• Structure of a chromosome A chromosome is formed from a single DNA molecule that contains many genes. • A chromosomal DNA molecule contains specific nucleotide se uences !hich are re uired for starting replication"replication origin# • a centromere to attach the DNA to the mitotic spindle. • a telomere located at each end of the linear chromosome. $he DNA molecule is highly condensed. $he human DNA heli% occupy too much space in the cell. Small proteins are responsi&le for pac'ing the DNA into units called nucleosomes

• Mitosis is a process of cell di(ision !hich results in the production of t!o daughter cells from a single parent cell. • $he daughter cells are identical to one another and to the original parent cell.

• Chromosome" a (ery long DNA molecule and associated proteins) that carry portions of the hereditary information of an organism. • Representation of the *+ paired chromosomes of the human male.


• Each chromosome has duplicated and no! consists of t!o sister chromatids.• Prophase" $he chromatin) diffuse in interphase) condenses into chromosomes. • At the end of prophase) the nuclear en(elope &rea's do!n into (esicles. .

• Anaphase" $he centromeres di(ide. Sister chromatids separate and mo(e to!ard the corresponding poles.• Metaphase" $he chromosomes align at the e uitorial plate and are held in place &y microtu&ules attached to the mitotic spindle and to part of the centromere. .

. • $he condensed chromatin e%pands and the nuclear en(elope reappears.• Telophase" Daughter chromosomes arri(e at the poles and the microtu&ules disappear.phase" Cyto'inesis-. • $he cytoplasm di(ides) the cell mem&rane pinches in!ard ultimately producing t!o daughter cells .


• $he !ord . .to ma'e smaller).meiosis.Meiosis • meiosis is the process that allo!s one diploid cell to di(ide in a special !ay to generate haploid cells in eu'aryotes. since it results in a reduction in chromosome num&er. comes from the /ree' meioun) meaning .

. • Each gamete contains one complete set of chromosomes) or half of the genetic content of the original cell.• During meiosis) the genome of a diploid germcell) !hich is composed of long segments of DNA called chromosomes) undergoes DNA replication follo!ed &y t!o rounds of di(ision) resulting in haploid cells called gametes. • $hese resultant haploid cells can fuse !ith other haploid cells of the opposite gender or mating type during fertili0ation to create a ne! diploid cell) or 0ygote.

. • Synthesis (S) phase" $he genetic material is replicated. • Gap 2 (G2) phase" $he cell continues to gro!.1nterphase • 1nterphase is di(ided into three phases" • Gap 1 (G1) phase" Characteri0ed &y increasing cell si0e from accelerated manufacture of organelles) proteins) and other cellular matter.

prophase 1) metaphase 1) anaphase 1) telophase 1-) and • meiosis 11 ./2) S) /*-) • meiosis 1 .• $herefore) meiosis encompasses the interphase . .prophase 11) metaphase 11) anaphase 11) telophase 11-.

3rophase 1.Meiosis 1. • Along the thread) centromeres are (isi&le as small &eads of tightly coiled chromatin. . • 1n the prophase stage) the cell4s genetic material) !hich is normally in a loosely arranged pile 'no!n as chromatin) condenses into (isi&le threadli'e structures.

• 3achytene stage. • 5eptotene stage.• 3rophase 1. . • Diplotene stage. • 6ygotene stage.

• $he first stage of 3rophase 1 is the leptotene stage) during !hich indi(idual chromosomes &egin to condense into long strands !ithin the nucleus. .

• $he zygotene stage then occurs as the chromosomes appro%imately line up !ith each other into homologous chromosomes. $hey may also &e referred to as a tetrad) a reference to the four sister chromatids. . • $he com&ined homologous chromosomes are said to &e bivalent.

• $he pachytene stage heralds crossing o(er. . • Nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes randomly e%change segments of genetic information.

• $he chromosomes themsel(es uncoil a &it) allo!ing some transcription of DNA. • $hey are held together &y (irtue of recombination nodules) &etraying the sites of pre(ious crossing o(er) the chiasmata.• During the diplotene stage) the synaptonemal comple% degrades. Homologous chromosomes fall apart and &egin to repel each other. .

.• Chromosomes recondense during the diakinesis stage. $he nucleoli disappears and the nuclear mem&rane disintegrates into (esicles. • 1n general) e(ery chromosome !ill ha(e crossed o(er at least once. Sites of crossing o(er entangle together) effecti(ely o(erlapping) ma'ing chismata clearly (isi&le.

• $he 'inetochore functions as a motor) pulling the chromosome along the attached microtu&ule to!ard the originating centriole) li'e a train on a trac'. $hese centrioles) !hich !ere duplicated during interphase) function as microtu&ule coordinating centers. 3rophase 1 is the longest phase in meiosis.• During these stages) centrioles are migrating to the t!o poles of the cell. • $here are t!o 'inetochores on each tetrad) one for each centrosome. • Centrioles sprout microtu&ules) essentially cellular ropes and poles) during crossing o(er. $hey in(ade the nuclear mem&rane after it disintegrates) attaching to the chromosomes at the 'inetochore. .

• Other microtu&ules !ill interact !ith microtu&ules from the opposite centriole.• Microtu&ules that attach to the 'inetochores are 'no!n as kinetochore microtubules. . $hese are called nonkinetochore microtubules.

• Metaphase I • As 'inetochore microtu&ules from &oth centrioles attach to their respecti(e 'inetochores) the homologous chromosomes align e uidistant a&o(e and &elo! an imaginary e uatorial plane) due to continuous counter&alancing forces e%erted &y the t!o 'inetochores of the &i(alent. • 7ecause of independent assortment) the orientation of the &i(alent along the plane is random. . Maternal or paternal homologues may point to either pole.

. • Each chromosome still contains a pair of sister chromatids. Since each chromosome only has one 'inetochore) !hole chromosomes are pulled to!ard opposing poles) forming t!o haploid sets.• Anaphase I • 8inetochore microtu&ules shorten) se(ering the recom&ination nodules and pulling homologous chromosomes apart. Non'inetochore microtu&ules lengthen) pushing the centrioles further apart. $he cell elongates in preparation for di(ision do!n the middle.

• $he microtu&ules that ma'e up the spindle net!or' disappear) and a ne! nuclear mem&rane surrounds each haploid set. Each daughter cell no! has half the num&er of chromosomes &ut each chromosome consists of a pair of chromatids. . $he chromosomes uncoil &ac' into chromatin. • Cyto'inesis) the pinching of the cell mem&rane in animal cells or the formation of the cell !all in plant cells) occurs) completing the creation of t!o daughter cells.• Telophase I • $he first meiotic di(ision effecti(ely ends !hen the centromeres arri(e at the poles.

• No DNA replication occurs during this stage. .• Cells enter a period of rest 'no!n as inter'inesis or interphase 11.

Meiosis 11 • Prophase II. • 1n this prophase !e see the disappearance of the nucleoli and the nuclear en(elope again as !ell as the shortening and thic'ening of the chromatids. Centrioles mo(e to the polar regions and are arranged &y spindle fi&res. .

• $he sister chromatids &y con(ention are no! called sister chromosomes) and they are pulled to!ard opposing poles. . • $his is follo!ed &y anaphase II) !here the centromeres are clea(ed) allo!ing the 'inetochores to pull the sister chromatids apart.• 1n metaphase II) the centromeres contain t!o 'inetochores) organi0ing fi&ers from the centrosomes on each side.

• Nuclear en(elopes reform# clea(age or cell !all formation e(entually produces a total of four daughter cells) each !ith an haploid set of chromosomes.• $he process ends !ith telophase II) !hich is similar to telophase 1) mar'ed &y uncoiling) lengthening) and disappearance of the chromosomes occur as the disappearance of the microtu&ules. . Meiosis is complete.

Nondis:unction can occur in the meiosis 1 or meiosis 11 phases of cellular reproduction) or during mitosis. • 9hen the separation is not normal) it is called nondis unction. $his results in the production of gametes !hich ha(e either more or less of the usual amount of genetic material) and is a common mechanism for trisomy or monosomy. .• Nondis unction • $he normal separation of chromosomes in Meiosis 1 or sister chromatids in meiosis 11 is termed disjunction.

only one = chromosome present in females • =>> Syndrome . trisomy of chromosome *2 • 3atau Syndrome . trisomy of chromosome 2< • 8linefelter Syndrome . trisomy of chromosome 2+ • Ed!ard Syndrome . an e%tra > chromosome in males • $riple = Syndrome . an e%tra = chromosome in females .• $his is a cause of se(eral medical conditions in humans) including" • Do!n Syndrome . an e%tra = chromosome in males • $urner Syndrome .

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