BEE4223 Power Electronics &

Drives Systems
Chapter 3: AC TO DC CONVERSION (RECTIFIER)
LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of the
chapter the student should
be able to:

State the operation and
characteristics of diode rectifier.

Discuss the performance
parameters and use different
technique for analyzing and design
of diode rectifier circuits.

Simulate different arrangement of
diode rectifiers by using PSpice.
Overview

Single-phase, half
wave rectifier

Uncontrolled

R load

R-L load

R-C load

Controlled

Free wheeling diode
• Single-phase, full wave
rectifier
– R load
– R-L load,
– Controlled R, R-L
Load
– continuous and
discontinuous current
mode
•Three-phase rectifier
– uncontrolled
– controlled
Rectifiers

DEFINITION: Converting AC (from mains or other
AC source) to DC power by using power diodes or
by controlling the firing angles of
thyristors/controllable switches.

Basic block diagram
Rectifiers

Input can be single or multi-phase (e.g. 3-phase).

Output can be made fixed or variable

Applications:

DC welder, DC motor drive, Battery charger, DC power
supply, HVDC
Root-Mean-Squares (RMS)

π
ω
π
2
0
.
2
1
t d
2
(.)
Root Mean Squares of f
2
) ( f Step 1:

π
ω
π
2
0
2
) (
2
1
t d f
Step 2:

π
ω
π
2
0
2
) (
2
1
t d f Step 3:
Concept of RMS
ω
t
v
v
2
Average of v
2
Square root of the
average of v
2
Average
of v=0
Ideal Rectifier:
Single-Phase, Half-Wave R-Load

Considering the diode is
ideal, the voltage at R-
load during forward
biased is the positive
cycle of voltage source,
while for negative biased,
the voltage is zero.
m
m
o
m DC ave o
s s
V
V
V
t d t V V V V
voltage output DC
t V t v Source Voltage Given
318 . 0
) sin(
2
1
, " "
), sin( ) ( ,
0
· ·
· · ·
·

π
ω ω
π
ω
π
R
V
R
V
R
V
I
current output DC
m m o
o
π π
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
· ·
1
, " "
R
V
R
V
I
V
t d t V V where
R
V
R I P
m rms
o
rms
o
m
s
rms
o
rms
rms
2
2
) ( )] sin( [
2
1
,
resistor, by absorbed power Average
,
,
0
2
,
2
2
· ·
· ·
· ·

ω ω
π
π
rms rms
dc dc
ac
dc
I V
I V
P
P
Efficiency
· · η
,

We observe that:

DC voltage is fixed at 0.318 or
31.8% of the peak value

RMS voltage is reduced RMS voltage is reduced from
0.707 (normal sinusoidal
RMS) to 0.5 or 50% of peak
value.

Half wave is not practical Half wave is not practical
because of high distortion
supply current. The supply
current contains DC
component that may saturate
the input transformer
Ideal Rectifier:
Single-Phase, Half-Wave R-Load
Example 1

Consider the half-wave rectifier circuit with a
resistive load of 25Ω and a 60 Hz ac source of
110Vrms.

Calculate the average values of Vo and Io. Justify the
significant value of Vo and Io.

Calculate the rms values of Vo and Io.

Calculate the average power delivered to the load.
Example 1 (Cont)

Solution

(i) The average values
of Vo and Io are given
by
A
R
V
I
and
V
V
V
o
o
m
o
98 . 1
25
52 . 49
,
52 . 49
) 110 ( 2
· · ·
· · ·
π π
In this case, for the particular circuit, possible dc output
voltage obtained from the circuit is 49.52V and dc output
current is 1.98A. That means, for any dc application within
this value, this circuit can be used.
Example 1 (Cont)

(ii) The rms value of
the of Vo and Io
A
R
V
I
and
V
V
V
rms
o
rms o
m
rms
11 . 3
25
78 . 77
,
78 . 77
2
) 110 ( 2
2
,
,
· · ·
· · ·
W R I P
OR
W
R
V
P
rms o
rms
o
o
242 25 ) 11 . 3 (
242
25
) 78 . 77 (
2 2
2
,
2
· · ·
· · ·
(iii) average power delivered
to the load over one cycle
Example 2

For the half-wave rectifier, the source is a
sinusoid of 120Vrms at a frequency of 60Hz.
The load resistor is 5Ω. Determine
(i) the average load current,
(ii) the average power absorbed by the load,
and
(iii) the power factor of the circuit.
Example 2 (Cont)
Solution

(i) The average load
current
A
R
V
I
and
V V
s
o
m
8 . 10
) 5 (
7 . 169
,
7 . 169 ) 120 ( 2
· · ·
· ·
π π
W
R
V
P
and
V
V
V
rms
m
rms
1440
5
9 . 84
9 . 84
2
) 120 ( 2
2
2 2
· · ·
· · ·
(ii) The average power
absorbed by the load
Example 2 (Cont)
707 . 0
) 5 ( 2
) 120 ( 2
) 120 (
1440
2
,
, ,
·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
· · ·
R
V
V
P
I V
P
S
P
pf
m
rms m
rms m rms m
(iii) Power Factor
Note: Note: The power factor power factor at the input of the rectifier circuit is poor poor even for resistive
load and decreases as triggering angle for controlled rectifier is delayed.
Half-wave with R-L load

Industrial load typically
contain inductance as well
as resistance.

By adding an inductor in
series with the load
resistance causes an
increase in the conduction
period of the load current,
hence resulting the half-
wave rectifier circuit
working under an inductive
load.
dt
di
L Ri V
m
+ ·
• That means, the load current load current
flows not only during V flows not only during V
s s
> 0 > 0,
but also for a portion of V
s
< 0.
This is due to
Half-wave with R-L load
dt
di
L V
L
·
Mohd Rusllim Mohamed
• Until certain time (<π), V V
s s
>V >V
R R
(hence V
L
= V
s
-
V
R
is positive), the current builds up and the current builds up and
inductor stored energy increases inductor stored energy increases.
• At maximum of V maximum of V
R R
, V , V
s s
=V =V
R R
hence, V hence, V
L L
=0V =0V.
• Beyond this point, V
L
becomes negative
(means releasing stored energy), and current
begins to decrease.
•After T= T=π π, the input, V , the input, V
s s
becomes negative but becomes negative but
current still positive and diode is still conducts current still positive and diode is still conducts
due to inductor stored energy due to inductor stored energy. The load
current is present at certain period, but never
for the entire period, regardless of the inductor
size.
•This will results on reducing the average results on reducing the average
output voltage output voltage due to the negative segment.
The larger the Inductance, the larger negative
segment
Half-wave with R-L load

The point when the current
reaches zero, is when the
diode turns off, given by
0 ) sin( ) sin( · + −

,
`

.
|

ωτ
β
θ θ β e
R
L
R
L
L R Z and
t for
t for e
Z
V
wt
Z
V
wt i
where
t
m m
·

,
`

.
|
· + ·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
≤ ≤
≤ ≤ + −
·

,
`

.
| −
τ
ω
θ ω
π ω β
β ω θ
ωτ
ω
, tan , ) (
2 0
0 ) sin( ) 0 sin(
) (
,
1 2 2
(0). zero is inductor by absorbed
power average the Since ;
) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
,
2
2
0
2
0
R I P
OR
t d t i t v
t d t p P
load by absorbed power average The
rms
·
·
·


ω ω ω
π
ω ω
π
π
π
) ( ) (
2
1
, ,
) ( ) (
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
,
0
0
2
2
0
2
t d t i I
current average and
t d t i t d t i I
current rms
o
rms
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
β
β π

∫ ∫
·
· ·
Example 3

For half-wave rectifier with R-L load, R=100Ω,
L=0.1H, ω=377rad/s, and Vs=100V. Determine

An expression for the current in this circuit

The point where diode turns off

The average current

The rms current

The power absorbed by the R-L load, and

The power factor
Example 3 (cont)
Solution Solution
For parameter given
rad
R
L
rad
R
L
L R Z
o
377 . 0
100
1 . 0
) 377 (
361 . 0 7 . 20
100
) 1 . 0 )( 377 (
tan tan
9 . 106 )] 1 . 0 )( 377 [( ) 100 ( ) (
1 1
2 2 2 2
·

,
`

.
|
· ·
· ·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
Ω · + · + ·
− −
ω ωτ
ω
θ
ω
β ω
ω ω
ω
≤ ≤
+ − ·

t for
A e t t i
t
0
331 . 0 ) 361 . 0 sin( 936 . 0 ) (
377 . 0
(i) Current Equation
(ii) β (diode stop)
0 ) 361 . 0 sin( ) 361 . 0 sin(
377 . 0
· + −

,
`

.
|

β
β e
Using numerical root finding, β
is found to be 3.50 rads or 201
o
Example 3 (cont)
iii) Average current
A
t d e t
t d t i I
t
o
308 . 0
) ( ] 331 . 0 ) 361 . 0 sin( 936 . 0 [
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
2
377 . 0
50 . 3
0
0
2
·
+ − ·
·



ω ω
π
ω ω
π
ω
β
A
t d e t I
t
rms
474 . 0
) ( ] 331 . 0 ) 361 . 0 sin( 936 . 0 [
2
1
2
377 . 0
50 . 3
0
·
+ − ·


ω ω
π
ω
iv) rms current
v) Power absorbed by
resistor
W
R I P
rms
4 . 22
) 100 ( ] 474 . 0 [
2
2
·
·
·
vi) Power factor
67 . 0
474 . 0
2
100
4 . 22
, ,
·

,
`

.
|
·
· ·
rms m rms m
I V
P
S
P
pf
Half-wave with R-C load

In some applications in which a constant output is
desirable, a series inductor is replaced by a
parallel capacitor.
Mohd Rusllim Mohamed

The purpose of
capacitor is
capacitor is
to reduce the variation in the
to reduce the variation in the
output voltage
output voltage, making it
more like
dc
dc.

The resistance may
represent an external load,
while the
capacitor is a filter
capacitor is a filter
of rectifier circuit.
Half-wave with R-C load

Assume the capacitor is uncharged, and as
source positively increased, diode is forward
biased
Mohd Rusllim Mohamed
• Capacitor is charged to V Capacitor is charged to V
m m
as input voltage reaches its
positive peak at ω
ωt = t =
π
π/2 /2.

As diode is on diode is on, the output output
voltage voltage is the same as same as
source voltage source voltage, and
capacitor charges capacitor charges.

As source decreases after As source decreases after
ω
ωt = t =
π
π/2 /2, the capacitor discharges the capacitor discharges
into load resistor into load resistor. As diode is reversed biased diode is reversed biased, the load is load is
isolated from source isolated from source, and the output voltage output voltage (capacitive
charge) decaying exponentially with time constant RC decaying exponentially with time constant RC.
Half-wave with R-C load

The angle ωt = θ is the
point when diode turns
off.

The diode will stay off
until the capacitor and
input voltages become
equal again.
θ
α π ω θ
θ π ω α π ω
ω
θ
ω θ ω
θ
sin ,
2
2 2 sin
) (
/ ) (
s
RC t
m
o
V V where
t e V
t t V
t V
·
¹
'
¹
+ ≤ ≤
+ ≤ ≤ +
·
− −

The effectiveness of capacitor filter effectiveness of capacitor filter is determined by determined by the
variation in output voltage, or expressed as maximum and
minimum output voltage, which is peak-to-peak ripple peak-to-peak ripple
voltage voltage.
Half-wave with R-C load (Ripple
Voltage)

The ripple:
) sin 1 (
sin
min max
α
α
− ·
− ·
− · ∆
m
m m
o
V
V V
V V V

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
· ∆
fRC
V
RC
V V
m
m o
ω
π 2
• if V
θ
≈V
m
and θ≈π/2, then ripple can be approximated as

The output voltage ripple The output voltage ripple is reduced by increasing the filter capacitor, C. by increasing the filter capacitor, C.
Anyhow, this results in a larger peak diode current. larger peak diode current.

,
`

.
|
+ ·
+ ·
R
C V
R
V
CV peak I
m
m
m D
α
α ω
α
α ω
sin
cos
sin
cos ,
Example 4

The half-wave rectifier has 120Vrms source at
60Hz, R=500Ω, C=100µF and delay when diode
turns on is given 48o. Determine

The expression of output voltage

Ripple voltage

Peak diode current

Sketch and label the output waveform

Value of C as ripple voltage is 1% of Vm, and hence
find new α under this condition.
Example 4 (cont)
Solution Solution
For parameter given
V V
rad Angle
rad Angle
rad RC
V V
m
o
m
5 . 169 62 . 1 sin ) 7 . 169 ( sin
843 . 0 48
62 . 1 ) 85 . 18 ( tan
85 . 18 ) 10 1 )( 500 )( 60 ( 2
7 . 169 2 120
1
6
· ·
· ·
· + − − ·
· × ·
· ·


θ
α
π θ
π ω
(i) Output Voltage
(ii) Ripple Voltage
¹
'
¹
+ ≤ ≤
+ ≤ ≤ +
·
− −
α π ω θ
θ π ω α π ω
ω
ω
2 5 . 169
2 2 sin 7 . 169
) (
85 . 18 / ) 62 . 1 (
t e
t t
t V
t
o
V
V V
m o
43
)] 843 . 0 sin( 1 [ 7 . 169
) sin 1 (
·
− ·
− · ∆ α
(iii) Peak diode current
A
I
peak D
50 . 4
500
) 843 . 0 sin(
) 843 . 0 cos( ) 10 ( 377 7 . 169 ,
4
·

,
`

.
|
+ ·

Example 4 (cont)
(v) Capacitor value
o
m
o
m
m
o
m
m o
fRC
V
V
hence
F
V
V
V fR
V
C
V V For
9 . 81
10 3333 )( 500 )( 60 (
1
1 sin
1
1 sin
1 sin
,
3333
) 01 . 0 )( 500 )( 60 (
01 . 0
6
1
1
1
·

,
`

.
|
×
− ·

,
`

.
|
− ·

,
`

.
|

− ·
·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

·
· ∆




α
µ
(iv) Waveform must be properly labeled must be properly labeled according to data
RL Source Load

To supply a dc source
from an ac source

The diode will remain
off as long as the
voltage of ac source is
less than dc voltage.

Diode starts to
conduct at ωt=α.
Given by,

,
`

.
|
·
·

m
dc
dc m
V
V
OR
V V
1
sin
sin
α
α
RL Source Load
dc rms
dc R ac
o
rms
IV R I
P P P Power
t d t i I
current average and
t d t i I
current rms
+ ·
+ ·
·
·


2
2
2
,
) ( ) (
2
1
, ,
) ( ) (
2
1
,
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
β
α
π
α
Example 5

The RL half-wave rectifier has 120Vrms source at
60Hz, R=2Ω, L=20mH, Vdc =100V with extinction
angle given by 193o. Determine

The expression of current in the circuit

Power absorbed by resistor

Power absorbed by dc source

Power supplied by ac source

Power factor

Draw the waveform
Example 5 (cont)
Solution Solution
For parameter given
(i) Current Equation
ii) Power absorbed by resistor
Example 5 (cont)
iii) Power absorbed by dc source
iv) Power supplied
v) Power factor
v) Waveform
- Refer notes
Freewheeling Diode (FWD)

Note that, previously discussed uncontrolled half-wave RL
load rectifier allows load current to present at certain period
(current decreasing by time since opposing negative cycle of
input), hence reducing the average output voltage due to the
negative segment.

In other word, for single-phase, half wave rectifier with R-L
load, the load (output) current is NOT CONTINUOUS.

A FWD (sometimes known as commutation diode) can be
placed in parallel to RL load to make the load (output)
current continuous.
Mohd Rusllim Mohamed
Freewheeling Diode (FWD)
• Note that both D both D
1 1
and D and D
2 2
cannot be cannot be
turned on at the same time turned on at the same time.
• For a positive cycle positive cycle voltage source,
– D
1
is on on, D
2
is off off

The voltage The voltage across the R-L load is R-L load is
the same the same as the source voltage. source voltage.
– D
1
is off off, D
2
is on on
– The voltage voltage across the
R-L load is zero R-L load is zero.
– However, the inductor the inductor
contains energy from contains energy from
positive cycle positive cycle. The load
current still circulates still circulates
through the R-L path.
• For a negative cycle negative cycle voltage source,
Mohd Rusllim Mohamed
Freewheeling Diode (FWD)
– But in contrast with the normal half
wave rectifier, negative cycle of
FWD does not consist of supply FWD does not consist of supply
voltage in its loop. voltage in its loop.
– Hence the “negative part” of V “negative part” of V
o o
as as
shown in the normal half-wave shown in the normal half-wave
disappear disappear.
R I P
R
V
I
V
V
rms o
o
o
m
o
2
; ; · · ·
π

negative cycle negative cycle voltage source (cont),
• I I
rms rms
is determined from Fourier is determined from Fourier
component of current component of current
( )
... 6 , 4 , 2 ;
1
2
;
2
· + ·

· ·
n L jn R Z
n
V
V
Z
V
I
o n
m
n
n
n
n
ω
π


·
+ ·
1
2
,
2
,
k
k o rms
rms
I I I Hence
2
) ( )] sin( [
2
1
0
2
,
1
m
s rms
V
t d t V V
n
· ·
∫ ·
ω ω
π
π
- same as uncontrolled R
Load
Rectifier
Example 6

Uncontrolled R-L load rectifier, has a problem of discontinuous load
current. Suggest a solution to the problem by justifying your answer
through its principles of operation and waveform.
Solution Solution
Operation of FWD and its waveform (refer notes) Operation of FWD and its waveform (refer notes)
Example 7

Determine the average load voltage and current, and
determine the power absorbed by the resistor in the FWD
circuit, where R=2Ω and L=25mH, V
m
=100V; 60Hz.
A
R
V
I
V
V
V
o
o
m
o
9 . 15
2
8 . 31
8 . 31
100
· · ·
· · ·
π π
Solution Solution
•The average load voltage and current,
Example 7 (cont)
The ac voltage amplitudes, The ac voltage amplitudes,
( )
( )( )( ) [ ]
( ) [ ] [ ]
..... 6 , 4 , 2
) .......(
425 . 9 2 1
200
) .......( 10 25 60 2 2
) .......(
1
) 100 ( 2
2
3
2
·
+ −
· ·
× + ·

·

n
iii
n j n Z
V
I
ii jn Z
i
n
V
n
n
n
n
n
π
π
π
Fourier Impedance Fourier Impedance
Note: Note: angle note included in calculation
( )
( )
( )
V V
V V
V V
V V
82 . 1
1 6
) 100 ( 2
24 . 4
1 4
) 100 ( 2
2 . 21
1 2
) 100 ( 2
50
2
100
2
6
2
4
2
2
1
·

·
·

·
·

·
· ·
π
π
π
( )[ ]
( )[ ]
( )[ ]
( )[ ]
( )[ ] Ω · + ·
Ω · + ·
Ω · + ·
Ω · + ·
Ω · + ·
58 . 56 425 . 9 6 2
75 . 37 425 . 9 4 2
96 . 18 425 . 9 2 2
63 . 9 425 . 9 1 2
2 425 . 9 0 2
6
4
2
1
0
j Z
j Z
j Z
j Z
j Z
Example 7 (cont)

rms current
A
I I I
k
k o rms
rms
34 . 16
2
11 . 0
2
12 . 1
2
19 . 5
9 . 15
2 2 2
2
1
2
,
2
·

,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
+ ·
+ ·


·
n
V
n
(V) Z
n
(Ω) I I
n n
(A) (A)
0 31.8 2 15.9 15.9
1 50 9.63 5.19 5.19
2 21.2 18.96 1.12 1.12
4 4.24 37.75 0.11 0.11
6 1.82 56.58 0.03 0.03
Resulting Fourier Terms are as follows: Resulting Fourier Terms are as follows:

Power Absorbed
( )
W
R I P
rms o
534
) 2 ( 34 . 16
2
2
·
·
·
The Controlled Half-wave Rectifier

Previously Previously discussed are classified as uncontrolled uncontrolled
rectifiers. rectifiers.

Once the source and load parameters are established, the
dc level dc level of the output and power transferred to the load are
fixed quantities fixed quantities.

A way to control the output is to use SCR control the output is to use SCR instead of diode.
Two condition must be met before SCR can conduct:
– The SCR must be forward biased (V
SCR
>0)
– Current must be applied to the gate of SCR
Controlled, Half-wave R load
] cos 1 [
2
) sin(
2
1
, " "
α
π
ω ω
π
π
α
+ ·
· · ·

s
m DC ave o
V
t d t V V V V
voltage output DC Average
π
α
π
α
ω ω
π
π
2
) 2 sin(
1
2
) ( )] sin( [
2
1
,
resistor, by absorbed power Average
0
2
,
2
2
+ − ·
·
· ·

m
m
rms
o
rms
V
t d t V V where
R
V
R I P
rms

A gate signal is
applied at ωt = α,
where α is the
delay/firing angle.
R
V
R
V
I
s rms
o
rms
o
2
,
,
· ·
Example 8

Design a circuit to produce an average voltage of 40V
across 100Ω load resistor from a 120V
rms
60 Hz ac source.
Determine the power absorbed by the resistor and the
power factor.
Briefly describe what happen if the circuit is replaced by
diode to produce the same average output.
Example 8 (Cont)

Solution Solution
rad
V
V
o
s
o
07 . 1 2 . 61
] cos 1 [
2
2 120
40
] cos 1 [
2
· ·
+ ·
+ ·
α
α
π
α
π
In such that to achieved 40V
average voltage, the delay angle
must be
• If an uncontrolled diode is used,
the average voltage would be
• That means, some reducing
average resistor to the design must
be made. A series resistor or A series resistor or
inductor could be added to an inductor could be added to an
uncontrolled rectifier uncontrolled rectifier, while
controlled rectifier has advantage
of not altering the load or
introducing the losses
[ ]
V
V
V
m
rms
o
6 . 75
2
) 07 . 1 ( 2 sin 07 . 1
1
2
2 120
2
) 2 sin(
1
2
,
·
+ − ·
+ − ·
π π
π
α
π
α
W
R
V
P
rms
1 . 57
100
6 . 75
2 2
· · ·
63 . 0
100
6 . 75
) 120 (
1 . 57
·

,
`

.
|
· pf
V
V
V
s
o
54
) 120 ( 2
· · ·
π π
Controlled, Half-wave R-L load
R
L
R
L
L R Z and
otherwise
t for e wt
Z
V
wt i
t
m
·

,
`

.
|
· + ·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
≤ ≤ − − −

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
| −
τ
ω
θ ω
β ω α θ α θ
ωτ
ω α
, tan , ) (
0
) sin( ) [sin(
) (
1 2 2
• The analysis of the circuit is very
much similar to that of uncontrolled
rectifier.
) ( ) (
2
1
, ,
) ( ) (
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
,
2
2
2
t d t i I
current average and
t d t i t d t i I
current rms
o
rms
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
β
α
β
α
π
α

∫ ∫
·
· ·
Controlled, Half-wave R-L load
;
,
] cos [cos
2
) sin(
2
1
,
2
R I P
load by absorbed power average The
V
t d t V
V
voltage output average The
rms
m
m
o
·
− ·
·

β
α
β α
π
ω ω
π
Example 9
• For controlled RL rectifier, the source is 120V
rms

at 60Hz, R=20Ω, L=0.04H, delay angle is 45
o
and extinction angle is 217
o
. Determine
i. An expression for i(ωt)
ii. Average current and voltage
iii. Power absorbed by load
iv. Power factor

Example 9 (cont)
Solution Solution
For parameter given
(i) Current Equation
Example 9 (cont)
ii) Average current and voltage
iii) rms current
iv) Power absorbed by resistor
v) Power factor

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