycle repeats.

Figure 1. End section view of design

 Design eliminate inertia force on each ball.  When rotor spins ball moves radially inward & outward that causes coriolis and other acceleration forces generated on ball radially and tangentially.  Net Tangential inertial forces produce friction between ball and cylinder wall.  Design will takes a ball in a synchronised fashion.  Rotational speed of rotor implies centrifugal force on ball radially.  Cancellation of forces.

3. Dual contact variable rolling radius ball track concept

Design Choices

Simplicity of design based on spherical ball pistons enables a low moving part count, high power to weight ratio, elimination of valve mechanism and water cooling systems, and perfect dynamic balance.

Silicon nitride ball is a good choice for light weight (lower centrifugal forces) and low friction, as well as low coefficient of thermal expansion.

 Operation is same as that of I.C.Engine.

 No need of moving part & valve mechanism.
 Hardware is simple in geometry with only ball piston and rotor are moving part.  Minimum sliding friction.  No need of piston ring, piston pin, connecting rod and crankshaft bearing.  Constant volume procces.  Multirotor can be implemented on output shaft , ‘4’ or ‘8’or’12’ or more stroke in a single revolution.

 Smooth power delivery.

Figure 4. Ball piston free body diagram for power and intake strokes (ball position radius R increasing, and  taken as zero at TDC before intake)

1.1 1.05

Ball rolling radius, fraction of

1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7 0 45 90 135 180 225



TDC optimal track pure sine wave
270 315 360


Figure-Optimal track rolling radius compared to pure sine wave (2 inch diameter ball, mean ball position radius=10.00 inch)

40 35 30
Stroke loss, %

25 20 15 10 5 0 5 6 7 8 9 10

Ball diameter 1.0 inch 1.5 inch 2.0 inch 3.0 inch

Ball position mean radius, inch


Ball position 1.0 mean inchradius 1.5 (in) inch 2.0 inch 3.0 inch 5 39 32 27 21

1. 2. 3. 4.

Complex in design as large moving part. Low power to weight ratio. Valve mechanism is needed. Low efficiency. 2 or 4 number of strokes can be achieved. Sliding friction is occurred between piston pin, piston ring, connecting rod and ring, crankshaft bearing, so that reduces power output.



Simple in design as low moving part. 1. High power to weight ratio. 2. No need of valve mechanism. 3. High efficiency than convectional. 4. 4, 8, 12 or more numbers of strokes 5. can be achieved. 6. No need of piston ring , connecting rod and crankshaft bearing, so reduce sliding friction, increase output.

 

1 hp / (inch^3) = 45 505 398.1 m-1 kg s-3



Hp/in^3 of displacement







constant spin rate ball optimal track ideal
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10



1 hp / (inch^3) =
45 505 398.1 m-1 kg s-3

Figure 10. Specific comparison for track designs (2 inch diameter silicon nitride ball, mean ball position radius=10.00 inch, 0.1 coefficient of friction, ball diametral clearance of 0.001 inch)power

 simplicity of design,  very low friction,  low heat loss,  high power to weight ratio,  perfect dynamic balance, and

 cycle thermodynamic tailoring capability


Analysis show that the ball piston engine has potential for achieving higher effiiciency than piston I.C. Engine. This kinematic design devices to eliminate friction contribution from inertia forces. The convectional carburetion/ induction & exhaust systems are applicable to new engine. The precise manufacturing are need for production of material. The new design concept can be immediately applied to compressor & pump in parallel with further engine development.

Dale, T.W.,”Spherical Piston Radial Action Engine”, U.S. Patent 2. Avallone, E.A. and Baumeister, T. III,”Marks’ Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers”, Ninth edition, McGrawHill, New York, 3. Richards, T.D.,”The Hanes Engine 4. Ashley, S.,”A New Spin on the Rotary Engine”, Mechanical Engineering 5.Heywood,J.B.,”Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals”, Mcgraw- Hill