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Road Stead

The berthing condition within the area of

water close to shore providing good hold for anchoring and to protect naval vessel from storm. Two categories 1. Natural road stead 2. Artificial road stead

* A partly off shore anchorage area

Natural Road stead

Artificial Road stead

Classification Of Harbor Based On Utility

There are four types of harbors based on utilities Harbor of refuge Commercial harbor Fisheries harbor Military harbor

Harbor Of Refuge
This harbor is used for ships in storms, it may be a part of commercial harbor. Good anchoring facilities Facilities for repairs to the damaged ships Ready accessibility from high seas.

Commercial harbor
The harbors where facilities for loading or unloading of cargo are provided. For handling cargos docks and berths are provided. Storage sheds To avoid delays good and quick repair facilities Sufficient space for loading and unloading

Fishery Harbors
The harbors provided for fishing using crafts and trawlers. Loading and unloading facilities These should be constantly open for arrival and departure of fishing ships. Quick dispatch( harbor connected to railway, road) Refrigerated storage, cold storage.

Military Harbor
Harbors are meant for accommodating navel crafts and serves as an ammunition supply depot.

Harbors Based On Location

There are four types of harbors based on location Canal harbor Lake Harbor River Harbor Sea or Ocean harbor

Canal harbor
Harbors made on canals are known as Canal Harbor.

Lake Harbor
Harbors made on lakes are known as lake harbors

River Harbors
Harbors made on

river are known as River harbors.

Ocean Harbors
Harbors constructed on sea or ocean are called Sea/ ocean harbors.

Typical layout Of Artificial harbor

Features of a harbor
Approach channel Turning basin Break water Pier head Jetties Berth


Terms Related To Ships

By Engr. Saadia Tabassum Department Of Transportation Engineering And Management, U.E.T, Lahore

In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an

object produced by the surrounding fluid (i.e., a liquid or a gas) in which it is fully or partially immersed, due to the pressure difference of the fluid between the top and bottom of the object. The net upward buoyancy force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of fluid displaced by the body. This force enables the object to float or at least to seem lighter. Buoyancy is important for many vehicles such as boats, ships, balloons, and airships.


A hull is the body of a ship or boat. It is

a central concept in floating vessels as it provides the buoyancy that keeps the vessel from sinking

The bow is a term

that refers to the forward part of the hull of a ship or boat, the point that is most forward when the vessel is underway.

The bow is designed

to reduce the resistance of the hull cutting through water and should be tall enough to prevent water from easily washing over the top of it

Stern is the rear-

most part of the hull. The stern is the rear part of a ship or boat, technically defined as the area built up over the sternpost. The back of the ship is called stern

Portside is the left

side of the boat when facing the Bow Portside is the nautical term (used on boats and ships) that refers to the left side of a ship

Starboard is the

right side of the boat when facing the Bow Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel

Structural member of

the extreme forward end of the ship.

A structural keel is a

large beam which the hull of a ship is built around. The keel runs in the middle of the ship, from the bow to the stern, and serves as the foundation or spine of the structure, providing the major source of structural strength of the hull.


Width of the ship at the middle section at

water line

Water line
Waterline refers to an imaginary line marking

the level at which ship or boat floats in the water. To an observer on the ship the water appears to rise or fall against the hull Temperature also affects the level because warm water provides less buoyancy, being less dense than cold water Likewise the salinity of the water affects the level, fresh water being less dense than salty seawater.

Water line
In other words Waterline is an imaginary line

circumscribing the hull that matches the surface of the water when the hull is not moving.

Load Line
The line showing the weight

level up to which they can be legally loaded. The purpose of a load line is to ensure that a ship has sufficient freeboard and thus sufficient reserve buoyancy The line shows the maximum capacity load the ship may carry. The depth to which a boat can be safely loaded.

The International Load Line shows where fully loaded ships should sit in waters of different density. It used to be called the Plimsoll Line, after the person who invented it.

Free Board
Freeboard, in sailing and boating, means the

distance from the waterline to the upper deck level, measured at the lowest point where water can enter the boat or ship.
The freeboard on commercial vessels is

measured between the uppermost continuous deck and the waterline

Free Board

Displacement Load
The weight of a fully loaded ship

expressed in KNs.

Displacement Light
The weight of a ship when fully empty

expressed in KNs.

Dead Weight Tonnage

It represents the load carrying capacity

of a ship.
Dead Weight Tonnage=

Displacement load Displacement light

The weight added to a ship to improve

its stability when it has discharged its cargo.

Draft / Draught
When ship floats at its design water line

i.e. its load line, the vertical distance between bottom of the ship and water line is called draft.


The vessel which need lower depth of water are called barges. Their capacity is determined depending upon the depth of water available at the particular port. DESIGN SHIP The ship taken for the design of a harbor is called the design ship.


A powerful vessel or boat used to pull a ship to a particular place is called a Tug.

A ship transporting liquid material in bulk such as oil is called a tanker.

Tug Ship

Tug Boat Tanker



The devices such as lights, signals used to guide and warn for safe, efficient, economic and comfortable travel of ships in water bodies are known as navigational aids. Lights used are of two types. 1. Light houses 2. Light ships

Light House


Turning or changing direction by moving the front of ship forward is called turn ahead.

A sea wave breaking against an obstacle generates forces, the generation of these forces is called wave action

Draw a neat layout of any existing harbour of the world. Give details of harbour including its name, location, berthing capacity and other important characteristics. Take half of scholar sheet for drawing. Write details on a separate sheet of paper (A4) and attach both.