Supervision in the Hospitality Industry

Fourth Edition

by Jack E. Miller, John R. Walker, and Karen Eich Drummond

Presented by Subroto Ghosh

Hospitality Supervisors:  


Manage employees making products and/or performing services Manage hourly employees (first-line supervisors) Are exempt from wage and hour laws Often continue to work side-by-side with the employees they supervise Are successful only to the degree their workers allow them to be

Transparency 1-1

Responsibilities of the Supervisor
To Owners  Make the enterprise profitable  Run it according to the owners¶ rules  Be sensitive to the owners¶ expectations

To Customers  Fulfill their needs and desires  Ensure employees positively represent the enterprise  Respond to customer complaints To Employees  Create a positive work environment  Support and value employees who interact with customers

Transparency 1-2

Functions of Management 

Planning Organizing Staffing Leading Controlling and evaluating Coordinating Problems solving and Decision making Representing Transparency 1-3

Management Theory Timeline
1900s Scientific Management²Frederick Taylor/ Frank Gilbreth Standardized work procedures to find the ³one best way´ to perform a task 1930s/1940s Human Relations Theory²Elton Mayo Employees perform best when they feel they belong to the work group 1960s/1970s Participative Management Workers who participate in making decisions are more committed to the outcome Transparency 1-4

Management Theory Timeline
1980s/1990s Total Quality Management Empowers employees to determine best ways to meet goals 1990s/2000s Humanistic Management Selective blending of management systems according to the needs of the situation, workers and the supervisor¶s style of leadership

Transparency 1-4 (cont.)

Managerial Skills
Technical Skills  Establish a supervisor¶s credibility with employees  Aid in the management of employees  Enable supervisor to select and train people, plan and schedule work, and take action in an emergency

Transparency 1-5

Managerial Skills
Human Skills  Affect their attitude towards their employees and determines their level of success  Should create an atmosphere where employees feel secure and are willing to do their best

Transparency 1-5 (cont.)

Managerial Skills
Conceptual Skills  Incorporate the work of the supervisor¶s employees with the needs of the entire enterprise  Recognize and deal with issues from a managerial perspective

Transparency 1-5 (cont.)

Establishing a foundation for leadership development involves: 

Investing time, resources, and money to create a supportive culture Defining the differences between management skills and leadership abilities Developing quantifiable measurables that support leadership skills Focusing on leadership skill during management training
Transparency 2-1

Establishing a foundation for leadership development involves: 

Encouraging continuous education of leadership skills Recognizing leaders on all levels Rewarding all enthusiastic leaders

Transparency 2-1 (cont.)

Old-style Leadership
PROS  Some workers respond to a command-obey style of direction  Can be effective  Can be necessary CONS  Average American does not respond to this autocratic method  More likely to increase problems than to lessen them  Breeds resentment, low morale, and adversary relationship  Customer service suffers and patrons go somewhere else

Transparency 2-2

Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X¶s Faulty Assumptions 1. The ³average human being´ has an inborn dislike of work and will avoid it as much as possible. 2. He or she must be ³coerced, controlled, directed, threatened with punishment´ to get the work done. 3. He or she prefers to be led, avoids responsibility, lacks ambition, and wants security above all else.

Transparency 2-3

Theory X and Theory Y
Theory Y Propositions 1. Work is as natural as play or rest; people do not inherently dislike it. 2. People will work of their own accord toward objectives to which they feel committed without control or the threat of punishment. 3. People become committed to objectives that fulfill their inner personal needs.

Transparency 2-3 (cont.)

Theory X and Theory Y
Theory Y Propositions 4. People can learn not only to accept responsibility but also to seek it. Lack of ambition, avoidance of responsibility, and the desire for security are not innate human characteristics. 5. Capacity for applying imagination, ingenuity, and creativity to solving on-the-job problems is ³widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population.´ 6. The modern industrial organization uses only a portion of the intellectual potential of the average human being. Transparency 2-3 (cont.)

Situational Leadership Styles 

Directing²close supervision most effective for training or emergencies Coaching²direct supervision and support to build commitment Supportive²assists employees lacking commitment to improve performance Delegating²best for employees capable of making day-to-day decisions on their own
Transparency 2-4

Transformational Leadership
Transformational leaders:  Communicate the mission and objectives of the company  Provide workers with meaningful, interesting, and challenging jobs  Act as coaches and mentors  Lead by example
Transparency 2-5

Dimensions of Diversity
PRIMARY  Culture  Age  Gender  Physical abilities and qualities  Ethnicity  Race  Religion  Language  Sexual preference SECONDARY  Occupation  Work experience  Education  Income  Marital status

Transparency 3-1

U.S. Census Diversity/Population Research and Predictions
In 2000 By 2020 By 2050 1 in 4 Americans had 1 in 3 Americans will have 1 in 2 Americans will have African, Asian, Latino, or Native American ancestry

Transparency 3-2

Steps for Developing CrossCultural Interaction Skills
1. 2. 3.


Increase personal awareness Learn about other cultures Recognize and practice cross-cultural interaction skills Maintain awareness, knowledge, and skills

Transparency 3-3

Managing Diversity Issues Positively 

Get to know your employees Treat your employees equitably, but not uniformly Watch for any signs of harassment Foster a work climate of mutual respect Encourage the contributions of diverse employees
Transparency 3-4

Types of Communication 

Interpersonal Organizational Two-way/open Interviewing Small group Mass

Transparency 4-1

The Communication Process
SENDER  Thinks of message  Expresses message in words and/or symbols  Transmits message (tells or writes/sends) RECEIVER  Receives message (hears or reads)  Translates/interprets words and/or symbols  Understands meaning

Transparency 4-2

Message distortion can occur as the result of:
Differences in sender¶s and receiver¶s:  Background  Education  Past experiences  Intelligence  Attitudes  Opinions  Values  Perceptions Other Reasons  Prejudices  Assumptions  Expectations  Emotions of the sender and/or receiver

Transparency 4-3

Five Principles of Good Listening
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Give the speaker your undivided attention Hear the speaker out Look for the real message Keep your emotions out of the communication Maintain your role

Transparency 4-4

How to Give Instructions Effectively
1. 2. 3. 4.


Plan what you are going to say, including to whom, when, where, and how. Establish a climate of acceptance²explain the why of the task and what is in it for the listener Deliver the instructions calmly and confidently² request, suggest, or command Verify that the instructions have been understood² ask people to repeat the instructions and/or see whether they carry out orders correctly Follow up²observe people at work and measure results; offer assistance, and further direction if necessary Transparency 4-5

Some Theories of Motivation 

Motivation Through Fear Carrot-and-Stick Method Economic Man Theory Human Relations Theory (Social Man Theory) Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Herzberg¶s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Transparency 5-1

Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs 

Self-actualization/self-fulfillment Ego

PRIMARY NEEDS  Social  Safety  Physiological
Transparency 5-2

Limiting Factors in the Application of Motivation Theory 

Nature of many hospitality industry jobs Company policy, administration, and management philosophy Extent of responsibility, authority, and resources Employees with personal priorities or those with dependent personalities Constant pressures and lack of time Lack of motivational theory that is easily and scientifically applicable

Transparency 5-3

How to Build a Positive Work Climate
THE INDIVIDUAL  Get to know your people  Deal with security needs  Deal with social needs  Reward your employees  Develop your people THE SUPERVISOR  Set a good example  Establish a climate of honesty THE JOB  Provide an attractive job environment  Provide a safe and secure work environment  Put the right person in the right job  Make the job interesting and challenging

Transparency 5-4

Guidelines for Rewarding Employees 

Always give recognition in a positive and sincere manner Contest should offer all employees an opportunity to win Champion average employees, as well as the heroes Recognize employees using objective criteria Recognize employees in a timely fashion Recognize employees when they least expect it Tie rewards to true accomplishments Ensure that rewards are of appropriate value Offer rewards desired by your employees

Transparency 5-5

Important Chapter Terms 

Position²Duties and responsibilities performed by one employee Job²A group of positions with the same duties and responsibilities Job analysis²Process that presents a picture of how the world of work looks for a specific job

Transparency 6-1

Important Chapter Terms 

Job description²Describes a fair day¶s work, including performance standards Job specification²Spells out the qualifications a person must have in order to get a job Job evaluation²Process of examining the responsibilities and difficulties of each job in order to determine which jobs are worth more than others
Transparency 6-1 (cont.)

Causes for Low Productivity and Low Employee Retention   


Workers do not know what they are supposed to be doing Workers do not know how to do what they are supposed to be doing Workers do not know how well they are doing The supervisor has not given any direction, help, or support Workers have a poor relationship with the supervisor

Transparency 6-2

Parts of a Job Description 

Performance standards Job title Job summary Units of work Job setting Social environment Qualifications 


Department name Grade level Job location Whether job is exempt or nonexempt Work hours Reporting relationship

Transparency 6-3

Developing a Performance Standard System
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Define the purpose for which the standards are to be used Analyze the job and break it down into units Write the performance standards Develop standard procedures Train the worker to meet the performance standards Evaluate on-the-job performance
Transparency 6-4

Writing Performance Standards 

What is to be done? How is it to be done? To what extent is it to be done?

Transparency 6-5

How to Make a Performance Standard System Succeed   


Get workers¶ cooperation in the development stage and their agreement to the standards of performance. Put the system to work slowly over a period of time, one job at a time. Create and incorporate an award or incentive system. Recognize your workers¶ potential and use it as fully as you can within the limits of your authority. Review the system periodically, evaluating, updating, and modifying it as needed. Transparency 6-6

Sources of Workers for Hospitality Industry Jobs 


Current employees People looking for their first job Women Moonlighters The unemployed   

People who want to get away from what they have been doing Aliens or immigrants from other countries Retired people Disabled people

Transparency 7-1

EEO Laws 

Equal Pay Act of 1963 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 Immigration Reform and Control Act Americans with Disabilities Act Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993
Transparency 7-2

How to Avoid Charges of Discrimination During the Hiring Process
A supervisor should be able to answer ³yes´ to each of the following questions: Are the qualifications based on the actual duties and needs of the job? Will the information requested from the applicant help me to judge his or her ability to do the job? Will each part of the selection process prevent screening out those groups covered by EEO laws? Can I successfully judge an applicant¶s ability to do the job without regard to how he or she is different from me? Is the selection process the same for all applicants?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Transparency 7-3

Employee Selection Procedure
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Application form Interview Test(s) Reference checks Making the choice Offering the job in writing

Transparency 7-4

Types of Tests 

Skills tests²Measure specific skills Aptitude tests²Measure ability to learn a particular job or skill Psychological tests²Measure personality traits Medical exams²Measure physical fitness

Transparency 7-5

Benefits of Training
To the Supervisor  More time to manage  Results in less absenteeism and lower turnover  Reduces tensions between management and employees  Makes it easier to maintain consistency of products and services  Lowers costs  Results, ultimately, in happier customers²and more of them  Helps supervisors advance their careers Transparency 8-1

Benefits of Training
To the Employee  Can eliminate the five reasons that people do poor work  Reduces employee confusion, allowing them to work independently  Can reduce employee tension  Can boost employee morale and job satisfaction  Can reduce accidents and injuries  Can provide advancement opportunities Transparency 8-2

Why Hospitality Managers Do Not Train Their People
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Urgent need Training time Training time costs the company money High employee turnover Diversity of workers¶ skills and abilities Great variety of jobs Not knowing exactly what managers expect from employees
Transparency 8-3

Employees Learn Best When: 

They are actively involved in the learning process Training is relevant and practical Training material is well-organized and presented in small, easy-to-grasp chunks The learning environment is informal, quiet, and comfortable They have a good trainer They receive feedback on their performance and are rewarded for doing well

Transparency 8-4

How to Develop a Job Training Program
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Write a performance standard Write a training objective derived from the performance standard Develop standard procedures Develop unit training plan Pretest If the training results are negative, repeat training, try a simpler job, or terminate employee. If the training results are positive, put the worker on the job; evaluate and follow up Transparency 8-5

Job Instruction Training Steps
1. 2.

3. 4.

Prepare the worker for training Demonstrate what the worker is to do (show and tell) Have the worker do the task as shown Follow through (put the worker on the job, checking and corrected as needed)

Transparency 8-6

Before correcting an employee, ask: 

Does the employee know what is supposed to be done and why? Are there any reasons for poor performance that the employee cannot control? How serious are the consequences of this problem? Have you previously addressed the concern with the employee?
Transparency 9-1

When conducting coaching sessions:
1. 2.




Speak in private to the employee Calmly express your concern about the specific aspect of the job Ask the employee for his or her thoughts and opinions, including possible solutions Ask the employee to restate what has been agreed upon to check on understanding State your confidence in the employee¶s ability to turn the situation around Transparency 9-2

Steps in the Performance Evaluation Process
1. 2. 3. 4.

Prepare for the evaluation Make the evaluation Share it with the worker Provide follow-up

Transparency 9-3

How to Avoid Pitfalls in Rating Employee Performance 

Be objective Evaluate the performance, not the employee Give specific examples to back up ratings Where there is substandard performance, ask ³Why?´ Think fairness and consistency when evaluating performance Get input from the employee¶s coworkers Note and discuss ideas on how the employee can improve performance. Transparency 9-4

Ways to Ensure Fair and Legal Evaluations  

Base evaluation of performance on standards or factors obtained from a job analysis of the skills, tasks, and knowledge required to perform the job Make sure that performance standards are observable, objective, and measurable Maintain a positive rapport during discussions with the employee
Transparency 9-5

Ways to Ensure Fair and Legal Evaluations  

Do not enter into discussions that focus on qualities of the employee based on his or her membership in a group protected by EEO laws Document employee performance more frequently than once a year Allow an employee who disagrees with his or her evaluation to appeal

Transparency 9-5 (cont.)

Essentials of Successful Discipline
1. 2. 3. 4.

Complete set of rules that everyone knows and understands Clear statement of the consequences of failing to observe the rules Prompt, consistent, and impersonal action to reinforce the rules Appropriate recognition and reinforcement of employees¶ positive actions
Transparency 10-1

The Hot Stove as a Model of Administering Discipline
1. 2.



Warning: You can feel the hot air around it. Immediate: The instant you touch it, it burns your finger. Consistent: It burns your finger every time you touch it. Impersonal: It reacts to the touch, not the person who touches it.

Transparency 10-2

Negative Versus Positive Approach to Discipline
Negative  Discipline equals punishment  Used by: Autocratic, Xstyle managers  Effectiveness: Does not work very well Four-stage formula for disciplinary action: Oral warning Written warning Punishment Termination

1. 2. 3. 4.

Transparency 10-3

Negative Versus Positive Approach to Discipline
Positive  Discipline equals rule compliance  Used by: Theory Four-stage formula for disciplinary action: Oral reminder Written reminder Decision-making leave with pay Termination/compliance/ resignation

1. 2. 3.


Transparency 10-3 (cont.)

Administering Discipline
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Collect all the facts Discuss the incident with the employee Decide on the appropriate action Take the appropriate action Write down all pertinent details Follow up

Transparency 10-4

Questions to Ask Before Terminating an Employee 

Did the employee know the rule? Was the employee warned about the consequences of violating the rule? Were management¶s expectations of the employee reasonable? Was a final written warning given to the employee explaining that discharge would result from another conduct violation? Did the employee act in willful and deliberate disregard of reasonable employer expectations? Transparency 10-5

Questions to Ask Before Terminating an Employee     

Was management¶s investigation of the final offense done in a fair and objective manner? Is dismissal in line with the employee¶s prior work record and length of service? Did the employee have an opportunity to hear the facts and respond to them in a nonthreatening environment? Has this employee been treated as others in similar circumstances? Is the action nondiscriminatory? Transparency 10-5 (cont.)

Types of Harassment 

³Quid pro quo´ sexual harassment Environmental sexual harassment Third-party sexual harassment Harassment

Transparency 10-6

Planning Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Define the purpose or problem and set objectives Collect and evaluate data relevant to forecasting the future Develop alternate courses of action Choose the best course of action Carry out the plan Control and evaluate results
Transparency 11-1

Qualities of a Good Plan 

Provides a workable solution to the original problem and meets the stated objectives Comprehensive; it raises all relevant questions and answers them Minimizes the degree of risk involved in meeting the objectives Specific as to time, place, supplies, tools, and people needed to carry it out Flexible; it can be adapted if the situation changes, or replaced by a contingency plan Transparency 11-2

Planning for Change 

Define the problem and set objectives Gather data to forecast possible solutions Generate alternate plans and weigh the risks of each Decide on the best plan to meet objectives Make the change and follow up

Transparency 11-3

Examining How You Spend Your Time   

Is the amount of time spent per day appropriate to the activity? How does the time spent on unimportant activities compare to the time spent on highly important activities? Are you doing things that are not really necessary? Are you doing things that you could delegate to someone else?

Transparency 11-4

Examining How You Spend Your Time 

Can you group activities better as to time and place? Was time wasted that could have been avoided by better planning? Did you spend any time at all on certain important but time-consuming activities you should be doing?

Transparency 11-4 (cont.)

Qualities of A Well-Organized and Efficient Unit 

Lines of authority and responsibility are clearly drawn²and observed Jobs, procedures, and standards are clearly defined²and followed People know what to do and how to do it²and they do it Standards of quality, quantity, and performance are clearly set²and met
Transparency 11-5

Control Techniques 

Require records and reports Develop and enforce performance standards Develop and enforce productivity standards Develop and enforce departmental policies and procedures Observe and correct employee actions Train and retrain employees Discipline employees when appropriate Be a good role model Transparency 11-6

Making a Conscious Choice 

Recognize alternatives rather than influences Choose a course of action to fulfill a specific result. Put the choice into action and make sure it is carried out.

Transparency 12-1

Factors to Examine When Making a Decision 


Risk²Which course of action provides the most benefit with the least risk? Economy²Which course of action will give the best results with the least expenditure of time, money, and effort? Feasibility²Is each course of action feasible? Acceptability²Will each course of action be acceptable to the people it will affect? Objectives²Which course of action will best meet the objectives? Transparency 12-2

Problem-solving Pattern
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Define the problem and set objectives Analyze the problem Develop alternative solutions Decide on the best solution Implement the decision Follow up

Transparency 12-3

Pros and Cons of Participative Problem Solving
PROS  More information and expertise relevant to the decision  More good ideas and better alternatives  People thinking together can arrive at better decisions because of the stimulation and interplay of different points of view  People who have participated in making the decision are generally committed to carrying it out.  The coordination and communication necessary to carry out the decision are simpler and better because everyone already understands what is happening. Transparency 12-4

Pros and Cons of Participative Problem Solving
CONS  It takes longer for a group to decide something than it does for one person to make the decision  The process takes everyone away from their other work  Groups are often dominated by one person  Group participants often get involved in winning arguments or showing off rather than working to make the best decision.  If consensus is required, people might go along with a decision they do not like to finish the process quickly  Consensus leads to mediocre decisions that will appease everyone rather than the best decision.  Consensus can lead to ³groupthink´ or conformity rather than to the creativity that group decision making is supposed to spark.

Transparency 12-4

Problem-solving Possibilities 

Win-lose stance (supervisor wins, worker loses) Lose-win posture (retreat and appeasement) Lose-lose compromise (nobody is satisfied) Win-win approach (everyone is satisfied)

Transparency 12-5

How to Build DecisionMaking Skills  


Make sure that the decision is yours to make, that you have both the authority and the responsibility. Accept your responsibility fully. Sort out the important decisions from the inconsequential ones. Calculate the risks. Adapt your decision making so that the timing is right.

Transparency 12-6

How to Build DecisionMaking Skills 

Be alert to signs of problems. Keep an open mind when investigating a problem. Avoid the habit of running to others for advice. Make sure that you are not part of the problem yourself. Follow up on your important decisions to see how they are working. Look at each situation from its own unique perspective.

Transparency 12-6 (cont.)

Three Essentials of Delegation
1. 2. 3.

Responsibility Authority Accountability

Transparency 13-1

Conditions for Successful Delegation 

Advance planning Positive attitude toward employees Mutual trust between employer and employee Ability to let go and take risks Good communication Commitment

Transparency 13-2

Steps in Delegation


Plan Identify tasks that can be assigned Choose competent employees willing to accept the tasks Develop each task as a responsibility to be delegated Define the area of responsibility, expected results, and the authority necessary to fulfill the responsibility



Delegate responsibility for the task and the results expected Delegate the authority necessary to complete the task Establish accountability Follow up Train employees as needed Communicate the new status to everyone concerned Slip into the coaching role

Transparency 13-3

Delegating to the Right Employee
Employees Who Are:  Able but unwilling need motivation  Unable and unwilling are not good candidates  Unable but willing need training  Able and willing are the best candidates

Transparency 13-4

Common Mistakes in Delegation 

Not communicating clearly Oversupervising Not taking enough time to train employees Not giving employees enough support Delegating without setting up controls 



Job loading Assigning unchallenging tasks without offering an incentive Delegating to the wrong people Abdicating unpleasant parts of the job such as firing Setting up overlapping responsibilities

Transparency 13-5

What Accidents Cost 

Lost time and productivity of uninjured workers (who stop to help, watch, or talk) Lost business during the time that the operation is not fully functioning Lost business as the result of damaged reputation Overtime costs to get the operation fully functioning again Cost to clean, repair, and/or replace any equipment, food, or supplies damaged in the accident Cost to retrain injured employee Increased worker¶s compensation premiums Legal fees and award to injured employee (in the case of a lawsuit)

Transparency 14-1

Safety Program Components 

Safety policies and procedures Employee training Safety committee Safety inspections Accident reporting and investigation Constant supervision

Transparency 14-2

Requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Post a list of hazardous substances found in the operation Post Material Safety Data Sheets Explain to employees how to read and use the MSDS Teach employees how to read the labels on hazardous products Train employees on how to use hazardous chemicals properly Make sure they know what to do in case of an emergency Transparency 14-3

What to Do When an Employee Tells You He or She Is HIV-Positive 

Show support Discuss any reasonable accommodations that can be made Review the basics of the Family and Medical Leave Act. Keep the employee¶s medical information confidential Train other employees about AIDS to reduce any fears

Transparency 14-4

Grievance Procedure
1. 2.



The employee meets with the supervisor and the union steward to discuss the grievance. If the grievance is not settled, there is a conference between the union steward, the employee, and the supervisor¶s boss or another manager. If the grievance continues to be unsettled, representatives from top management and top union officials try to settle it. If still unsettled, the grievance is given to a neutral third party to be settled. Transparency 14-5

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