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EPF 4707 ASSOC. PROF. DR. MOHD HALIM SHAH BIN ISMAIL

EPF 4707

ASSOC. PROF. DR. MOHD HALIM SHAH BIN ISMAIL

EPF 4707 ASSOC. PROF. DR. MOHD HALIM SHAH BIN ISMAIL

Palm Oil Industry in Malaysia

  • One of The World's Largest Palm Oil Exporter

  • Malaysia currently accounts for 39 % of world palm oil production and 44% of world exports.

  • Being one of the biggest producers and

Palm Oil Industry in Malaysia  One of The World's Largest Palm Oil Exporter  Malaysia

exporters of palm oil and palm oil products.

  • Malaysia has an important role to play in fulfilling the growing global need for oils and fats sustainably.

Palm Oil Industry in Malaysia  One of The World's Largest Palm Oil Exporter  Malaysia
 Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was first introduced to Malaysia as an ornamental plant in 1870.
 Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was first
introduced to Malaysia as an ornamental
plant in 1870.
 Now become the cornerstone of the
country’s agricultural sector, with a
planted area of 3.3 million hectares
(1999), which has grown every year.
In Malaysia, the oil palm planted is
mainly the hybrid tenera which yields
about 4.0 tonnes of palm oil per hectare
and 0.6 tonne palm kernel meal (PKM).
 Harvesting of oil palm bunches commences 30 months after planting reaches maturity in three years
Harvesting of oil palm bunches commences
30 months after planting reaches maturity in
three years and has an economic life of
about 25 years.
The fruit is about the size of a small plum and grows in large bunches weighing
The fruit is about the
size of a small plum
and grows in large
bunches weighing
10kg-20kg.
A bunch can have up
to 2000 individual
fruits.

THE PALM

The material bred from these palms is referred to as

Dura Deli . content.

It is very stable and uniform in Oil and kernel

An average content of the fresh fruit bunch (FFB) is 25% oil, 5.5% kernel, 6% shell, 9% fibre, 25% empty bunch (EB) and the balance is moisture.

THE PALM  The material bred from these palms is referred to as Dura Deli .

In recent years another parent has been introduced to produce the material referred to as Tenera.

THE PALM  The material bred from these palms is referred to as Dura Deli .

THE PALM

The same Dura Dali palm is used to produce the Tenera palm seed but it is pollinated with pollen from a selected

Pisifera palm (the selected Pisifera when self pollinated produce fruit with a small kernel and little shell).

The resultant Tenera material produces fruit with more oil than Dura material, the same kernels as Dura but less shell than Dura.

THE PALM  The same Dura Dali palm is used to produce the Tenera palm seed
THE PALM  The same Dura Dali palm is used to produce the Tenera palm seed
THE PALM  The same Dura Dali palm is used to produce the Tenera palm seed
 Each fruit consists of a hard kernel (seed) inside a shell (endocarp) which surrounded by
Each fruit consists of a
hard kernel (seed) inside
a shell (endocarp) which
surrounded by a fleshy
mesocarp.
The mesocarp contains
about 49% palm oil and
the kernel about 50%
palm kernel oil.

1.Unripe Bunches

2.Ripe Bunches 3.Over Ripe Bunches 4.Empty Bunches

5.Dura Bunches

6.Long Stalk Bunche

1.Unripe Bunches 2.Ripe Bunches 3.Over Ripe Bunches 4.Empty Bunches 5.Dura Bunches 6.Long Stalk Bunche 7.Old Bunches

7.Old Bunches 8.Dirty Bunches

9.Damage Bunches

10.Abnormal Bunches 11.Small Bunches

1.Unripe Bunches 2.Ripe Bunches 3.Over Ripe Bunches 4.Empty Bunches 5.Dura Bunches 6.Long Stalk Bunche 7.Old Bunches

The Bunch which has purplish color fruits and without detached fruit let

 The Bunch which has purplish color fruits and without detached fruit let

The bunch which has reddish orange color fruits and has less than 10 detached

fruitlets.

 The bunch which has reddish orange color fruits and has less than 10 detached fruitlets.

The bunch which is reddish orange with at least 10 detached fruit lets and more

than 50 % of the fruit still attached to

the bunch

 The bunch which is reddish orange with at least 10 detached fruit lets and more
 The bunch which is reddish orange with at least 10 detached fruit lets and more

The bunch which is darkish red with more than 50 % of detached fruitlets but

at least 10% of the fruits still attached to

the bunch

 The bunch which is darkish red with more than 50 % of detached fruitlets but
 The bunch which is darkish red with more than 50 % of detached fruitlets but
 The bunch which has more than 90% of its fruits have detached from it

The bunch which has more than 90% of its fruits have detached from it

 The bunch which has more than 90% of its fruits have detached from it
 The bunch which has the following characteristics DURA (Thick Shell) Characteristics Value Shell Thickness 2

The bunch which has the following characteristics

 The bunch which has the following characteristics DURA (Thick Shell) Characteristics Value Shell Thickness 2

DURA

(Thick Shell)

Characteristics

Value

Shell Thickness

2 8 mm

Shell Fruit Ratio

  • 25 - 50 %

Mesocarp Fruit Ratio

  • 20 60 %

Kernel Fruit

4 20 %

Ratio

TENERA (Thick Mesocarp)
TENERA (Thick Mesocarp)

TENERA

(Thick Mesocarp)

TENERA (Thick Mesocarp)
TENERA (Thick Mesocarp)
 The bunch has
 The bunch has

stalk longer than 5 cm in length

measured from

the lowest level of the bunch stalk

 The bunch which has been harvested and left at the field more than 48 hours.
 The bunch which has been harvested and left at the field more than 48 hours.
  • The bunch which

has been harvested and left

at the field more

than 48 hours. It is normally dry

 The bunch which has been harvested and left at the field more than 48 hours.

and blackish in

color

 The bunch which has been harvested and left at the field more than 48 hours.
 The bunch which has been harvested and left at the field more than 48 hours.
 The bunch which more than half of its surface covered with mud, sand, other dirty
  • The bunch which

 The bunch which more than half of its surface covered with mud, sand, other dirty

more than half of

its surface covered with

mud, sand, other

dirty particles

and mixed with stone or other

 The bunch which more than half of its surface covered with mud, sand, other dirty

foreign materials.

 The bunch which more than half of its surface covered with mud, sand, other dirty
 The bunch which more than half of its surface covered with mud, sand, other dirty
 The bunch which has more than 30% of its fruits damaged by pest, such as
  • The bunch which has more than

30% of its fruits

 The bunch which has more than 30% of its fruits damaged by pest, such as

damaged by pest, such as rats etc

 The bunch which has more than 30% of its fruits damaged by pest, such as
 The bunch which has more than 30% of its fruits damaged by pest, such as
 The bunch which has more than 50% parthenocarpic fruits and has abnormal size and density.

The bunch which has more than 50% parthenocarpic fruits and has abnormal

size and density.

 The bunch which has more than 50% parthenocarpic fruits and has abnormal size and density.
 The bunch which has small fruits and weight less than 2,3 Kg.

The bunch which has small fruits and weight less than 2,3 Kg.

 The bunch which has small fruits and weight less than 2,3 Kg.

HARVESTING

Harvesting is normally a 6 to 8 day cycle. It is important that the fruit must not be harvested before it is

ripe, that is until the process of photosynthesis, which

converts the carbohydrates into fat, is well in advance.

The oil content of unripe mesocarp may be in the order of 35% whereas the oil content of ripe mesocarp is usually

between 50% and 55%.

HARVESTING  Harvesting is normally a 6 to 8 day cycle. It is important that the

The harvesting of under ripe fruit can cause losses in the order of 8% of the possible yield.

HARVESTING  Harvesting is normally a 6 to 8 day cycle. It is important that the

FREE FATTY ACID (FFA)

The FFA content of the oil in the bunch before harvesting may be in the order of 0.1% whilst the FFA of the oil in the same bunch when it is received at the mill will never be less than 1%, normally in the order of 3%, and is frequently above 3% under bad conditions.

A low FFA content is the first characteristic to which edible oil refiners pay attention.

FREE FATTY ACID (FFA)  The FFA content of the oil in the bunch before harvesting
FREE FATTY ACID (FFA)  The FFA content of the oil in the bunch before harvesting

A premium of 1% of the sale price is paid for every one percent, should the FFA content be below 5% and the

refining loss will be 1.25% to 1.80% per 1% of FFA.

FREE FATTY ACID (FFA)  The FFA content of the oil in the bunch before harvesting

FREE FATTY ACID (FFA)

The rise in the FFA content from harvest to mill will make possible the harvesting of riper fruit with higher oil content and recovery of higher quality oil with a lower FFA.

The riper the fruit the more vulnerable it is to damage during transport and handling.

FREE FATTY ACID (FFA)  The rise in the FFA content from harvest to mill will

Of all different stages of processing, the harvesting of the palm tree and the transport of fruit to the edible oil refiner has the most effect on quality.

FREE FATTY ACID (FFA)  The rise in the FFA content from harvest to mill will

Stages of Processing

Sterilisation

This is the first operation in the processing line of palm oil. This involves the steaming of the harvested fresh fruit bunch (FFB) to

loosing the fruit from the bunch and burst open the oil cell.

Stripping

This is the next stage after sterilisation and it involves the removal of

the fruit from the bunches using a stripper.

Digestion

This process is the next stage after stripping and this involves the pounding of the fruits which have been removed from the bunch.

Clarification

Final stage in the processing of palm oil. Dirt, moisture and other impurities is removed from the crude palm oil by this process.

Stages of Processing • Sterilisation This is the first operation in the processing line of palm

Flowchart of Processing CPO

Flowchart of Processing CPO
  • The FFB bunches loaded on trucks, cages or trailer are weighed on arrival at the mill and on departure when empty by weighbridge of 50 ton capacity and automatically recorded, that is computerised.

  • After weighing-in process of the truck, cage or trailer,

 The FFB bunches loaded on trucks, cages or trailer are weighed on arrival at the

the PFB are dumped into the inclined hopper at the ramp that will hold 900 mt PFB ( 2 lines of 15 bays x 30

 The FFB bunches loaded on trucks, cages or trailer are weighed on arrival at the

mt PFB ).

 The FFB bunches loaded on trucks, cages or trailer are weighed on arrival at the

Modern mills in Malaysia are equipped with the following in the reception area of the mill:

  • A. Load cell (pitless) 50 tons weigh bridge of 3.3m W x

15m L and computerised.

  • B. Larger loading ramp with double door hoppers of 30mt capacity per bay.

  • C. FFB Cage and bogie with capacities of 5, 7 and 10 mt of wheel spanned of 800mm gauge.

  • D. FFB loading into cages by conveyor system

Modern mills in Malaysia are equipped with the following in the reception area of the mill:
  • E. Straight line railway system with Cage transfer carriage located at both ends of the railtrack system

Modern mills in Malaysia are equipped with the following in the reception area of the mill:

to facilitate easier operation of the 2-door sterilizer

and shunting of the cages can be handled easily with the capstan and Bollard.

Modern mills in Malaysia are equipped with the following in the reception area of the mill:
  • On opening the hopper door ( 2 doors to a bay ) the bunches drop into the 7mt cages with bogies placed beneath it.

  • The loaded

PFB cages

are then conveyed by the

transfer carriage on the rail track and pushed into the

 On opening the hopper door ( 2 doors to a bay ) the bunches drop

sterilizer,

 On opening the hopper door ( 2 doors to a bay ) the bunches drop

by

sterilization.

a

winch

and

ballard

system for

 On opening the hopper door ( 2 doors to a bay ) the bunches drop

Reception Station

Reception Station
 The sterilizer process is done in 5, 7 and today 10 tons capacity FFB cages
  • The sterilizer process is done in 5, 7 and today 10 tons capacity FFB cages which are pushed into long cylindrical steel vessel with special doors and subjected to steam at approximately 3 BAR.

  • One of the effects of sterilisation is to inactivate the fruit enzyme.

  • Once this enzyme has been inactivated the rise of the

 The sterilizer process is done in 5, 7 and today 10 tons capacity FFB cages

FFA is virtually stopped.

 The sterilizer process is done in 5, 7 and today 10 tons capacity FFB cages
  • The objective after harvesting is to sterilize the fruit as quickly as possible with the minimum of handling and damage.

 The sterilizer process is done in 5, 7 and today 10 tons capacity FFB cages

In addition to arresting the development of the FFA content, the sterilizing of the fruit also facilitates:

  • a. The purification of the palm oil by coagulating nitrogenous and mucilaginous matter and thus preventing the formation of emulsions during verification of the crude oil.

  • b. The extraction of the crude palm oil by freeing the

In addition to arresting the development of the FFA content, the sterilizing of the fruit also
In addition to arresting the development of the FFA content, the sterilizing of the fruit also

fruits from the bunch stalks and by breaking the oil cells in the mesocarp.

In addition to arresting the development of the FFA content, the sterilizing of the fruit also
  • Majority of mills today has programmable automatic control systems to cater for proper sterilization of 90-minute cycle.

  • Sterilisation is a simple process but it is essential, for

 Majority of mills today has programmable automatic control systems to cater for proper sterilization of

the proper operation of the mill so that it is done correctly.

 Majority of mills today has programmable automatic control systems to cater for proper sterilization of
  • This operation is the largest user of steam in the mill.

 Majority of mills today has programmable automatic control systems to cater for proper sterilization of

Sterilisation Station

Sterilisation Station

Clarification Station (Screening)

Clarification Station (Screening)

Clarification Station (Clarifying)

Clarification Station (Clarifying)

Clarification Station (Oil Recovery)

Clarification Station (Oil Recovery)

Clarification Station (Purifying)

Clarification Station (Purifying)

Clarification Station (Moisture Removal)

Clarification Station (Moisture Removal)

Storage of CPO

Storage of CPO

Kernel Recovery Station (Depericarping)

Kernel Recovery Station (Depericarping)

Kernel Recovery Station (Nut Cracking)

Kernel Recovery Station (Nut Cracking)

Kernel Recovery Station (Winnower)

Kernel Recovery Station (Winnower)

Kernel Recovery Station (Hydro Clay Bath)

Kernel Recovery Station (Hydro Clay Bath)

Kernel Storage

Kernel Storage
The two oils have very DIFFERENT composition.
The two oils have very DIFFERENT
composition.
The two oils have very DIFFERENT composition.  Palm oil contains mainly palmitic (C16:0) and oleic

Palm oil contains mainly palmitic (C16:0) and oleic acids (C18:1), the two

most common fatty acids in nature, and is about 50% saturated. While palm kernel oil contains
most common fatty acids in nature, and
is about 50% saturated.
While palm kernel oil contains mainly
lauric acid (C12:0) and is more than 80%
saturated.
saturated.

This point is important because the two oils are often confused by nutritionists.

Palm Oil Properties

In palm oil, most of the fatty acids are C16 and

higher, while

lower.

in

palm kernel

oil, they

are

C14 and

Palm oil has iodine value (IV) 50 minimum, while palm kernel oil has 21 maximum.

Palm Oil Properties  In palm oil, most of the fatty acids are C16 and higher,

Semi-solid in temperate climates, palm kernel oil can be fractionated into solid and liquid fractions known as stearin and olein respectively.

Palm Oil Properties  In palm oil, most of the fatty acids are C16 and higher,
Palm Oil Properties  In palm oil, most of the fatty acids are C16 and higher,

Palm Oil Properties

These are then physically refined, bleached and deodorized or chemically neutralized, bleached and deodorized to give the RBD and NBD grades used in the food industry (Pantzaris and Ahmad, 2001).

The process of fractionation can be carried out either

Palm Oil Properties  These are then physically refined, bleached and deodorized or chemically neutralized, bleached

before or after the refining, according to conditions.

The major fatty acids in palm kernel oil are C12 (lauric acid) about 48%, C14 (myristic acid) about 16% and C18:1 (oleic acid) about 15%.

Palm Oil Properties  These are then physically refined, bleached and deodorized or chemically neutralized, bleached

Palm Oil Properties

No other fatty acid is present at more than 10% and it is this heavy preponderance of lauric acid, which gives palm kernel oil and coconut oil, their sharp melting properties, meaning hardness at room temperature combined with a low melting point (Pantzaris and Ahmad, 2001).

This is the outstanding property of lauric oils, which determines their use in the edible field and justifies their usually higher price compared with most other oils.

Because of their low unsaturation, the lauric oils are also very stable to oxidation.

Palm Oil Properties  No other fatty acid is present at more than 10% and it

Palm Oil Properties

Next slide shows the fatty acid composition of palm

kernel oil, its similarity to coconut oil and their

differences from palm oil, the co-product of palm kernel oil and typical non-lauric fat.

Even after full hydrogenation, the melting point of palm kernel oil does not rise much above mouth temperature and fractionation gives a stearin which is

Palm Oil Properties  Next slide shows the fatty acid composition of palm kernel oil, its
Palm Oil Properties  Next slide shows the fatty acid composition of palm kernel oil, its

even sharper melting.

Palm Oil Properties  Next slide shows the fatty acid composition of palm kernel oil, its

Percentage of Fatty Acid Composition in Palm Kernel, Coconut & Palm Oil

Percentage of Fatty Acid Composition in Palm Kernel, Coconut & Palm Oil
Percentage of Fatty Acid Composition in Palm Kernel, Coconut & Palm Oil

Sharp melting fats leave a clean, cool, non-greasy sensation on the palate, impossible to match by any of the common non-lauric oils.

This figure shows the melting behavior in terms of solid fat content (SFC) values of palm kernel oil (PKO), palm kernel stearin (PKS) and hydrogenated palm kernel stearin of melting point 35ºC (HPKS 35),

together with cocoa butter (CB) and palm oil (PO) for comparison.

 Sharp melting fats leave a clean, cool, non-greasy sensation on the palate, impossible to match

Palm Oil Properties

Palm oil contains about 1% minor components. The major constituents are carotenoids, vitamin E and sterols (Basiron and Chan, 2004).

The carotene concentration is around 500 to 700 ppm. Carotene has been concentrated from palm oil successfully.

The concentrate is rich in pro-vitamin A which is normally destroyed during processing.

Palm Oil Properties  Palm oil contains about 1% minor components. The major constituents are carotenoids,
Palm Oil Properties  Palm oil contains about 1% minor components. The major constituents are carotenoids,

The major carotenes in the carotenoid concentrate are alpha and beta-carotenes and they can be diluted to various concentrations, from 1% to 30%.

Palm Oil Properties

The vitamin E content in palm oil is unique in that it is about 600 to 1,000 ppm. It is present as tocotrienols

(70%) rather than tocopherols (30%).

It confers on the oil a natural stability against oxidation and a longer shelf-life as well as a potent

ability to reduce low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and

anti-cancer properties.

Palm Oil Properties  The vitamin E content in palm oil is unique in that it
Palm Oil Properties  The vitamin E content in palm oil is unique in that it

Palm oil also contains 250 to 620 ppm sterols. Beta- sitosterol is the major constituent at 60%. It is potentially hypocholesterolemic.

Palm Oil Properties  The vitamin E content in palm oil is unique in that it

Flow Diagram of Palm Oil Extraction

Flow Diagram of Palm Oil Extraction

Refining Process for Crude Palm Oil

Refining Process for Crude Palm Oil

Composition of Fresh Ripe Fruit & Mesocarp (%) Dry Basis

Composition of Fresh Ripe Fruit & Mesocarp (%) – Dry Basis

Power Plant Operation In A Typical Palm Oil Mill

The operation of power plants within a palm oil mill is not so complex.

These plants are normally staed by local steam drivers and engineers.

Next figure shows the case of a typical 60 tons FFB (fresh fruit bunches) per hour mill operating 20 h a day.

Power Plant Operation In A Typical Palm Oil Mill  The operation of power plants within
Power Plant Operation In A Typical Palm Oil Mill  The operation of power plants within

A total of 23% by weight EFB (empty fruit bunches) or

13.8 tons of EFB per hour is sent back to the estate to

be used as mulch in the fields.

Power Plant Operation In A Typical Palm Oil Mill  The operation of power plants within

Power Plant Operation In A Typical Palm Oil Mill

The fuel produced from the waste comes from:

Shell amounting to 6%, out of which about 30% is dry enough to be used as boiler fuel, or 1 ton/h and Fibre

Power Plant Operation In A Typical Palm Oil Mill  The fuel produced from the waste

amounting to 14% or 8.4 ton/h

Power Plant Operation In A Typical Palm Oil Mill  The fuel produced from the waste

Schematic Diagram Of A Typical Power House

In Palm Oil Mill

Schematic Diagram Of A Typical Power House In Palm Oil Mill

Power House In Palm Oil Mill

The power requirement of the mill is 15e17 kW per ton FFB or 1020 kW for a 60 tons FFB per hour mill.

This is typically met by a non-condensing turbine using steam with a pressure of 21-bar gauge and exhausting at 3-bar gauge.

The size of the generator is about 1.2 MW.

Power House In Palm Oil Mill  The power requirement of the mill is 15e17 kW

When the mill is not in service, a diesel generator takes over to supply security lighting and domestic

supply.

Power House In Palm Oil Mill  The power requirement of the mill is 15e17 kW

Power House In Palm Oil Mill

Two units are usually installed: one of 800 kW and another of 250 kW.

In a mill break down which may last a while, the large diesel generator will be operated to supply power to some plants in the nut station, euent plant, water works, lighting etc.

Power House In Palm Oil Mill  Two units are usually installed: one of 800 kW
Power House In Palm Oil Mill  Two units are usually installed: one of 800 kW

The diesel generating sets are not required if the mill is close to the national electricity board grid and is connected to it.

Power House In Palm Oil Mill  Two units are usually installed: one of 800 kW

Power House In Palm Oil Mill

New schemes for grid-connected power plants under the small renewable energy programme involve the construction of boilers burning EFB and producing up to

10 MW of power, which can be sold to the national

electricity board.

It is envisaged that such a plant will serve several mills.

Another concept is to produce methane gas from POME, and burning the gas in boilers, gas engines or gas

Power House In Palm Oil Mill  New schemes for grid-connected power plants under the small
Power House In Palm Oil Mill  New schemes for grid-connected power plants under the small

turbines.

It has been shown that such plants can meet the power and steam needs of the mills and still allow power

Power House In Palm Oil Mill  New schemes for grid-connected power plants under the small

export.

Analysis of Steam Distribution in

25 tonne/hour Palm Oil Mill

Analysis of Steam Distribution in 25 tonne/hour Palm Oil Mill