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Optimal Power Flow Analysis

Optimal Power Flow Analysis

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Daniel Kirschen

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington

1

Economic dispatch

Objective: minimize the cost of generation

Constraints

Equality constraint: load generation balance

Inequality constraints: upper and lower limits on

generating units output

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 2

A B C

L

Limitations of economic dispatch

Generating units and loads are not all

connected to the same bus

The economic dispatch may result in

unacceptable flows or voltages in the network

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 3

Network

A

B C

D

Example of network limitation

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 4

A

B

100$/MWh

50 $/MWh

Maximum flow on each line: 100MW

C

A

C

B

P

A

P

B

P

A

MAX

P

B

MAX

L

B

L

A

Acceptable ED solution

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 5

A

B

L

B

= 200MW L

A

= 100 MW

100 MW

100 MW

The flows on the lines are below the limit

The economic dispatch solution is acceptable

The solution of this (trivial) economic dispatch is:

0 MW

300 MW

Unacceptable ED solution

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 6

A

B

The solution of the economic dispatch is:

500 MW

0 MW

200 MW

200 MW

The resulting flows exceed their limit

The economic dispatch solution is not acceptable

L

B

= 400MW L

A

= 100 MW

Modified ED solution

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 7

In this simple case, the solution of the economic dispatch

can be modified easily to produce acceptable flows.

A

B

300 MW

200 MW

100 MW

100 MW

L

B

= 400MW L

A

= 100 MW

This could be done mathematically by adding the following

inequality constraint:

However, adding inequality constraints for each problem

is not practical in more complex situations

We need a more general approach

Optimal Power Flow (OPF) - Overview

Optimization problem

Classical objective function

Minimize the cost of generation

Equality constraints

Power balance at each node - power flow

equations

Inequality constraints

Network operating limits (line flows, voltages)

Limits on control variables

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 8

Mathematical formulation of the OPF (1)

Decision variables (control variables)

Active power output of the generating units

Voltage at the generating units

Position of the transformer taps

Position of the phase shifter (quad booster) taps

Status of the switched capacitors and reactors

Control of power electronics (HVDC, FACTS)

Amount of load disconnected

Vector of control variables:

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 9

Mathematical formulation of the OPF (2)

State variables

Describe the response of the system to changes in

the control variables

Magnitude of voltage at each bus

Except generator busses, which are control variables

Angle of voltage at each bus

Except slack bus

Vector of state variables:

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 10

Mathematical formulation of the OPF (3)

Parameters

Known characteristics of the system

Assumed constant

Network topology

Network parameters (R, X, B, flow and voltage limits)

Generator cost functions

Generator limits

Vector of parameters:

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 11

Mathematical formulation of the OPF (4)

Classical objective function:

Minimize total generating cost:

Many other objective functions are possible:

Minimize changes in controls:

Minimize system losses

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 12

Mathematical formulation of the OPF (5)

Equality constraints:

Power balance at each node - power flow

equations

Compact expression:

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 13

Mathematical formulation of the OPF (6)

Inequality constraints:

Limits on the control variables:

Operating limits on flows:

Operating limits on voltages

Compact expression:

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 14

Compact form of the OPF problem

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 15

Subject to:

OPF Challenges

Size of the problem

1000s of lines, hundreds of controls

Which inequality constraints are binding?

Problem is non-linear

Problem is non-convex

Some of the variables are discrete

Position of transformer and phase shifter taps

Status of switched capacitors or reactors

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 16

Solving the OPF using gradient methods

Build the Lagrangian function

The gradient of the Lagrangian indicates the

direction of steepest ascent:

Move in the opposite direction to the point

with the largest gradient

Repeat until

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 17

Problems with gradient methods

Slow convergence

Objective function and constraints must be

differentiable

Difficulties in handling inequality constraints

Binding inequality constraints change as the

solution progresses

Difficult to enforce the complementary slackness

conditions

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 18

Solving the OPF using interior point method

Best technique when a full AC solution is

needed

Handle inequality constraints using

barrier functions

Start from a point in the interior of the

solution space

Efficient solution engines are available

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 19

Linearizing the OPF problem

Use the power of linear programming

Objective function

Use linear or piecewise linear cost functions

Equality constraints

Use dc power flow instead of ac power flow

Inequality constraints

dc power flow provides linear relations between

injections (control variables) and MW line flows

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 20

Sequential LP OPF

Consequence of linear approximation

The solution may be somewhat sub-optimal

The constraints may not be respected exactly

Need to iterate the solution of the linearized problem

Algorithm:

1. Linearize the problem around an operating point

2. Find the solution to this linearized optimization

3. Perform a full ac power flow at that solution to find

the new operating point

4. Repeat

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 21

Advantages and disadvantages

Advantages of LPOPF method

Convergence of linear optimization is guaranteed

Fast

Reliable optimization engines are available

Used to calculate nodal prices in electricity

markets

Disadvantages

Need to iterate the linearization

Reactive power aspects (VAr flows, voltages)

are much harder to linearize than the active

power aspects (MW flows)

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 22

DC Power Flow Approximation

Power Flow Equations

Set of non-linear simultaneous equations

Need a simple linear relation for fast and

intuitive analysis

dc power flow provides such a relation but

requires a number of approximations

P

k

I

V

k

V

i

[G

ki

cos(

k

i

) + B

ki

sin(

k

i

)]

i1

N

0

Q

k

I

V

k

V

i

[G

ki

sin(

k

i

) B

ki

cos(

k

i

)]

i1

N

0

Neglect Reactive Power

P

k

I

V

k

V

i

[G

ki

cos(

k

i

) + B

ki

sin(

k

i

)]

i1

N

0

Q

k

I

V

k

V

i

[G

ki

sin(

k

i

) B

ki

cos(

k

i

)]

i1

N

0

P

k

I

V

k

V

i

[G

ki

cos(

k

i

) + B

ki

sin(

k

i

)]

i1

N

0

Neglect Resistance of the Branches

P

k

I

V

k

V

i

[G

ki

cos(

k

i

) + B

ki

sin(

k

i

)]

i1

N

0

P

k

I

V

k

V

i

B

ki

sin(

k

i

)

i1

N

0

Assume All Voltage Magnitudes = 1.0 p.u.

P

k

I

V

k

V

i

B

ki

sin(

k

i

)

i1

N

0

P

k

I

B

ki

sin(

k

i

)

i1

N

0

Assume all angles are small

P

k

I

B

ki

sin(

k

i

)

i1

N

0

If is small: sin ( in radians)

P

k

I

B

ki

(

k

i

)

i1

N

0 or P

k

I

(

k

i

)

x

ki i1

N

0

Interpretation

P

k

I

(

k

i

)

x

ki i1

N

0

P

k

I

P

ki

i1

N

0

P

ki

(

k

i

)

x

ki

P

12

(

1

2

)

x

12

; P

23

(

2

3

)

x

23

; P

31

(

3

1

)

x

13

3

x

13

x

12

x

23

P

1

I

P

3

I

P

2

I

P

23

P

31

P

12

Why is it called dc power flow?

Reactance plays the role of resistance in dc

circuit

Voltage angle plays the role of dc voltage

Power plays the role of dc current

P

ki

(

k

i

)

x

ki

I

ki

(V

k

V

i

)

R

ki

Example of LPOPF

Solving the full non-linear OPF problem by

hand is too difficult, even for small systems

We will solve linearized 3-bus examples by

hand

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 31

Example

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 32

1 2

3

B

A

450 MW

10 $/MWh

C

A

P

A

P

A

MAX

=390MW

20$/MWh

C

B

P

B

P

B

MAX

= 150

MW

Economic dispatch:

P

A

P

A

max

390 MW

P

B

60 MW

Flows resulting from the economic dispatch

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 33

1 2

3

B

A

450 MW

390MW

60MW

Assume that all the lines have the same reactance

F

max

= 200MW

F

max

= 200MW F

max

= 260MW

Do these injection result in acceptable flows?

Calculating the flows using superposition

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 34

Because we assume a linear model, superposition is

applicable

1

60 MW

2

3

450 MW

390 MW

1

2

3

390 MW

390 MW

60 MW

1

2

3

60 MW

Calculating the flows using superposition (1)

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 35

1

2

3

390 MW

390 MW

F

A

F

B

F

A

= 2 x F

B

because the path 1-2-3 has twice the reactance

of the path 1-3

F

A

+ F

B

= 390 MW

F

A

= 260 MW

F

B

= 130 MW

Calculating the flows using superposition (2)

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 36

1

2

3

60 MW

60 MW

F

D

F

C

F

C

= 2 x F

D

because the path 2-1-3 has twice the reactance

of the path 2-3

F

C

+ F

D

= 60 MW

F

C

= 40 MW

F

D

= 20 MW

Calculating the flows using superposition (3)

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 37

1

2

3

390 MW

390 MW

60 MW

1

2

3

60 MW

260 MW

130 MW

20 MW

40 MW

280 MW

1

60 MW

2

3

450 MW

390 MW

110 MW

170 MW

F

max =

260 MW

Correcting unacceptable flows

Must use a combination of reducing the injection at bus 1 and

increasing the injection at bus 2 to keep the load/generation balance

Decreasing the injection at 1 by 3 MW reduces F

1-3

by 2 MW

Increasing the injection at 2 by 3 MW increases F

1-3

by 1 MW

A combination of a 3 MW decrease at 1 and 3 MW increase at 2

decreases F

1-3

by 1 MW

To achieve a 20 MW reduction in F

1-3

we need to shift 60 MW of

injection from bus 1 to bus 2

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 38

280 MW

1

60 MW

2

3

450 MW

390 MW

Must reduce flow F

1-3

by 20 MW

Check the solution using superposition

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 39

1

2

3

330 MW

330 MW

120 MW

1

2

3

120 MW

220 MW

110 MW

40 MW

80 MW

1

120 MW

2

3

450 MW

330 MW

260 MW

70 MW

190 MW

F

max =

260 MW

Comments (1)

The OPF solution is more expensive than the

ED solution

C

ED

= 10 x 390 + 20 x 60 = $5,100

C

OPF

= 10 x 330 + 20 x 120 = $5,700

The difference is the cost of security

C

security

= C

OPF

- C

ED

= $600

The constraint on the line flow is satisfied

exactly

Reducing the flow below the limit would cost

more

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 40

Comments (2)

We have used an ad hoc method to solve

this problem

In practice, there are systematic techniques

for calculating the sensitivities of line flows to

injections

These techniques are used to generate

constraint equations that are added to the

optimization problem

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 41

Security Constrained OPF (SCOPF)

Conventional OPF only guarantees that the

operating constraints are satisfied under

normal operating conditions

All lines in service

This does not guarantee security

Must consider N-1 contingencies

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 42

Example: base case solution of OPF

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 43

1 2

3

B

A

450 MW

330MW

120MW

260 MW

70 MW

190 MW

Example: contingency case

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 44

1 2

3

B

A

450 MW

330MW

120MW

330 MW

0 MW

120 MW

Unacceptable because overload of line 1-3 could lead to

a cascade trip and a system collapse

Formulation of the Security Constrained OPF

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 45

Subject to:

Power flow equations

for the base case

Operating limits for

the base case

Power flow equations

for contingency k

Operating limits

for contingency k

k

Subscript 0 indicates value of variables in the base case

Subscript k indicates value of variables for contingency k

Preventive security formulation

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 46

subject to:

This formulation implements preventive security because

the control variables are not allowed to change after the

contingency has occurred: u

k

u

0

k

Corrective security formulation

This formulation implements corrective security because the

control variables are allowed to change after the contingency

has occurred

The last equation limits the changes that can take place to

what can be achieved in a reasonable amount of time

The objective function considers only the value of the control

variables in the base case

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 47

subject to:

u

k

u

0

u

max

Size of the SCOPF problem

Example - European transmission network:

13,000 busses 13,000 voltage constraints

20,000 branches 20,000 flow constraints

N-1 security 20,000 contingencies

In theory, we must consider

20,000 x (13,000 + 20,000) = 660 million

inequality constraints

However:

Not all contingencies create limit violations

Some contingencies have only a local effect

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 48

Limitations of N-1 criterion

Not all contingencies have the same probability

Long lines vs. short lines

Good weather vs. bad weather

Not all contingencies have the same

consequences

Local undervoltage vs. edge of stability limit

N-2 conditions are not always not credible

Non-independent events

Does not ensure a consistent level of risk

Risk = probability x consequences

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 49

Probabilistic security analysis

Goal: operate the system at a given risk level

Challenges

Probabilities of non-independent events

Electrical failures compounded by IT failures

Estimating the consequences

What portion of the system would be blacked out?

What preventive measures should be taken?

Vast number of possibilities

2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington 50

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