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Lesson 10-1 Lesson 10-2 Lesson 10-3

Graphing Quadratic Functions Solving Quadratic Equations by Graphing Solving Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square

Lesson 10-4
Lesson 10-5

Solving Quadratic Equations by Using the Quadratic Formula
Exponential Functions

Lesson 10-6
Lesson 10-7

Growth and Decay
Geometric Sequences

Example 1 Graph Opens Upward Example 2 Graph Opens Downward Example 3 Vertex and Axis of Symmetry Example 4 Match Equations and Graphs .

Use a table of values to graph Graph these ordered pairs and connect them with a smooth curve. x –2 –1 0 1 2 3 y –4 0 –2 –2 0 4 Answer: .

Use a table of values to graph x Answer: –3 –2 –1 0 1 y 6 3 2 3 6 .

Use a table of values to graph Graph these ordered pairs and connect them with a smooth curve. x –2 –1 0 1 2 3 y –8 0 4 4 0 –8 Answer: .

Use a table of values to graph x Answer: –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 y –5 0 3 4 3 0 –5 .

In Equation for the axis of symmetry of a parabola and Answer: The equation of the axis of symmetry is .Consider the graph of Write the equation of the axis of symmetry.

Consider the graph of Find the coordinates of the vertex. the x-coordinate for the vertex is –2. 6). Answer: The vertex is at (–2. Original equation Simplify. . Since the equation of the axis of symmetry is x = –2 and the vertex lies on the axis. Add.

Answer: Since the coefficient of the x2 term is negative. .Identify the vertex as a maximum or minimum. the parabola opens downward and the vertex is a maximum point.

. 6) Graph the function. Choose a value for x other than –2.(–2. For example. Original equation Simplify. You can use the symmetry of the parabola to help you draw its graph. graph the vertex and the axis of symmetry. On a coordinate plane. choose –1 and find the y-coordinate that satisfies the equation.

4) (–1. Go 1 unit to the left of the axis and plot the point (–3. . 4) is 1 unit to the right of the axis. 4). Graph (–1. (–3. The point at (–1. 4) Since the graph is symmetrical about its axis of symmetry x = –2. you can find another point on the other side of the axis of symmetry.(–2. 4). 6) Graph the function.

6) Graph the function. Repeat this for several other points.(–2. –2) (0. (–4. (–3. 4) (–1. 4) Then sketch the parabola. –2) .

Answer: b. Answer: (1.Consider the graph of a. Write the equation of the axis of symmetry. Answer: Since the coefficient of the x2 term is positive. Identify the vertex as a maximum or minimum. Find the coordinates of the vertex. the parabola opens upward and the vertex is a minimum point. –2) c. .

Answer: . Graph the function.Consider the graph of d.

Multiple-Choice Test Item Which is the graph of A B C D .

and you are asked to choose the graph that corresponds to it. Solve the Test Item Find the axis of symmetry of the graph Equation for the axis of symmetry and .Read the Test Item You are given a quadratic function.

Eliminate choice C. Since the coefficient of the x2 term is negative. Answer: D . Since only choices C and D have this as their axis of symmetry. Look at the graphs.The axis of symmetry is –1. the graph opens downward. you can eliminate choices A and B.

Multiple-Choice Test Item Which is the graph of A B C D Answer: B .

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Example 1 Two Roots Example 2 A Double Root Example 3 No Real Roots Example 4 Rational Roots Example 5 Estimate Solutions to Solve a Problem .

Graph the related function The equation of the axis of symmetry is or or When f(x) equals So the coordinates of the vertex are .Solve by graphing.

Make a table of values to find other points to sketch the graph. x –3 –1 0 1 2 3 4 6 f(x) 8 –6 –10 –12 –12 –10 –6 8 .

. This occurs at the x-intercepts.To solve you need to know where the value of f (x) is 0. The x-intercepts of the parabola appear to be –2 and 5.

Check Solve by factoring. Answer: The solutions of the equation are –2 and 5. or Zero Product Property Solve for x. . Original equation Factor.

4} by graphing.Solve Answer: {–2. .

.Solve by graphing. Simplify. First rewrite the equation so one side is equal to zero. Original equation Add 9 to each side.

Graph the related function x 1 2 3 4 5 f(x) 4 1 0 1 4 .

one solution is 3.Notice that the vertex of the parabola is the x-intercept. . What is the other solution? Try solving the equation by factoring. Thus.

or Zero Product Property Solve for x. Answer: The solution is 3. so there is only one root.Original equation Factor. called a double root. There are two identical factors for the quadratic function. .

Solve Answer: {–1} by graphing. .

. Graph the related function x –3 –2 –1 0 1 f(x) 6 3 2 3 6 Answer: The graph has no x-intercept. Thus.Solve by graphing. there are no real number solutions for the equation.

.Solve Answer:  by graphing.

Solve by graphing. . estimate the roots by stating the consecutive integers between which the roots lie. If integral roots cannot be found. Graph the related function x 0 1 2 3 4 f(x) 2 –1 –2 –1 2 Notice that the value of the function changes from negative to positive between the x values of 0 and 1 and between 3 and 4.

x 0 1 2 3 4 f(x) 2 –1 –2 –1 2 The x-intercepts of the graph are between 0 and 1 and between 3 and 4. Answer: One root is between 0 and 1. and the other root is between 3 and 4. .

Solve Answer: One root is between –1 and –2. . and the other root is between 3 and 4.

For how many seconds was Shelly’s rocket in the air? You need to find the solution of the equation Use a graphing calculator to graph the related function The x-intercept is between 15 and 16 seconds. where y is the height of the rocket in feet after t seconds.Model Rockets Shelly built a model rocket for her science project. The equation models the flight of the rocket. . launched from ground level at a velocity of 250 feet per second.

Answer: between 15 and 16 seconds .

Golf Martin hits a golf ball with an upward velocity of 120 feet per second. How long was the golf ball in the air? Answer: between 7 and 8 seconds . where y is the height of the ball in feet after t seconds. hit at ground level. The function models the flight of the golf ball.

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Example 1 Irrational Roots Example 2 Complete the Square Example 3 Solve an Equation by Completing the Square Example 4 Solve a Quadratic Equation in Which a  1 .

Definition of absolute value . Round to the nearest tenth if necessary.Solve by taking the square root of each side. Simplify. Take the square root of each side. Original equation is a perfect square trinomial.

Use a calculator to evaluate each value of x. –0. Simplify.8}. .2. or Answer: The solution set is {–5.Subtract 3 from each side.

7} .Solve by taking the square root of each side. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary. –5. Answer: {–2.3.

is a perfect square.Find the value of c that makes a perfect square. Method 1 Use algebra tiles. .

Find Square the result of Step 1. Add the result of Step 2 to Step 3 Answer: Notice that .Method 2 Step 1 Step 2 Complete the square.

Find the value of c that makes a perfect square. Answer: .

Solve Step 1 by completing the square. Original equation Subtract 5 from each side. Isolate the x2 and x terms. . Simplify.

Since .Step 2 Complete the square and solve. Factor Take the square root of each side. add 81 to each side. .

Simplify.Add 9 to each side. or .

.Check Substitute each value for x in the original equation. 17}. Answer: The solution set is {1.

Solve Answer: {–2. 10} .

You want to know how far away from the river bank he must paddle to avoid the current. . and x is the distance from the shore in feet. At what distance from the river bank must he paddle in order to avoid a current of 5 miles per hour? Explore You know the function that relates distance from shore to the rate of the river current.Boating Suppose the rate of flow of an 80-foot-wide river is given by the equation where r is the rate in miles per hour. Joacquim does not want to paddle his canoe against a current faster than 5 miles per hour.

Simplify.01. .Plan Find the distance when the square to solve Use completing Solve Equation for the current Divide each side by –0.

Factor Take the square root of each side. .Since add 1600 to each side.

Simplify. Use a calculator to evaluate each value of x.Add 40 to each side. or .

.Examine The solutions of the equation are about 7 ft and about 73 ft. Since the river is about 80 ft wide. Answer: He must stay within about 7 feet of either bank. The solutions are distances from one shore.

Joacquim does not want to paddle his canoe against a current faster than 5 files per hour. Answer: He must stay within 10 feet of either bank.Boating Suppose the rate of flow of a 6-foot-wide river is given by the equation where r is the rate in miles per hour. and x is the distance from the shore in feet. At what distance from the river bank must he paddle in order to avoid a current of 5 miles per hour. .

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Example 1 Integral Roots Example 2 Irrational Roots Example 3 Use the Quadratic Formula to Solve a Problem Example 4 Use the Discriminant .

Use two methods to solve Method 1 Factoring Original equation Factor or Zero Product Property Solve for x. .

Method 2 Quadratic Formula
For this equation, Quadratic Formula

Multiply.

Add.

Simplify.

or

Answer: The solution set is {–5, 7}.

Use two methods to solve Answer: {–6, 5}

Solve by using the Quadratic Formula. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary.
Step 1 Rewrite the equation in standard form. Original equation Subtract 4 from each side.

Simplify.

Step 2 Apply the Quadratic Formula. . Quadratic Formula and Multiply.

Add. or .

Check the solutions by using the CALC menu on a graphing calculator to determine the zeros of the related quadratic function. 0. . Answer: The approximate solution set is {–0.8}.3.

7} .5. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary. Answer: {–0. 0.Solve by using the Quadratic Formula.

it is only 1. Europa. On Europa. Using the information and equation from Example 3 on page 548 in your textbook.7 meters per second squared. In order to find when the ball hits the ground. find how much longer baseballs thrown on Mars and on Europa will stay above the ground than a similarly thrown baseball on Earth. you must find when H = 0. The gravitational acceleration on Mars is about 3. .3 meters per second squared. Write two equations to represent the situation on Mars and on Europa.Space Travel Two possible future destinations of astronauts are the planet Mars and a moon of the planet Jupiter.

.Baseball Thrown on Mars Baseball Thrown on Europa These equations cannot be factored. and completing the square would involve a lot of computation.

To find accurate solutions. use the Quadratic Formula. .

Since a negative number of seconds is not reasonable, use the positive solutions. Answer: A ball thrown on Mars will stay aloft 5.6 – 2.2 or about 3.4 seconds longer than the ball thrown on Earth. The ball thrown on Europa will stay aloft 15.6 – 2.2 or about 13.4 seconds longer than the ball thrown on Earth.

Space Travel The gravitational acceleration on Venus is about 8.9 meters per second squared, and on Callisto, one of Jupiter’s moons, it is 1.2 meters per second squared. Suppose a baseball is thrown on Callisto with an upward velocity of 10 meters per second from two meters above the ground. Find how much longer the ball will stay in air than a similarly-thrown ball on Venus. Use the equation where H is the height

of an object t seconds after it is thrown upward, v is the initial velocity, g is the gravitational pull, and h is the initial height.

Answer: 16.9 – 2.4 or about 14.5 seconds

Since the discriminant is negative. . the equation has no real roots. .State the value of the discriminant for Then determine the number of real roots of the equation. and Simplify. Answer: The discriminant is –220.

Simplify. . Step 1 Rewrite the equation in standard form.State the value of the discriminant for Then determine the number of real roots of the equation. . Original equation Add 144 to each side.

the equation has one real root. and Simplify. . Since the discriminant is 0. Answer: The discriminant is 0.Step 2 Find the discriminant.

Step 1 Rewrite the equation in standard form.State the value of the discriminant for Then determine the number of real roots of the equation. . Original equation Subtract 12 from each side. Simplify. .

Step 2 Find the discriminant. . and Simplify. Answer: The discriminant is 244. Since the discriminant is positive. the equation has two real roots.

Then determine the number of real roots for the equation. no real roots Answer: 0.State the value of the discriminant for each equation. b. a. c. Answer: –4. 1 real root Answer: 120. 2 real root .

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Example 1 Graph an Exponential Function with a > 1 Example 2 Graph Exponential Functions with 0 < a < 1 Example 3 Use Exponential Functions to Solve Problems Example 4 Identify Exponential Behavior .

. Answer: The y-intercept is 1. y –1 0 1 3–1 30 31 1 3 2 32 9 Graph the ordered pairs and connect the points with a smooth curve.Graph x 3x State the y-intercept.

Use the graph to determine the approximate value of The graph represents all real values of x and their corresponding values of y for Answer: The value of y is about 5 when Use a calculator to confirm this value. .

a. b. Graph State the y-intercept. Use the graph to determine the approximate value of Answer: about 1.5 . Answer: The y-intercept is 1.

Graph the ordered pairs and connect the points with a smooth curve.Graph x y State the y-intercept. . –1 0 1 4 1 Answer: The y-intercept is 1.

Use the graph to determine the approximate value of Answer: The value of y is about 8 when Use a calculator to confirm this value. .

Use the graph to determine the approximate value of Answer: about 3 .a. Graph State the y-intercept. b. Answer: The y-intercept is 1.

Graph the function. The function models the depreciation of the value of a new car that originally cost \$25. V represents the value of the car and t represents the time in years from the time the car was purchased. .000. What values of V and t are meaningful in the function.Depreciation People joke that the value of a new car decreases as soon as it is driven off the dealer’s lot.

Answer: Only the values of V  25.000 and t  0 are meaningful in the context of the problem. .Use a graphing calculator to graph the function.

What is the value of the car after one year? Original equation Use a calculator. . the car’s value is about \$20.500. Answer: After one year.

What is the value of the car after five years? Original equation Use a calculator. the car’s value is about \$9270. . Answer: After five years.

V represents the value of the car and t represents the time in years from the time the car was purchased. a. .000 and t  0 are meaningful in the context of the problem. What values of V and t are meaningful in the function. Graph the function.Depreciation The function models the depreciation of the value of a new car that originally cost \$22.000. Answer: Only the values of V  22.

b. What is the value of the car after one year? Answer: \$18.040 c. What is the value of the car after three years? Answer: \$12.130 .

25 Method 1 Look for a Pattern The domain values are at regular intervals of 10. Look for a common factor among the range values.Determine whether the set of data displays exponential behavior.25 . 10 25 62.5 156.5 30 156. x y 0 10 10 25 20 62.

This is a characteristic of exponential behavior. Method 2 Graph the Data Answer: The graph shows a rapidly increasing value of y as x increases. .Answer: Since the domain values are at regular intervals and the range values have a common factor.5)x. The equation for the data may involve (2. the data are probably exponential.

10 +15 25 +15 40 +15 55 . x y 0 10 10 25 20 40 30 55 Method 1 Look for a Pattern The domain values are at regular intervals of 10. The range values have a common difference of 15.Determine whether the set of data displays exponential behavior.

. Method 2 Graph the Data Answer: The graph is a line. not an exponential function. the data display linear behavior.Answer: Since the domain values are at regular intervals and there is a common difference of 15.

Also the graph shows rapidly decreasing values of y as x increases. a. x y 0 100 10 50 20 25 30 12.5 Answer: The domain values are at regular intervals and the range values have a common factor of so it is probably exponential. .Determine whether the set of data displays exponential behavior.

Determine whether the set of data displays exponential behavior. b. . x y 0 –5 10 0 20 5 30 10 Answer: The domain values are at regular intervals and the range values have a common difference of 5. The data display linear behavior.

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Example 1 Exponential Growth Example 2 Compound Interest Example 3 Exponential Decay Example 4 Depreciation .

Population In 2000. the United States had a population of about 280 million.0085 .85% per year. Write an equation to represent the population of the United States since the year 2000. and a growth rate of about 0. General equation for exponential growth and or 0.

Simplify. Answer: where y represents the population and t represents the number of years since 2000 .

731.S.According to the equation. or 10 Answer: In 2010.295. . what will be the population of the United States in the year 2010? Equation for the population of the U. the population will be about 304.

Write an equation to represent the student population of the Scioto School District since the year 2000.15% per year. and a growth rate of about 0. what will be the student population of the Scioto School District in the year 2006? Answer: about 4540 students . Answer: b. Scioto School District had a student population of about 4500 students. a. According to the equation.Population In 2000.

The money will go to Jing May when she turns 18 to help with her college expenses. What amount of money will Jing May receive from the investment? Compound interest equation . her grandparents invested \$1000 in a fixed rate savings account at a rate of 7% compounded annually.Compound Interest When Jing May was born.

Compound interest equation Simplify. . Answer: She will receive about \$3380.

Compound Interest When Lucy was 10 years old. the money will help to buy her a car. her father invested \$2500 in a fixed rate savings account at a rate of 8% compounded semiannually. When Lucy turns 18. What amount of money will Lucy receive from the investment? Answer: about \$4682 .

000. .1% per year. General equation for exponential decay Answer: Simplify. a charitable organization found that its donations dropped by 1. its donations were \$390. Before the recession. Write an equation to represent the charity’s donations since the beginning of the recession.Charity During an economic recession.

1% per year. Estimate the amount of the donations 5 years after the start of the recession. .000.017. Equation for the amount of donations Answer: The amount of donations should be about \$369. a charitable organization found that its donations dropped by 1. Before the recession.Charity During an economic recession. its donations were \$390.

5% per year.Charity A charitable organization found that the value of its clothing donations dropped by 2. Estimate the value of the clothing donations 3 years after the start of the downturn.245 . the organization received clothing valued at \$24. a. Answer: b. Before this downturn in donations. Answer: about \$22. Write an equation to represent the value of the charity’s clothing donations since the beginning of the downturn.000.

Since that time the value of the real estate in their neighborhood has declined 3% per year. If they initially paid \$179.Depreciation Jackson and Elizabeth bought a house when they first married ten years ago.000 for their house. . what is its value today? General equation for exponential decay Simplify.

999.Use a calculator. . Answer: Their house will be worth about \$131.

If the computer system depreciates 8% per year.Depreciation A business owner bought a computer system for the office staff for \$22.000. Answer: about \$15. find the value of the computer system in 4 years.761 .

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Example 1 Recognize Geometric Sequences Example 2 Continue Geometric Sequences Example 3 Use Geometric Sequences to Solve a Problem Example 4 nth Term of a Geometric Sequence Example 5 Find Geometric Means .

64. 256. . 1 4 16 64 256 In this sequence. each term in found by multiplying the previous term by 4. 1. … Determine the pattern. Answer: This sequence is geometric. 16. 4.Determine whether the sequence is geometric.

11. Answer: This sequence is arithmetic. 5. 9. 1. 7. 1 3 5 7 9 11 In this sequence.Determine whether the sequence is geometric. not geometric. 3. . each term is found by adding 2 to the previous term. … Determine the pattern.

44. Answer: yes b.Determine whether each sequence is geometric. a. 33. 22. 0. … Answer: no . 11.

2.4. 76.832. … Divide the second term by the first.2 –54.5648.832 –107. 20.88 76. –28.5648 Answer: The next three terms are –54. 20.88.Find the next three terms in the geometric sequence. Use this information to find the next three terms. 39. –28. The common factor is –1. and –107. . 39.

25. … Divide the second term by the first. 20. Use this information to find the next three terms. . 64. 36.1875. 48. 36 27 20.1875 Answer: The next three terms are 27.25 15. The common factor is 0. 64. and 15.8.Find the next three terms in the geometric sequence. 48.

26592 b. 625. 100. 15.25. … Answer: –1562. 42.5.2. 25. –9765.Find the next three terms in each geometric sequence.4432. 3906.12.072. 3.625 . … Answer: 9. a. 5. –250.

If the population grows at a rate of about 5% per year.900. .Geography The population of the African country of Liberia was about 2.05.000 in 1999. what will the population be in the years 2003. 2004. and 2005? The population is a geometric sequence in which the first term is 2.900.000 and the common ratio is 1.

112.Year Population 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2.250(1.045.216.000 3.701.05) or 3.216.05) or 3.05) or 3.5 3.886.000(1.05) or 3.524.3 Answer: The population of Liberia in the years 2003.5(1.524. .968.357.524.277.900.05) or 3.197.701.968.000 2.197.968.05) or 3.1 2004 2005 3. respectively.277.900.357.5 3. 2004.045.112.5(1. 3. and 2005 will be about 3.701.000(1.886.250 3. and 3.1(1.217.

406 in 2004 . If the population grows at a rate of about 2% per year.202 in 2003 and about 2.Geography The population of the Baltic State of Latvia was about 2.000 in 1998.815.500. what will the population be in the years 2003 and 2004? Answer: about 2.760.

Find the eighth term of a geometric sequence in which Formula for the nth term of a geometric sequence .

Answer: The eighth term in the sequence is 15.309. .

432 .Find the ninth term of a geometric sequence in which Answer: 786.

you must first find r. and To find Formula for the nth term of a geometric sequence Divide each side by 7. 112. ___. .Find the geometric mean in the sequence 7. In the sequence.

Simplify. Answer: The geometric mean is 28 or –28. If the geometric mean is 7(4) or 28. If the geometric mean is 7(–4) or –28. Take the square root of each side. .

Answer: 72 or –72 .Find the geometric mean in the sequence 9. ___. 576.

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