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An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system

designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions often with real-time computing constraints. It is usually embedded as part of a complete device including hardware and mechanical parts. In contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer, can do many different tasks depending on programming. Embedded systems control many of the common devices in use today. Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of the product, or increasing the reliability and performance. .

When computers came into the market in the 1940s,

they were all Embedded Systems. However, they were never regarded as Embedded Systems because, firstly, they were regarded as computers; and secondly, because they were too large and uncouth to be formally termed as Embedded Systems.

An embedded system is a computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated

often with real-time computing constraints.

It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and software parts.

Hardware Interface


Designed to do a specific task. Simplified system hardware. Less costly. In the form of small computerized parts in larger devices. Required limited computer hardware resources. Little memory and small keyboard or screen.

Communications Automotive automatic braking Military applications Missile

guidance systems Industrial applications Robotics

Digital clock

Moving message display

DVD player

Traffic Light

General-purpose microprocessor
CPU for Computers No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself Example--Intels x86: 8086,8088,80386,80486, Pentium
CPU GeneralPurpose Microprocessor Data Bus Many chips on mother board
Serial COM Port



I/O Port


Address Bus General-Purpose Microprocessor System

A smaller computer. On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports... Example:- Motorolas 6811, Intels 8051 and PIC 16X




A single chip
I/O PortTimer Serial COM Port


Microprocessor v/s Microcontroller

Microprocessor CPU is stand-alone, RAM, ROM, I/O, timer are separate designer can decide on the amount of ROM, RAM and I/O ports. expensive general-purpose Ex. 8085,8086 mp, Motorola 6800, Intels 8086, etc. Microcontroller CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are all on a single chip fix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, I/O ports for applications in which cost, power and space are critical single-purpose Ex. 8051, PIC mc, Motorola MCs, Phillips, etc.

The 8051 is the first microcontroller of the MCS-51 family introduced by Intel Corporation at the end of the 1970s.

The 8051 family characteristics:

o o o o o o

4K Bytes ROM 128 Bytes RAM two timer/counters (16 bit) A serial port 32 input/output port Interrupt controller


P1.0 P1.1 P1.2 P1.3 P1.4 P1.5 P1.6 P1.7 RST (RXD)P3.0 (TXD)P3.1 (INT0)P3.2 (INT1)P3.3 (T0)P3.4 (T1)P3.5 (WR)P3.6 (RD)P3.7 XTAL2 XTAL1 GND

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

8051 IC

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21

Vcc P0.0(AD0) P0.1(AD1) P0.2(AD2) P0.3(AD3) P0.4(AD4) P0.5(AD5) P0.6(AD6) P0.7(AD7) EA/VPP ALE/PROG PSEN P2.7(A15) P2.6(A14) P2.5(A13) P2.4(A12) P2.3(A11) P2.2(A10) P2.1(A9) P2.0(A8)

Pin Description

Vcc(+5volt) Pin - 40

Ground(0 volt) Pin-20

Pin Description
Port 0 from Pin-39 to pin-32

Dual functional Used to excess both data & address

Pin Description

Port 1 from Pin-1 to pin-8

Used as I/O port

Pin Description

Port 2 from Pin-21 to pin-28

Used to excess address & as I/O port

Pin Description

Port 3 from Pin-10 to Pin-17

P3.0 RXD P3.1 TXD P3.2 IN T0 P3.3 IN T1 P3.4 T0 P3.5 T1 P3.6 WR P3.7 RD

Smart card

Health card



A different type of compiler is used for compiling in programmable data terminal. This software follow the steps below: 1. Create a project to select the 8051 Device and the tool settings. 2. Create source files in C or Assembly. 3. Build your application with the Project manager. 4. Correct errors in source files. 5. Test linked application

Proteus simulates the circuit and the output can be


January 26, 2014

Flash magic is used to burn the microcontroller which

means to save hex file in microcontroller

January 26, 2014

THANK YOU !!!!!.......