History of Biotechnology

Stages of Biotech
Ancient Classical Modern

Ancient Biotech
Begins

with early civilization Developments in ag and food production Few records exist

Ancient Biotech
Archeologists

research Ancient carvings and sketches sources of information

Classical Biotech
Follows

ancient Makes wide spread use of methods from ancient, especially fermentation Methods adapted to industrial production

Classical Biotech
Produce

large quantities of food products and other materials in short amount of time Meet demands of increasing population

Classical Biotech
Many

methods developed through classical biotech are widely used today.

Modern Biotech
Manipulation

of genetic material within organisms Based on genetics and the use of microscopy, biochemical methods, related sciences and technologies

Modern Biotech
Often

known as genetic engineering Roots involved the investigation of genes

Ancient Biotech
Not

known when biotech began exactly Focused on having food and other human needs

Ancient Biotech
Useful

plants brought from the wild, planted near caves where people lived As food was available, ability to store and preserve emerged

Ancient
Food

preservation most likely came from unplanned events such as a fire or freeze

Domestication
15,000

years ago, large animals were hard to capture People only had meat when they found a dead animal Came up with ways of capturing fish and small animals

Domestication
Food

supplies often seasonal Winter food supplies may get quite low Domestication is seen by scientists as the beginning of biotech

Domestication
Adaptation

of organisms so they can be cultured Most likely began 11,000 – 12,000 years ago in the middle east

Domestication
Involved

the collecting of seed from useful plants and growing crude crops from that seed Involved the knowledge that the seed had to properly mature

Domestication
Proper

planting Need for water, light and other conditions for plant growth Earliest plants likely grains and other seeds used for food

Domestication
Raising

animals in captivity began about the same time in history Easier to have an animal close by that to hunt and capture a wild one

Domestication
Learned

that animals need food and water Learned about simple breeding How to raise young

Domestication
Cattle,

goats and sheep were the first domesticated food animals

Domestication
About

10,000 years ago, people had learned enough about plants and animals to grow their own food The beginning of farming.

Food
Domestication

resulted in food supplies being greater in certain times of the year Products were gathered and stored

Food
Some

foods rotted Others changed form and continued to be good to eat Foods stored in a cool cave did not spoil as quickly

Food
Foods

heated by fire also did not spoil as quickly Immersing in sour liquids prevented food decay

Food preservation
Using

processes that prevent or slow spoilage Heating, cooling, keeps microorganisms (mo’s) from growing

Food preservation
Stored

in bags of leather or jars

of clay Fermentation occurs if certain mo’s are present Creates an acid condition that slows or prevents spoilage

Cheese
One

of the first food products made through biotechnology Began some 4,000 years ago Nomadic tribes in Asia

Cheese
Strains

of bacteria were added to milk Caused acid to form Resulting in sour milk

Cheese
Enzyme

called “rennet” was

added Rennet comes from the lining of the stomachs of calves

Cheese
Rennet

is genetically engineered today Not all cheese is made from produced rennet

Yeast
Long

used in food preparation and preservation Bread baking Yeast produces a gas in the dough causing the dough to rise

Yeast
Fermented Vinegar Require

products

the use of yeast in at least one stage of production

Yeast
Species

of fungi Some are useful Some may cause diseases

Vinegar
Ancient

product used to preserve food Juices and extracts from fruits and grains can be fermented

Fermentation
Process

in which yeast enzymes chemically change compounds into alcohol In making vinegar the first product of fermentation is alcohol

Fermentation
Alcohol

is converted to acetic acid by additional microbe activity Acid gives vinegar a sour taste Vinegar prevents growth of some bacteria

Vinegar
Keeps

foods from spoiling Used in pickling Biblical references to wine indicate the use of fermentation some 3,000 years ago

Fermentation control
In

ancient times, likely happened by accident Advancements occurred in the 1800’s and early 1900’s

Fermenters
Used

to advance fermentation process Specially designed chamber that promotes fermentation

Fermenters
Allowed

better control, especially with vinegar New products such as glycerol, acetone, and citric acid resulted

Development
Of

yeasts that were predictable and readily available led to modern baking industry

Antibiotics
Use

of fermentation hastened the development of antibiotics A drug used to combat bacterial infections

Antibiotics
Penicillin Developed

in the late1920’s Introduced in the 1940’s First drug produced by microbes

Antibiotics
Many

kinds available today Limitations in their use keep disease producing organisms from developing immunity to antibiotics

Antibiotics
Use

antibiotics only when needed. Overuse may make the antibiotic ineffective when really needed later

Antibiotics
Some

disease organisms are now resistant to certain antibiotics Used in both human and vet medicine

Modern Biotech
Deals

with manipulating genetic

info Microscopy and advanced computer technology are used In-depth knowledge of science

Modern Biotech
Based

on genetics research from the mid 1800’s

Genetics
Study

of heredity Most work has focused on animal and plant genetics Genes – determiners of heredity

Genes
Carry

the genetic code Understanding genetic structure essential for genetic engineering

Heredity
How

traits are passed from parents to offspring Members of the same species pass the characteristics of that species

Heredity
Differences

exist within each

species. Differences are known as variability

Heredity &variability
Are

used in modern biotechnology

Modern Biotech
Use

of biotech to produce new life forms Emerged in mid 1900’s Made possible by rDNA technology

rDNA
Recombinant

DNA Process Genetic material is moved from one organism to another Materials involved are quite small

rDNA
Challenging

and often controversial Many have opposing or negative views of biotechnolgy

People in Biotech
Zacharias

Janssen Discovered the principle of the compound microscope in 1590 Dutch eye glass maker

Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Developed

single lens microscope in 1670’s First to observe tiny organisms and document observations

Anton V.L.
Work

led to modern microscopes Electron microscope developed in 1931 by group of German scientists

Gregor Mendel
Formulated

basic laws of heredity during mid 1800’s Austrian Botanist and monk Experimented with peas

Mendel
Studied

inheritance of seven pairs of traits Bred and crossbred thousands of plants Determined that some traits were dominant and other recessive

Mendel
Findings

were published in

1866 Largely ignored for 34 years

Johan Friedrich Miescher
Swiss

Biologist Isolated nuclei of white blood cells in 1869 Led to identification of nucleic acid by Walter Flemming

Walter Sutton
Determined

in 1903 that chromosomes carried units of heredity identified by Mendel Named “genes” in 1909 by Wilhelm Johannsen, Danish Botanist

Thomas Hunt Morgan
Studied

genetics of fruit flies Early 1900’s Experimented with eye color His work contributed to the knowledge of X and Y chromosomes

Thomas Hunt Morgan
Nobel

Peace Prize in 1933 for research in gene theory

Ernst Ruska
Build

the first electron microscope in 1932 German electrical engineer Microscope offered 400X magnification

Alexander Fleming
Discovered

penicillin in 1928 First antibiotic drug used in treating human disease Observed growth of molds (Penicillium genus) in a dish that also contracted bacteria

Alexander Fleming
Bacteria

close to the molds were dead Extracting and purifying the molds took a decade of research Penicillin first used in 1941

Alexander Fleming
Penicillin

credited with saving many lives during WWII when wounded soldiers developed infections.

Rosalind Elsie Franklin
Research

in France and England in mid 1900’s Led to discovery of structure of DNA Her early research was used to produce an atomic bomb

Rosalind Franklin
Set

up X ray diffraction lab Photographs of DNA showed that it could have a double helix structure

Rosalind Franklin
Some

questions surround the theft of her work in 1952 Including x ray photographs

Watson and Crick
James

Watson Francis Crick Collaborated to produce the first model of DNA structure in 1953

Watson and Crick
Described

DNA dimensions and spacing of base pairs Had major impact on genetic engineering carried out today

Watson
Born

in the US Crick – born in England Collaborative research at Cambridge University in England

Norman E. Borlaug
 Developed

wheat varieties producing high yields  Research in Mexico  Semi dwarf varieties  Developed wheat variety that would grow in climates where other varieties would not

Borlaug
Nobel

Peace Prize in 1971 Credited with helping relieve widespread hunger in some nations

Mary Clare King
Research

into nature of DNA during late 1900’s Determined that 99% of human DNA is identical to chimpanzee

Mary Clare King
1975

found similar gene pools between humans and chimpanzee made it possible to research hereditary causes of breast cancer

Ian Wilmut
Cloning

of a sheep named Dolly in 1997 Produced from tissue of an adult sheep Previous cloning efforts had been from early embryos

Research
Use

of systematic methods to answer questions. Problems may be basic or applied

Basic
Require

generating new info to gain understanding Applied – involve use of knowledge already acquired.

Research
Supplies

facts that can be used to improve a process or product Settings range from elaborate labs to field plots

Field Plot
Small

area of land that is used to test questions or hypothesis Belief is that same result would be obtained if carried out on larger scale

Field Plots
Often

tested several times Known as replication

Research
Done

by agencies, universities, private companies, individuals Biotech research in ag is carried out by ag experiment stations and large corporations

Development
Creation

of new products or methods based on findings of research Carefully studied before being put into full scale use

Development
New

products tested before approval Government agencies such as the FDA are involved Prototype is developed – research model that is carefully tested

Prototype
Becomes

a pattern for the production of similar products After being fully tested, full scale production begins.

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