ELEMENTS OF TECHNOLOGY

TOPIC :-

SPEEDOMETER
 SUBMITTED

TO :MR. SHAKEEL IQBAL

PRESENTED BY :SHALINI YADAV

FP – TECH. (SEMESTER – 1 )

and as standard equipment from about 1910 onwards. they started to be available as options in the 1900‟s.  A speedometer is the device in a vehicle that measures and displays the speed.INTRODUCTION  A Speedometer is a gauge that measures and displays the instantaneous speed of land vehicles.  The Speedometer was invented by “Croatian Josip Belusic” in 1888. Truck or Motorcycle tells the driver how fast the vehicle is moving at any given time .  Now Universally fitted to motor vehicles. and is essential for safety purpose on roads and highways around the world. and was originally called as “Velocimeter”  A Speedometer on a Car.

SPEEDOMETER :. SPEEDOMETER :.TYPES OF SPEEDOMETER 1. :- SPEEDOMETER 2. which produced a magnetic field. This worked because the revolving magnet rotated around a non – magnetic speed “cup”.Another type of speedometer . A magnet in your transmission generates a signal which is processed by an electronic circuit and sends to either a quartz speedometer or a digital speedometer in your cars dash. The magnetic field manipulated a pointer. QUARTZ is the quartz crystal speed counter.The digital speedometer that 3. DIGITAL is so common today which works with the use of a micro processor. MECHANICAL The mechanical speedometer used a cable attached to a gear found in the transmission when the gear rotated 1000 times (usually) the meter on your dash board was determined by a magnet. The computer memory would send a signal to a circuit in the electronic display and this displays the digital numbers which correspond with the speed you are travelling. which would point at the correct speed on your speedometer. The sensor transmits a signal to the speedometers microprocessors. There is a speed sensor in your transmission which keeps the track of your speed.

SPEEDOMETER ‘S IM AGE GALLERY :- .

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The cup and pointer will turn until the torque of the eddy current on the cup is balanced by the opposing torque the . Increase in speed will twist the cup and also speedometer pointer against the spring. in the direction of its rotation with no mechanical connection between them. the changing magnetic field produces “eddy currents” in the cup. As the magnet rotates near the cup. Torque on cup increases with the speed of rotation of the magnet. “dragging” it.WORKING OF MECHANICAL SPEEDOMETER  A small permanent magnet affixed to the rotating cable interacts with a small aluminium cup (called as speed cup) attached to the shaft to the pointer on the analogue instrument. and thus the speedometer pointer. which themselves produced another magnetic field. The effect is that the magnet exerts a torque on the cup.  The pointer shaft is held towards zero by a find torsion spring.

PARTS & CONSTRUCTION .

 Some manufacturers rely on the pulses coming from the ABS wheel sensors.ELECTRONIC SPEEDOMETER WORKING  In designs derived eddy current models. a rotation sensor mounted in the transmission delivers a series of electronic pulses whose frequency corresponds to the rotational speed of the drive shaft. . and therefore the vehicles speed.It measure the time between each wheel rotation. assuming the wheels have full traction.  Bicycles Speedometer :. A computer converts the pulses to a speed and displays this speed on an electronically – controlled analog – style needle or a digital display. and give a read out on a small handle bar mounted digital display.

GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM ( GPS )  GPS devices are positional speedometers. The GPS software may also use a moving average calculation to reduce error. is dependent on the satellite signal quality at the time. Instead. Its speed calculations are not subject to the same sources of error as the vehicle's speedometer (wheel size. the GPS's positional accuracy. and therefore the accuracy of its calculated speed. transmission/drive ratios). based on how far the receiver has moved since the last measurement. Speed calculations will be more accurate at higher speeds. . when the ratio of positional error to positional change is lower.

that plus 4km/h at specified test speeds.INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS : The one covering speedometers are similar to UNECE regulation in that they specify that : The indicated speed must never be less then the actual speed .e. i.At 80km/h . . it should not be possible to inadvertently speed because of an incorrect speedometer reading. the indicated speed must be no more than 92km/h.  The indicated speed must not be more then 110% of the true speed . For Example :.

 A Speedometer gauge on a car. Also shown in the Tachometer.  AND WE CAN KNOW OUR VEHICLES SPEED BY SIMPLY SEEING THE NEEDLE OF “SPEEDOMETER” WHERE IT LIES AND BETWEEN WHAT RANGE OF SPEED. which displays the Rate of Rotation of the Engine‟s Crankshaft. showing the speed of the vehicle in Kilometers Per Hour. .UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS : A Speedometer showing mph and kmph along with an odometer and a separate „Trip‟ Odometer (both showing distance travelled in miles).

for wireless models) and in wired models the signal being carried by a thin wire. .ACCURACY & ERRORS  Most speedometers have tolerances of some + 10% or – 10%. diameter ). temperature.  Percentage error =100*(1. Sources of error due to tyre diameter variations are wear. DISADVANTAGES  They require power from batteries that must be replaced every so often. (in the receiver AND sensor. Mainly due to variations in tyre diameter.new diameter / standard . pressure. vehicle road and nominal tyre size.